Coat of arms
Málaga is located in Andalusia
Location in Andalusia
Málaga is located in Spain
Location in Spain
Coordinates: 36°43′10″N 4°25′12″W / 36.71944°N 4.42°W / 36.71944; -4.42Coordinates: 36°43′10″N 4°25′12″W / 36.71944°N 4.42°W / 36.71944; -4.42
Country Spain Spain
Autonomous Community Andalusia Andalusia
Province Malaga
Comarca Málaga-Costa del Sol
Founded 8th century BC[1]
 - Type Mayor-council
 - Body Ayuntamiento de Málaga.
 - Mayor Francisco De La Torre Prados (PP)
 - City 395 km2 (152.5 sq mi)
 - Urban 561.71 km2 (216.9 sq mi)
Elevation 11 m (36 ft)
Population (2010)
 - City 568,507
 - Rank 6th
 - Density 1,439.3/km2 (3,727.7/sq mi)
 Urban 1,046,279
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 - Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Postcode 29001-29018
Calling code +34 (Spain) 95 (Málaga)
Website malaga.eu

Málaga (Spanish pronunciation: [ˈmalaɣa]) is a city and a municipality in the Autonomous Community of Andalusia, Spain. With a population of 568,507 in 2010, it is the second most populous city of Andalusia and the sixth largest in Spain. This is the southernmost large city in Europe. It lies on the Costa del Sol (Coast of the Sun) of the Mediterranean Sea, about 100 km (62.14 mi) east of the Strait of Gibraltar and about 130 km (80.78 mi) north of Africa.

Málaga enjoys a subtropical-mediterranean climate. It has one of the warmest winters in Europe, with average temperatures of 17 °C (62.6 °F) during the day and 7–8 °C (45–46 °F) at night in the period from December through February. The summer season lasts about eight months, from April through November, although in the remaining four months temperatures sometimes reach around 20 °C (68.0 °F).

Málaga's history spans about 2,800 years, making it one of the oldest cities in the world. It was founded by the Phoenicians as Malaka about 770 BC, and from the 6th century BC was under the hegemony of Ancient Carthage. Then from 218 BC it was ruled by the Roman Republic and later the Roman Empire as Malaca (Latin). After the fall of the empire it was under Islamic Arab domination as Mālaqah (مالقة) for 800 years, but in 1487 it came under the dominion of the Spaniards in the Reconquista. The archaeological remains and monuments from the Phoenician, Roman, Arabic and Christian eras make the historic center of the city an "open museum", displaying its rich history of more than 3,000 years.

This important cultural infrastructure and the rich artistic heritage have culminated in the nomination of Málaga as a candidate for the 2016 European Capital of Culture.

The internationally acclaimed painter and sculptor Pablo Picasso and actor Antonio Banderas were born in Málaga. The magnum opus of Cuban composer Ernesto Lecuona, "Malagueña", is named for the music of this region of Spain.

The most important business sectors in Málaga are tourism, construction and technology services, but other sectors such as transportation and logistics are beginning to expand. The Andalusia Technology Park (PTA), located in Málaga, has enjoyed significant growth since its inauguration in 1992. As of 2009, this high-tech, science and industrial park is home to 509 companies and employs over 13,600 people.



The Phoenicians from Tyre founded the city as Malaka about 770 BC. The name Malaka or mlk is probably derived from the Phoenician word for "salt" because fish was salted near the harbour. (Cf. "salt" in other Semitic languages, e.g. Hebrew מלח mélaḥ or Arabic ملح malaḥ).

After a period of Carthaginian rule, Malaka became part of the Roman Empire. In its Roman stage, the city (Latin name, Malaca) showed a remarkable degree of development. Transformed into a confederated city, it was under a special law, the Lex Flavia Malacitana. A Roman theatre was built at this time.[2] After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, it was ruled first by the Visigoths and then by the Byzantine Empire (550-621).

In the 8th century, during the Muslim Arabic rule over Spain, the city became an important trade center. Málaga was first a possession of the Caliphate of Córdoba. After the fall of the Umayyad dynasty, it became the capital of a distinct kingdom ruled by the Zirids. During this time, the city was called Mālaqah (Arabic مالقة). From 1025 it was the capital of the autonomous Taifa of Málaga, until its conquest by the Taifa of Granada in 1057.

The traveller Ibn Battuta, who passed through around 1325, characterised it as "one of the largest and most beautiful towns of Andalusia [uniting] the conveniences of both sea and land, and is abundantly supplied with foodstuffs and fruits". He praised its grapes, figs, and almonds; "its ruby-coloured Murcian pomegranates have no equal in the world." Another exported product was its "excellent gilded pottery". The town's mosque was large and beautiful, with "exceptionally tall orange trees" in its courtyard.[3]

Málaga was one of the Iberian cities where Muslim rule persisted the longest, having been part of the Emirate of Granada. While most other parts of the peninsula had already succumbed to the reconquista, the medieval Christian Spanish struggled to drive the Muslims out. Málaga was conquered by Christian forces on 18 August 1487,[4] five years before the fall of Granada.

On 24 August 1704 the indecisive Battle of Velez-Málaga, the largest naval battle in the War of the Spanish Succession, took place in the sea south of Málaga.

Malaga had a period of rapid development in the 19th century, becoming with Barcelona one of the two most industrialized cities of Spain. But that early industry was gradually dismantled, because the different governments were supporting the industrial centers in the north of the country.

Málaga suffered heavy bombing by Nationalist or Republican air forces and naval units during the Spanish Civil War in 1936. The well-known British journalist and writer Arthur Koestler was captured by the Nationalist forces on their entry into Málaga, which formed the material for his book Spanish Testament. The first chapters of Spanish Testament include an eye-witness account of the 1937 fall of Málaga to Francisco Franco's armies during the Spanish Civil War.

After the war, Malaga and his old haunts of Torremolinos and the rest of the Costa del Sol enjoyed the highest growth of the tourism sector in Spain.



The Roman Theater.

Málaga is located in southern Spain, on the Costa del Sol (Coast of the Sun) on the northern side of the Mediterranean Sea. It lies about 100 km east of the Strait of Gibraltar and about 130 km east of Tarifa (the southernmost point of continental Europe) and about 130 km on north of Africa. Lies on a similar latitude (36°N) as Algiers in Algeria, Tunis in Tunisia, Aleppo in Syria, Mosul in Iraq, Tehran in Iran, Kunduz in Afghanistan and Fresno, California in the United States.

Metropolitan area

Málaga, together with the following adjacent towns and municipalities: Rincon de la Victoria, Torremolinos, Benalmadena, Fuengirola, Alhaurin de la Torre, Mijas, Marbella y San Pedro Alcántara form the urban area with a population of 1,046,279 on 827.33 km² (density 1,264 hab / km²) – 2009 data. The urban area stretches mostly along a narrow strip of coastline. The Málaga metropolitan area includes additional municipalities located mostly in the mountains area north of the coast and also some on the coast: Cártama, Pizarra, Coín, Monda, Ojén, Alhaurín el Grande and Estepona on west; Casabermeja on north; Totalán, Algarrobo, Torrox and Vélez-Málaga eastward from Málaga.

Map of Málaga province, centered Málaga urban area (Málaga, Rincón de la Victoria, Torremolinos, Benalmádena, Fuengirola, Marbella – density >1000/km² and Mijas, Alhaurin de la Torre).

Municipalities of the metropolitan area are connected to the road network (including motorways) with the urban area and Málaga city (the urban area can be reached by car in 20 minutes and Málaga city in 45 minutes). Sometimes the metropolitan area includes other municipalities where Málaga's public transportation network extends – establishment Consorcio de Transporte Metropolitano del Área de Málaga (en: Consortium of Transportation of Málaga Metropolitan Area). Together about 1.3 million (max. to 1.5 million) people live in the Málaga metropolitan area and the number grows every year because all the municipalities and cities of the area record an annual increase in population.


The climate is Subtropical–Mediterranean (Köppen climate classification: Csa)[5] with very mild winters and warm to hot summers. Málaga enjoys plenty of sunshine throughout the year, with an average of about 300 days of sunshine and only about 50 days with precipitation annually. Its coastal location with winds blowing from the Mediterranean Sea make the heat manageable during the summer.[6]

Málaga experiences the warmest winters of any European city with a population over 500,000 and over 100,000 jointly with two other cities in Spain: Almería and Alicante. The average temperature during the day in the period December through February is 17–18 °C (63–64 °F). During the winter, the Málaga Mountains (Montes de Málaga) block out the cold weather from the north.[6] Generally, the summer season lasts about eight months, from April to November, although in the remaining four months temperatures sometimes reach around 20 °C (68 °F). Its average annual temperature is 23 °C (73 °F) during the day (one of the highest in Europe) and 13 °C (55 °F) at night. In the coldest month, January, the temperature ranges from 12 to 20 °C (54 to 68 °F) during the day, 4 to 13 °C (39 to 55 °F) at night and the average sea temperature is 15–16 °C (59–61 °F). In the warmest month, August, the temperature ranges from 26 to 32 °C (79 to 90 °F) during the day (it can rarely be higher), above 20 °C (68 °F) at night and the average sea temperature is 23 °C (73 °F).

Large fluctuations in temperature are rare. The highest temperature ever recorded during the day in the city centre is 43.3 °C (109.9 °F) on the 13th of August 1881. In the month of August 1881, the average reported daytime maximum temperature was a record 34.8 °C (94.6 °F). The coldest temperature ever recorded was −0.9 °C (30.4 °F) on the night (the same as tropical Miami) of 19 January 1891. The highest wind speed ever recorded was on the 16th of July 1980, measuring 119 km/h (73.94 mph). Málaga city has never recorded any snow.[7]

Annual average relative humidity is 66%, ranging from 59% in June to 73% in December.[8] Yearly sunshine hours is between 2,800 and 3,000 per year, from 5–6 hours of sunshine / day in December to average 11 hours of sunshine / day in July.[8][9][10] This is one of the highest results in Europe and almost double more that of cities in the northern half of Europe (for comparison: London – 1,461, Warsaw – 1,571, Paris – 1,630). According to the Instituto Nacional de Estadística, 2007 saw 3,059 hours of sunshine.[11] Rain occurs mainly in winter, with summer being generally dry. Málaga is one of the few cities in Europe which are "green" all year round.

Climate data for Málaga
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 16.6
Daily mean °C (°F) 12.0
Average low °C (°F) 7.3
Precipitation mm (inches) 81
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 1 mm) 6 5 4 5 3 2 0 0 2 4 5 6 43
Sunshine hours 172 178 218 229 282 302 338 309 247 213 173 158 2,815
Source: World Meteorological Organization (UN),[12] Agencia Estatal de Meteorología[8]

Main sights

View of the old Alcazaba.
San Juan Church.
The Cathedral of the Encarnation.
La Concepción, botanical and historical garden.
San Agustin Street, in the old town.
The historic Anglican Cemetery of St.George is the oldest non-Roman Catholic Christian cemetery established on mainland Spain (in 1831).

The old historic center of Málaga reaches the harbour to the south and is surrounded by mountains to the north, the Montes de Málaga (part of Baetic Cordillera), lying in the southern base of the Axarquía hills, and two rivers, the Guadalmedina – the historic center is located on its left bank – and the Guadalhorce, which flows west of the city into the Mediterranean.

The oldest architectural remains in the city are the walls of the Phoenician city, which are visible in the basement of the Picasso Museum.

The Roman theater of Málaga, which dates from the 1st century BC, was fortuitously rediscovered in 1951.

The Moors left the dominating Castle of Gibralfaro that is connected to the Alcazaba, the lower fortress and regal residence. Both were built during the Taifa period (11th century) and extended during the Nasrid period (13th and 14th centuries). The Alcazaba stands on a hill within the city. Originally, it defended the city from the incursions of pirates. Later, in the mid-11th century, it was completely rebuilt by the Hammudid dynasty. Occupying the eastern hillside that rises from the sea and overlooks the city, the Alcazaba was surrounded by palms and pine trees.

Like many of the military fortifications that were constructed in Islamic Spain, the Alcazaba of Málaga featured a quadrangular plan. It was protected by an outer and inner wall, both supported by rectangular towers, between which a covered walkway led up the slope to the Gibralfaro (this was the only exchange between the two sites). Due to its rough and awkward hillside topography, corridors throughout the site provided a means of communications for administrative and defensive operations, also affording privacy to the palatial residential quarters.

The entrance of the complex featured a grand tower that led into a sophisticated double bent entrance. After passing through several gates, open yards with beautiful gardens of pine and eucalyptus trees, and the inner wall through the Puerta de Granada, one finds the 11th and 14th century Governor's palace. It was organized around a central rectangular courtyard with a triple-arched gateway and some of the rooms have been preserved to this day. An open 11th century mirador (belvedere) to the south of this area affords views of the gardens and sea below. Measuring 2.5 square meters, this small structure highlighted scalloped, five-lobed arches. To the north of this area were a waterwheel and a Cyclopean well (penetrating forty meters below ground), a hammam, workshops and the monumental Puerta de la Torre del Homenaje, the northernmost point of the inner walls. Directly beyond was the passage to the Gibralfaro above.

The church of Santiago (Saint James) is an example of Gothic vernacular Mudéjar, the hybrid style that evolved after the Reconquista incorporating elements from both Christian and Islamic tradition. Also from the period is the Iglesia del Sagrario, which was built on the site of the old mosque immediately after the city fell to Christian troops. It boasts a richly ornamented portal in the Isabeline-Gothic style, unique in the city.

The Cathedral and the Episcopal palace were planned with Renaissance architectural ideals but there was a shortfall of building funds and they were finished in Baroque style.

The Iglesia de la Victoria, built in the late 17th century, has a chapel in which the vertical volume is filled with elaborate Baroque plasterwork.

Other sights include:


The number of resident foreign nationals has risen significantly in Málaga since the 1970s, especially of British and German expatriates who move for the pleasant climate. The majority of foreigners live near the coastline.[13] An estimated 6 million tourists visit the city each year.[14]

Politics and administration

Málaga is divided in 10 municipal districts.[15]

District District Location
1 Centro 6 Cruz de Humilladero Distritos Málaga.svg
2 Este 7 Carretera de Cádiz
3 Ciudad Jardín 8 Churriana
4 Bailén-Miraflores 9 Campanillas
5 Palma-Palmilla 10 Puerto de la Torre


Trade Fair and Congress in Málaga (Palacio de Ferias y Congresos de Málaga).

Málaga is the fourth city with a largest index of economic activity in Spain behind Madrid, Barcelona and Valencia [16].

The most important business sectors in Málaga are tourism, construction and technology services, but other sectors such as transportation and logistics are beginning to expand. The Andalusia Technology Park (PTA) (In Spanish, "Parque Tecnológico de Andalucía"), located in Málaga, has enjoyed significant growth since its inauguration in 1992 by H.M. the King of Spain. As of 2010, this high-tech, science and industrial park is home to 509 companies and employs over 14,500 people.

In line with the city's strategic plan, the campaign "Málaga: Open for Business" is directed towards the international promotion of the city on all levels but fundamentally on a business level. The campaign places a special emphasis on new technologies as well as innovation and research in order to promote the city as a reference and focal point for many global business initiatives and projects.[17]

Málaga is a city of commerce and tourism has been a growing source of revenue, driven by the presence of a major airport, the improvement of communications, and new infrastructure such as the AVE and the maritime station, and new cultural facilities such as the Picasso Museum, the Contemporary Art Center and Trade Fair and Congress, which have drawn more tourists.[18]

The city hosts the International Association of Science and Technology Parks (IASP) (Asociación Internacional de Parques Tecnológicos), and a group of IT company executives and business leaders has launched an information sector initiative, Málaga Valley e-27, which seeks to make Málaga the Silicon Valley of Europe. Málaga has had strong growth in new technology industries, mainly located in the Technological Park of Andalusia, and in the construction sector. The city is home to the largest bank in Andalusia, Unicaja, and such local companies as Mayoral, Charanga, Sando, Vera, Ubago, Isofoton, Tedial, Novasoft, Grupo Vértice and Almeida viajes, and other multinationals such as Fujitsu Spain, Pernod Ricard Spain, Accenture, Epcos, Oracle Corporation, Huawei and San Miguel.[19]

Distribution by sector industrial enterprises:[20]
Industrial sector Companies
Energy and water 24
Chemical and mining 231
Mechanical engineering industry 833
Manufacturing 1,485
Total 2,573
Industrial activity index 771
Construction-related companies 3,143


Holy week in Málaga.

Annual cultural events

The Holy Week celebration, the August Malaga Fair (Feria de Málaga) and the Málaga Film Festival are the three major events held in the city.

The Holy Week of Málaga has been observed for some five centuries. Processions start on Palm Sunday and continue until Easter Sunday. Images depicting scenes from the Passion are displayed on huge ornate tronos (floats or thrones), some weighing more than 5,000 kilos and carried by more than 250 members of the fraternity of Nuestra Señora de la Esperanza. These tronos highlight the processions that go through the streets led by penitents dressed in long purple robes, often with pointed hats, followed by women in black carrying candles. Drums and trumpets play music and occasionally someone spontaneously sings a mournful saeta dedicated to the floats as they make their way slowly round the streets.

Some Holy Week tronos are so huge that they must be housed in places outside the churches, as they are taller than the entrance doors. There are also military parades of soldiers playing processional band marches or singing their anthems along the route.

During the celebration of the Feria de Málaga in August, the streets are transformed into traditional symbols of Spanish culture and history, with sweet wine, tapas, and live flamenco shows. The day events consist of dancing, live music (like Flamenco or Verdiales, traditional music from Málaga) and bullfights at La Malagueta, while the night fair is moved to the Recinto Ferial, consisting of restaurants, clubs, and an entire fair ground with rides and games.

The Malaga Film Festival (Festival de Málaga Cine Español (FMCE)) is the most important festival dedicated exclusively to cinema made in Spain. It is held annually during a week in April.


Most of the population of Málaga professes Roman Catholicism as its religion. Islam is represented by a growing number of adherents and a newly-constructed mosque.

The Evangelicals also have a presence in Málaga, and The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints is growing. The Jewish Community in Málaga is represented by its synagogue and the Jewish Association.


La Rosaleda stadium during a match.

Málaga is home to three major professional sports teams. These include:

The city has four large sports facilities:

In city and neighbourhood, you can engage in many sports, for example: surfing, windsurfing, kitesurfing, swimming, diving, skydiving, paragliding, running, cycling, rowing, tennis and golf.

La Malagueta beach.


The city is an important tourist destination, known as "the capital of the Costa del Sol". Tourists usually visit the birthplace of Pablo Picasso and the Museo Picasso Málaga, the Carmen Thyssen Museum, the old town or the beaches. The Malaga harbour is also the second busiest cruise port of the Iberian Peninsula.

A popular walk leads up the hill to the Gibralfaro castle (a Parador), offering panoramic views over the city. The castle is next to the Alcazaba, the old Muslim palace, which in turn is next to the inner city of Málaga. Other nearby attractions are the Roman Theatre, the old Jewish quarter, the Cathedral, and the Church of Santiago in mudéjar style. A popular walk follows the Paseo del Parque (a promenade that runs alongside a grand park with many palm trees and statues) to the harbour, ending in Calle Larios, the main commercial street of the city. There is also a curious museum, the Museum of the Holy Week, which includes an impressive display of Baroque ecclesiastical items.

Other events

The Fiesta Mayor de Verdiales takes place every year on 28 December during which Spain's April Fool Day is celebrated.[21]

Fiestas de Carnaval event takes prior to the holy 40 days of Lent every February. People dressed in traditional costumes join the festivities, which include Flamenco dancing, and a parade. One more highlight of this festival is the stalls selling traditional pottery and artifacts.[21]


High speed trains AVE Class 103 and Avant Class 104 in Málaga's Maria Zambrano station.


The city is served by Malaga Costa Del Sol Airport, one of the first in Spain and the oldest still in operation. In 2008, it handled 12,813,472 passengers,[22] making it the fourth busiest in Spain. It is the international airport of Andalusia accounting for 85 percent of its international traffic. The airport, connected to the Costa del Sol, has a daily link with twenty cities in Spain and over a hundred cities in Europe (mainly in United Kingdom, Central Europe and the Nordic countries but also the main cities of Eastern Europe: Moscow, Saint Petersburg, Budapest, Sofia, Warsaw, Riga or Bucharest), North Africa, Middle East (Riyadh, Jeddah and Kuwait) and North America (New York, Toronto and Montreal).


The Port of Málaga is the city's seaport, operating continuously at least since 600 BC. The port is one of the busiest ports on the Mediterranean Sea, with a trade volume of over 428,623 TEU's and 642,529 passenger in 2008.[23]

High-speed train

Málaga's main rail station is María Zambrano station which is connected with Madrid and then Barcelona and France. On 24 December 2007, the high-speed train AVE came into service, reducing travel time to Madrid to just two and a half hours (see also Córdoba-Málaga high-speed rail line and Madrid–Seville high-speed rail line).

Roads and highways

The A45 road leads north to Antequera and Córdoba. The Autovía A-7 parallels the N-340 road, both leading to Cadiz to the west through the Costa del Sol Occidental and Barcelona to the east through the Costa del Sol Oriental.

Urban Bus

Empresa Malagueña de Transportes´[24] buses are the main form of transport around the city. Málaga's bus station is connected with the city by the bus line number 4, although it is only ten minutes walk to the Alameda from there.

Metropolitan Bus

Malaga Metropolitan Transport Consortium´s (Consorcio de Tranpsporte Metropolitano del Área de Málaga) [25] buses are the main form of transport around the city of Málaga and the villages of the Metropolitan Area.

Mass transit

The city has two commuter train lines Cercanías and a metro system is under construction.


Antonio Banderas and Pablo Picasso

Twin towns – Sister cities

Málaga is twinned with:

See also


  1. ^ Aubet, María Eugenia.The Phoenicians and the West: politics, colonies and trade. Cambrigde University Press.
  2. ^ Leucona, Emilio. «Jornadas de estudio por el 150 aniversario del hallazgo de la Lex Flavia Malacitana». Consulted on 7 April 2008.
  3. ^ "Ibn Battuta: Travels in Asia and Africa". Fordham.edu. 2001-02-21. http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/1354-ibnbattuta.html. Retrieved 2011-04-08. 
  4. ^ de Madariaga, Salvador (1952) (in Castilan). La vida del muy magnífico señor Don Cristóbal Colón (5th ed.). Mexico: Editorial Hermes. p. 222. "Málaga, ciudad que acabara de tomar a los moros (18 de agosto)" 
  5. ^ "World Map of Köppen−Geiger Climate Classification". http://koeppen-geiger.vu-wien.ac.at/. 
  6. ^ a b "Málaga City – Local Travel Information and City Guide". Malaga.com. http://www.malaga.com/v/geography/. Retrieved 2011-04-08. 
  7. ^ "Valores Extremos for Málaga" (pdf) (www version) – Agencia Estatal de Meteorología
  8. ^ a b c "Valores Climatológicos Normales. Málaga / Aeropuerto". http://www.aemet.es/es/elclima/datosclimatologicos/valoresclimatologicos?l=6155A&k=and. 
  9. ^ "Climatological Information for Málaga, Spain"Hong Kong Observatory
  10. ^ "Málaga Climate, Temperature, Average Weather History, Rainfall/ Precipitation, Sunshine". climatetemp.info. http://www.climatetemp.info/spain/malaga.html. Retrieved 2011-04-08. 
  11. ^ "Málaga es la tercera ciudad española con más horas de sol" – www.diariosur.es
  12. ^ "Weather Information for Málaga". http://www.worldweather.org/083/c01235.htm. 
  13. ^ "Málaga Population Information". Malaga.com. http://www.malaga.com/v/geography/. Retrieved 2011-04-08. 
  14. ^ "Málaga City Information". Malaga.com. http://www.malaga.com/v/city_info/. Retrieved 2011-04-08. 
  15. ^ "Districts". http://www.ayto-malaga.es/distritos.html. Retrieved 21 March 2009. [dead link]
  16. ^ "LaCaixa Bank economic report, 2011 (spanish)". http://www.anuarieco.lacaixa.comunicacions.com/java/X?cgi=caixa.le_menuGeneral.pattern. 
  17. ^ "Málaga calls on the doors of the Anglo-saxon business world". Laopiniondemalaga.es. http://www.laopiniondemalaga.es/malaga/2009/09/22/malaga-llama-puerta-mundo-empresarial-anglosajon/290690.html. Retrieved 2011-04-08. 
  18. ^ Málaga Horizonte 2012 – SOPDE
  19. ^ Empresas en el PTA – Parque Tecnológico de Andalucía
  20. ^ Anuario Económico de España 2008 La Caixa (Málaga) – La Caixa
  21. ^ a b "Málaga Festivals". Malaga.com. http://www.malaga.com/v/festivals/. Retrieved 2011-04-08. 
  22. ^ AENA passenger and aircraft movements for 2008[dead link]
  23. ^ Memoria 2008, Annual Report, Port of Málaga site
  24. ^ http://www.emtmalaga.es
  25. ^ http://www.ctmam.es Malaga Metropolitan Transport Consortium
  26. ^ a b "FEMP – Federación Española de Municipios y Provincias". Femp.es. 2009-07-31. http://www.femp.es/index.php/femp/content/download/4974/41927/file/070202%20con%20EUROPA%20v2.pdf. Retrieved 2011-04-08. 
  27. ^ "Sister Cities of Manila". © 2008–2009 City Government of Manila. http://www.manila.gov.ph/localgovt.htm#sistercities. Retrieved 2009-09-02. 
  28. ^ "Regional Overview". MobileChamber.com. http://www.mobilechamber.com/regionaloverview.pdf. Retrieved 15 October 2007. 
  29. ^ http://www.malagactiva.es/pdf/exposiciones/De_Puentes_y_Agua.pdf
  30. ^ "El Corresponsal de Medio Oriente y Africa – Málaga recupera su pasado fenicio". Elcorresponsal.com. http://www.elcorresponsal.com/modules.php?name=News&file=article&sid=3381. Retrieved 2011-04-08. 


  • The Alhambra from the Ninth Century to Yusuf I (1354). vol. 1. Saqi Books, 1997.
  • Guia Viva, Andalucia, Anaya Touring Club, April 2001.
  •  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainHerbermann, Charles, ed (1913). Catholic Encyclopedia. Robert Appleton Company. 

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  • Malaga — • Diocese in Spain, by the Concordat of 1851 made a suffragan of Granada, having previously been dependent on Seville Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006. Malaga     Malaga      …   Catholic encyclopedia

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