name = Flamingo
image_width = 190px
image_caption = An
American Flamingo("Phoenicopterus ruber"), with Chilean Flamingos ("P. chilensis") in the background
ordo = Phoenicopteriformes
ordo_authority = Fürbringer, 1888
familia = Phoenicopteridae
familia_authority = Bonaparte, 1831
genus = "Phoenicopterus"
genus_authority = Linnaeus, 1758
subdivision =See text
Flamingos or "flamingoes" [Both forms of the plural are attested, according to the "
Oxford English Dictionary"] (Audio|Br-Flamingo.ogg|pronunciation) are wading birds in the genus"Phoenicopterus" and family Phoenicopteridae. They are found in both the Western Hemisphereand Eastern Hemisphere, but are more numerous in the former. There are four species in the Americaswhile two exist in the Old World. Two species, the Andean and the James's Flamingo, are often placed in the genus " Phoenicoparrus" instead of "Phoenicopterus".
The prehistory of the Phoenicopteriformes is far better researched than their systematic affinities (see below). An extinct family of peculiar "swimming flamingos", the
Palaelodidae, was initially believed to be the ancestors of the Phoenicopteridae. This is now rejected, as the fossil genus " Elornis", apparently a true albeit primitive flamingo, is known from the Late Eocene, before any palaelodid flamingoes have been recorded. A considerable number of little-known birds from the Late Cretaceousonwards are sometimes considered to be flamingo ancestors. These include the genera " Torotix", " Scaniornis", " Gallornis", " Agnopterus", " Tiliornis", " Juncitarsus" and " Kashinia"; [The supposed " Cretaceousflamingo" " Parascaniornis" is actually a " Baptornis" and not a close relative to any living bird.] these show a mix of characters and are fairly plesiomorphic in comparison to modern birds.There exists a fairly comprehensive fossil recordof the genus " Phoenicopterus". The systematics of prehistoric Phoenicopteriformes known only from fossils is as followed:
**"Stout-legged Flamingo" (Borgloon Early Oligocene of Hoogbutsel, Belgium)
Palaelodus" (Middle Oligocene -? Middle Pleistocene)
Megapaloelodus" (Late Oligocene - Early Pliocene)
Elornis" (Middle? Eocene - Early Oligocene) - includes " Actiornis"
**Phoenicopteridae "gen. et sp. indet." (Camacho Middle? - Late Miocene? of San José, Uruguay) - see Ubilla "et al." (1990)
**Prehistoric species of "
***"Phoenicopterus croizeti" (Middle Oligocene - Middle Miocene of C Europe)
***"Phoenicopterus floridanus" (Early Pliocene of Florida)
***"Phoenicopterus stocki" (Middle Pliocene of Rincón, Mexico)
***"Phoenicopterus copei" (Late Pleistocene of W North America and C Mexico)
***"Phoenicopterus minutus" (Late Pleistocene of California, USA)
The identity of the closest relatives of the flamingos is a rather contentious issue. Traditionally, the long-legged
Ciconiiformes, probably a paraphyleticassemblage, have been considered the flamingos' closest relatives and the family was included in the order. Usually the spoonbills and ibises of the Threskiornithidaewere considered their closest relatives within this order. Nevertheless, relationships to the Anseriformes(waterfowl) were considered as well (Sibley "et al." 1969), especially as flamingos and waterfowl are parasitized by feather lice of the genus " Anaticola" (Johnson "et al." 2006), which are otherwise exclusively found on ducks and geese.
In recent years, molecular and anatomical studies have yielded confusing results: Sibley & MonroeFact|date=January 2007 placed flamingos within their expanded (and certainly paraphyletic, as is now known) Ciconiiformes . On the other hand, since long it has been the grebes (
Podicipedidae), rather than Ciconiiformes, ducks, or stilts, that were time and again indicated as the closest relatives of flamingos, and there is currently renewed interest in this hypothesis. [Mayr,G. Morphological evidence for sister group relationship between flamingos (Aves: Phoenicopteridae) and grebes (Podicipedidae).Zool. J. of the Linnean Soc. Vol.140, 2 (2004)]
In a 2004 study comparing
DNA sequences of intron7 of the β- fibrinogen gene(FGB-int7), the Neognathae(all living birds except the ratitesand tinamous) excluding waterfowland Galliformeswere shown to be divided into two subgroups of uneven size. The first and smaller one, Metaves, contains flamingos and grebes, alongside the hoatzin, pigeons, sandgrouse, the Caprimulgiformes, the Apodiformes, tropicbirds, mesites, sunbitternand kagu. Interestingly, most of these groups have traditionally been difficult to place on the family tree of birds. According to this study, all other birds belong to the second subgroup of Neoaves, the Coronaves(Fain & Houde 2004).But their molecular data was insufficient to resolve inter-Metaves relationships to satisfaction; the flamingo FGB-int7 sequence is apparently most similar to that of some species of nighthawks, strongly suggesting a case of convergent evolutionon the molecular level. The conclusions that one can draw from this study are twofold: first, that flamingos are Metaves (if that group is not based on molecular convergence, for which there are some indications), and second, that FBG-int7 is unsuitable to determine their relationships beyond that. It is interesting to note, however, that among all the groups which have been proposed as sister taxa of the flamingos, only the grebes are Metaves.The relationships of the flamingos still cannot be resolved with any certainty, but presently a close relationship with grebes appears somewhat more likely than other proposals. For this clade, the taxon Mirandornithes("miraculous birds" due to their extreme divergence and apomorphies) has been proposed. In summary, all this confusion serves to show that "all" lines of "evidence" - molecular, morphological, ecological and parasitological - are liable to yield erroneous "proof" and that no method can be considered generally superior. Any future attempt to finally resolve the flamingos' relationships, therefore, would have to employ total evidenceto support it and carefully weigh the data against alternative proposals.
Flamingos filter-feed on brine shrimp. Their oddly-shaped beaks are specially adapted to separate mud and silt from the food they eat, and are uniquely used upside-down. The filtering of food items is assisted by hairy structures called lamellae which line the mandibles, and the large rough-surfaced tongue. The flamingo's characteristic pink colouring is caused by the
Beta carotenein their diet. The source of this varies by species, but shrimp and blue-green algae are common sources; zoo-fed flamingos may be given food with the additive canthaxanthin, which is often also given to farmed salmon. Flamingos produce a "milk" like pigeon milk due to the action of a hormone called prolactin (see Columbidae). It contains more fat and less protein than the latter does, and it is produced in glands lining the whole of the upper digestive tract, not just the crop. Both parents nurse their chick, and young flamingos feed on this milk, which also contains red and white blood cells, for about two months until their bills are developed enough to filter feed. [cite web |url=http://www.straightdope.com/columns/010518.html |title=Are flamingos pink because they eat shrimps? |accessdate=2007-05-15]
Flamingos frequently stand on one leg. The reason for this behavior is not fully known. One common theory is that tucking one leg beneath the body may conserve body heat, [ [http://whozoo.org/Intro98/marisede/marinased.htm American Flamingo article at WhoZoo] ] but this has not been proven. It is often suggested that this is done in part to keep the legs from getting wet, in addition to conserving energy. As well as standing in the water, flamingos may stamp their webbed feet in the mud to stir up food from the bottom.
Young flamingos hatch with grey plumage, but adults range from light pink to bright red due to aqueous bacteria and beta carotene obtained from their food supply. A well-fed, healthy flamingo is more vibrantly coloured and thus a more desirable mate. A white or pale flamingo, however, is usually unhealthy or malnourished. Captive flamingos are a notable exception; many turn a pale pink as they are not fed carotene at levels comparable to the wild. This is changing as more zoos begin to add prawns and other supplements to the diets of their flamingos.
Most scientific attention has focused on the environmental changes to the lakes. Water levels have lowered and concentrations of salt in the water have increased. This increases the risk of toxic bacteria growing there.
Ancient Rome, flamingo tongues were considered a delicacy. [cite web |title=Flamingo Feeding |publisher=Stanford University |accessdate=2008-08-16 |url=http://www.stanford.edu/group/stanfordbirds/text/essays/Flamingo_Feeding.html] Also, Andean miners have killed flamingos for their fat, believed to be a cure for tuberculosis. [http://www.seaworld.org/infobooks/Flamingos/fdeath.html]
Mochepeople of ancient Peruworshipped nature. [ Benson, Elizabeth, The Mochica: A Culture of Peru. New York, NY: Praeger Press. 1972] They placed emphasis on animals and often depicted flamingos in their art. [Berrin, Katherine & Larco Museum. "The Spirit of Ancient Peru:Treasures from the Museo Arqueológico Rafael Larco Herrera." New York: Thames and Hudson, 1997.]
* Fain, Matthew G. & Houde, Peter (2004): Parallel radiations in the primary clades of birds. "Evolution" 58(11): 2558-2573. doi|10.1554/04-235 [http://biology-web.nmsu.edu/houde/Parallel_radiations.pdf PDF fulltext]
* Feduccia, Alan (1976): Osteological evidence for shorebird affinities of the flamingos. "Auk" 93(3): 587-601. [http://elibrary.unm.edu/sora/Auk/v093n03/p0587-p0601.pdf PDF fulltext]
* Hilty, Steven L. (2003): "Birds of Venezuela". Christopher Helm, London. ISBN 0-7136-6418-5
* Johnson, Kevin P.; Kennedy, Martyn & McCracken, Kevin G. (2006): Reinterpreting the origins of flamingo lice: cospeciation or host-switching? "Biol. Lett." 2: 275–278. DOI|10.1098/rsbl.2005.0427 [http://mercury.bio.uaf.edu/~kevin_mccracken/reprints/biol-lett-2-275.pdf PDF fulltext]
* Sibley, Charles G.; Corbin, Kendall W. & Haavie, Joan H. (1969): The Relationships of the Flamingos as Indicated by the Egg-White Proteins and Hemoglobins. "Condor" 71(2): 155-179. [http://elibrary.unm.edu/sora/Condor/files/issues/v071n02/p0155-p0179.pdf PDF fulltext]
* Svensson, Lars; Zetterström, Dan; Mullarney, Killian & Grant, P. J. (1999): "Collins bird guide".
HarperCollins, London. ISBN 0-00-219728-6
* Ubilla, M.; Perea, D.; Tambussi, C. & Tonni, E. (1990): Primer registro fósil de Phoenicopteridae (Aves: Charadriiformes) para el Uruguay (Mio-Plioceno). "Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências" 62: 61-68.
* [http://www.impetusinmundum.de/documentation/Album.html?Bildliste=6716254fx6a122a7d-6a122a83x6a122a86-6a122a88x6a122a9b-6a122a9ex6a122aaax6a122ab0-6a122ab1x6a122ab3-6a122abbx7b05398a-7b053996&Region=Flamingos Pictures of Flamingos from Kenya, Tanzania and Namibia]
* [http://www.paramiparavos.com/foto.php?nro=2306 Picture of Flamingos in Three Crosses]
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