Eclecticism is a conceptual approach that does not hold rigidly to a single
paradigmor set of assumptions, but instead draws upon multiple theories, styles, or ideas to gain complementary insights into a subject, or applies different theories in particular cases.It can be inelegant, and eclectics are sometimes criticized for lack of consistency in their thinking, but it is common in many fields of study. For example, most psychologistsaccept parts of behaviorism, but do not attempt to use the theory to explain all aspects of human behavior. A statisticianmay use frequentisttechniques on one occasion and Bayesian ones on another. An example of eclecticism in economics is John Dunning's " eclectic theory of international production".
Eclecticism was first practiced by a group of ancient
philosophers who attached themselves to no real system, but selected from existing philosophical beliefs those doctrines that seemed most reasonable to them. Out of this collected material they constructed their new system of philosophy. The term comes from the Greek "eklektikos": choosing the best [Encyclopedia Britannica - in philosophy and theology, the practice of selecting doctrines from different systems of thought without adopting the whole parent system for each doctrine] Well known eclectics in Greek philosophywere the Stoics Panaetiusand Posidonius, and the New Academics Carneadesand Philo of Larissa. Among the Romans, Cicerowas thoroughly eclectic, as he united the Peripatetic, Stoic, and New Academic doctrines. Further eclectics were Varro and Seneca.
Architecture and art
The term eclecticism is used to describe the combination in a single work of elements from different historical styles, chiefly in architecture and, by implication, in the fine and decorative arts. The term is sometimes also loosely applied to the general stylistic variety of 19th century architecture after
Neo-classicism(c. 1820) ["The Architecture of Choice: Eclectism in America, 1880-1910." by Leonard K. Eaton, 1975] , although the revivals of styles in that period have, since the 1970s, generally been referred to as aspects of historicism.
Eclecticism plays an important role in critical discussions and evaluations but is somehow distant from the actual forms of the artefacts to which it is applied, and its meaning is thus rather indistinct. The simplest definition of the term—that every work of art represents the combination of a variety of influences—is so basic as to be of little use. In some ways Eclecticism is reminiscent of
Mannerismin that the term was used pejoratively for much of the period of its currency, although, unlike Mannerism, Eclecticism never amounted to a movement or constituted a specific style: it is characterized precisely by the fact that it was not a particular style.
Eclecticism is recognized in approaches to
psychologythat see many factors influencing behavior and the psyche, and among those who consider all perspectives in identifying, changing, explaining, and determining behavior. "(See also Integrative Psychotherapy.)"
martial artscan be described as eclectic in the sense that they borrow techniques from a wide variety of other arts. The Martial Arts system developed by Bruce Leecalled Jeet Kune Dois classified as an eclectic system. This system favors borrowing freely from other systems within a free floating framework. As with other disciplines that incorporate eclecticism Jeet Kune Do's philosophy does not hold rigidly to a single paradigmor set of assumptions or conclusions but encourages a student to learn what is useful for themselves. There is also Hapkido, a martial arts composed of throws, pressure points, and kicks that uses the system of eclectic.
textual criticism, eclecticism is the practice of examining a wide number of text witnesses and selecting the variant that seems best. The result of the process is a text with readings drawn from many witnesses. In a purely eclectic approach, no single witness is theoretically favored. Instead, the critic forms opinions about individual witnesses, relying on both external and internal evidence.
Since the mid-19th century, eclecticism, in which there is no "a priori" bias to a single manuscript, has been the dominant method of editing the Greek text of the New Testament (currently, the United Bible Society, 4th ed. and Nestle-Aland, 27th ed.). Even so, the oldest manuscripts, being of the
Alexandrian text-type, are the most favored, and the critical text has an Alexandrian disposition. Aland, B. 1994: 138]
Eclecticism is also known as a new popular music stream in the house scene. Eclecticism is popular among Experimental Music Artists like
Alex Ross-Iver, Tom Waitsand Les Claypool. Robin Hollowaycites the composers Britten, Shostakovich, Copland, Poulenc and Tippett as eclectic composers, 'along the lines first boldly laid by Stravinsky; they make their idiom from very diverse sources, assimilating and transforming them into themselves'
In fact, most popular western music can be classified as eclectic, as virtually the entire genres of blues, jazz, rock, funk, hip-hop, punk, reggae, country, Rhythm & Blues, electronica, salsa, and others are openly derivative of well-established forms- often, the genre acquires a new name to assist in marketing. The Beatles 'White Album' can be considered a turning point in pop music because it successfully showed that the public could appreciate musicians' mastery of several distinctively different styles on a single album- blues, hard rock, psychedelia, ballads and more. As well, Sly & the Family Stone, Jimi Hendrix, Frank Zappa, Stevie Wonder, and Miles Davis, Joni Mitchell, were foremost among those most successful in producing music which defied definition. This was because any given song on certain albums might be classified as jazz, blues, rock, country, or other. In recent years, such artists as Beck,
Manu Chao, Ce-Lo, Sublime, Lauryn Hill, Kultur Shock, Tracy Chapman, Michelle N'Dgocello, Jon Wiseman's 24-Hour Virtual Music Marathon, and Prince, have habitually produced music which refused to adhere to any particular label but drew upon and demanded appreciation of a multitude of cultural influences. Technology such as mp3s, filesharing, cheap media players, open source software, and inexpensive recording/editing software, will undoubtedly increase this trend as listeners exert even more control over what they hear.
Eclecticism in art
Eclecticism in music
Eclecticism in architecture
Freeform (radio format)
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