Capital City of Warsaw
Miasto Stołeczne Warszawa
Top: Financial centre, Middle left: Royal Castle, Middle right: Old Town Market Place, Bottom left: Presidential Palace, Bottom right: Wilanów Palace.


Coat of arms
Motto: Semper invicta  (Latin "Invincible")
Warsaw is located in Poland
Coordinates: 52°13′56.28″N 21°00′30.36″E / 52.2323°N 21.0084333°E / 52.2323; 21.0084333
Country  Poland
Voivodeship Masovian
County city county
City rights turn of the 13th century
 - President Hanna Gronkiewicz-Waltz (PO)
 - City 516.9 km2 (199.6 sq mi)
 - Metro 6,100.43 km2 (2,355.4 sq mi)
Elevation 78–116 m (328 ft)
Population (2009)
 - City 1,716,855
 - Density 3,311.02/km2 (8,575.5/sq mi)
 Metro 2,631,902
 - Metro density 549.19/km2 (1,422.4/sq mi)
Demonym Varsovian
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 - Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Postal code 00-001 to 04–999
Area code(s) +48 22
Car plates WA, WB, WD, WE, WF, WH, WI, WJ, WK, WN, WT, WU, WW, WX, WY
Website warszawa.pl

Warsaw (Polish: Warszawa [varˈʂava] ( listen); see also other names) is the capital and largest city of Poland. It is located on the Vistula River roughly 260 kilometres (160 mi) from the Baltic Sea and 300 kilometres (190 mi) from the Carpathian Mountains. Its population as of June 2010 was estimated at 1,716,855, and the Warsaw metropolitan area at approximately 2,631,902.[1][2] The area of the city covers 516.9 square kilometres (199.6 sq mi), while the city's agglomeration covers 6,100.43 square kilometres (2,355.39 sq mi) (Warsaw Metro Area – Obszar Metropolitalny Warszawy).[3] Warsaw is the 9th largest city in the European Union by population.

"Warszawianka" is widely considered the unofficial anthem of Warsaw.[4] On 9 November 1940 the City of Warsaw was awarded the Silver Cross of Poland's supreme military decoration for courage in the face of the enemy, the Order Virtuti Militari for the heroic defence in 1939.[5]

Warsaw is also known as the "phoenix city", as it recovered from extensive damage during World War II (during which 80% of its buildings were destroyed), being rebuilt with the effort of Polish citizens.[6][7] Warsaw has given its name to the Warsaw Confederation, Warsaw Pact, the Duchy of Warsaw, Warsaw Convention, Treaty of Warsaw, Warsaw Uprising and the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising.


Etymology and names

Warsaw's name in the Polish language, Warszawa (also formerly spelled Warszewa and Warszowa), means "belonging to Warsz", Warsz being a shortened form of the masculine name of Slavic origin Warcisław; see also etymology of Wrocław.[8] Folk etymology attributes the city name to a fisherman Wars and his wife Sawa. According to legend, Sawa was a mermaid living in the Vistula River who Wars fell in love with.[9] Actually, Warsz was a 12th/13th century nobleman who owned a village located at the site of today's Mariensztat neighbourhood.[10] The official city name in full is miasto stołeczne Warszawa (English: "The Capital City of Warsaw").[11] A native or resident of Warsaw is known as a Varsovian.

Other names for Warsaw include Warschau (German and Dutch), Varsovia (Spanish and Latin), Varsovie (French), Varsavia (Italian), וואַרשע/Varshe (Yiddish), ורשה/Varsha (Hebrew), Варшава/Varshava (Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian and Serbian), Varšava (Slovak, Czech, Latvian, Slovenian, Serbian and Croatian), Varšuva (Lithuanian), Varsó (Hungarian), 華沙 (Huáshā, "flower sand") (Traditional Chinese) and فرصوفيا/fersofia (Arabic).


Early history

The first fortified settlements on the site of today's Warsaw were Bródno (9th/10th century) and Jazdów (12th/13th century).[13] After Jazdów was raided, a new similar settlement was established on the site of a small fishing village called Warszowa. The Płock prince Bolesław II of Masovia, established this settlement, the modern Warsaw, about 1300. In the beginning of the 14th century it became one of the seats of the Dukes of Masovia, becoming the capital of Masovia in 1413.[13] Fourteenth-century Warsaw's economy rested on crafts and trade. Upon the extinction of the local ducal line, the duchy was reincorporated into the Polish Crown in 1526.[13]

16th to 18th century

In 1529 Warsaw for the first time became the seat of the General Sejm, permanent from 1569.[13] In 1573 the city gave its name to the Warsaw Confederation, formally establishing religious freedom in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. Due to its central location between the Commonwealth's capitals of Kraków and Vilnius, Warsaw became the capital of the Commonwealth, and of the Polish Crown, in 1596, when King Sigismund III Vasa moved the court from Kraków to Warsaw.[13]

In the following years the town expanded towards the suburbs. Several private independent districts were established, the property of aristocrats and the gentry, which were ruled by their own laws. Three times between 1655–1658 the city was under siege and three times it was taken and pillaged by the Swedish, Brandenburgian and Transylvanian forces.[13][14]

In 1700, the Great Northern War broke out. The city was besieged several times and was obliged to pay heavy contributions.[12] Warsaw turned into an early-capitalistic principal city.

Stanisław August Poniatowski, who remodelled the interior of the Royal Castle in Warsaw, also made Warsaw a centre of culture and the arts.[15][16] This earned Warsaw the name of the Paris of the east.[17]

19th and 20th centuries

Warsaw remained the capital of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth until 1795, when it was annexed by the Kingdom of Prussia to become the capital of the province of South Prussia. Liberated by Napoleon's army in 1806, Warsaw was made the capital of the newly created Duchy of Warsaw.[13] Following the Congress of Vienna of 1815, Warsaw became the centre of the Congress Poland, a constitutional monarchy under a personal union with Imperial Russia.[13] The Royal University of Warsaw was established in 1816.

German airship Schütte Lanz SL2 bombing Warsaw in 1914

Following the repeated violations of the Polish constitution by the Russians, the 1830 November Uprising broke out. However, the Polish-Russian war of 1831 ended in the uprising's defeat and in the curtailment of the Kingdom's autonomy.[13] On 27 February 1861 a Warsaw crowd protesting against the Russian rule over Poland was fired upon by the Russian troops.[18][19] Five people were killed. The Underground Polish National Government resided in Warsaw during January Uprising in 1863–64.[19]

Warsaw flourished in the late 19th century under Mayor Sokrates Starynkiewicz (1875–92), a Russian-born general appointed by Tsar Alexander III. Under Starynkiewicz Warsaw saw its first water and sewer systems designed and built by the English engineer William Lindley and his son, William Heerlein Lindley, as well as the expansion and modernisation of trams, street lighting and gas works.[13]

The history of contemporary civilisation knows no event of greater importance than the Battle of Warsaw, 1920, and none of which the significance is less appreciated.

Sir Edgar Vincent d'Abernon[20]

The Russian Empire Census of 1897 recorded 626,000 people living in Warsaw, making it the third-largest city of the Empire after St. Petersburg and Moscow.

Warsaw became the capital of the newly independent Poland in 1918. In the course of the Polish-Bolshevik War of 1920, the huge Battle of Warsaw was fought on the eastern outskirts of the city in which the capital was successfully defended and the Red Army defeated.[21] Poland stopped by itself the full brunt of the Red Army and defeated an idea of the "export of the revolution".[22][23]

World War II

Sea of rubble[24] – over eight out of every ten buildings in Warsaw were destroyed by the end of World War II. In left centre can be seen ruins of Old Town Market Square.

During World War II, central Poland, including Warsaw, came under the rule of the General Government, a German Nazi colonial administration. All higher education institutions were immediately closed and Warsaw's entire Jewish population – several hundred thousand, some 30% of the city – herded into the Warsaw Ghetto.[25] When the order came to annihilate the ghetto as part of Hitler's "Final Solution" on 19 April 1943, Jewish fighters launched the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising.[26] Despite being heavily outgunned and outnumbered, the Ghetto held out for almost a month.[26] When the fighting ended, almost all survivors were massacred, only few managed to escape or hide.[26][27]

By July 1944, the Red Army was deep into Polish territory and pursuing the Germans toward Warsaw.[29] Knowing that Stalin was hostile to the idea of an independent Poland, the Polish government-in-exile in London gave orders to the underground Home Army (AK) to try to seize control of Warsaw from the Germans before the Red Army arrived. Thus, on 1 August 1944, as the Red Army was nearing the city, the Warsaw Uprising began.[29] The armed struggle, planned to last 48 hours, went on for 63 days. Stalin gave orders to his troops to wait outside of Warsaw.[30] Eventually the Home Army fighters and civilians assisting them were forced to capitulate.[29] They were transported to PoW camps in Germany, while the entire civilian population was expelled.[29] Polish civilian deaths are estimated at between 150,000 and 200,000.[31]

The Germans then razed Warsaw to the ground. Hitler, ignoring the agreed terms of the capitulation, ordered the entire city to be razed to the ground and the library and museum collections taken to Germany or burned.[29] Monuments and government buildings were blown up by special German troops known as Verbrennungs- und Vernichtungskommando ("Burning and Destruction Detachments").[29] About 85% of the city had been destroyed, including the historic Old Town and the Royal Castle.[32]

On 17 January 1945 – after the beginning of the Vistula–Oder Offensive of the Red Army – Soviet troops entered the ruins of Warsaw, and liberated Warsaw's suburbs from German occupation. The city was swiftly taken by the Soviet Army, which rapidly advanced towards Łódź, as German forces regrouped at a more westward position.

Modern times

In 1945, after the bombing, the revolts, the fighting, and the demolition had ended, most of Warsaw lay in ruins.

After the war, under a Communist regime set up by the conquering Soviets, large prefabricated housing projects were erected in Warsaw to address the housing shortage, along with other typical buildings of an Eastern Bloc city, such as the Palace of Culture and Science. The city resumed its role as the capital of Poland and the country's centre of political and economic life. Many of the historic streets, buildings, and churches were restored to their original form. In 1980, Warsaw's historic Old Town was inscribed onto UNESCO's World Heritage list.[33]

John Paul II's visits to his native country in 1979 and 1983 brought support to the budding solidarity movement and encouraged the growing anti-communist fervor there.[34] In 1979, less than a year after becoming pope, John Paul celebrated Mass in Victory Square in Warsaw and ended his sermon with a call to "renew the face" of Poland: Let Thy Spirit descend! Let Thy Spirit descend and renew the face of the land! This land![34] These words were very meaningful for the Polish citizens who understood them as the incentive for the democratic changes.[34]

In 1995, the Warsaw Metro opened. With the entry of Poland into the European Union in 2004, Warsaw is currently experiencing the biggest economic boom of its history.[35] The opening match of UEFA Euro 2012 is scheduled to take place in Warsaw.[36]


Location and topography

Warsaw seen from SPOT satellite

Warsaw lies in east-central Poland about 300 km (190 mi) from the Carpathian Mountains and about 260 km (160 mi) from the Baltic Sea, 523 km (325 mi) east of Berlin, Germany.[37] The city straddles the Vistula River. It is located in the heartland of the Masovian Plain, and its average elevation is 100 metres (330 ft) above sea level. The highest point on the left side of the city lies at a height of 115.7 metres (379.6 ft) (“Redutowa” bus depot, district of Wola), on the right side – 122.1 metres (400.6 ft) (“Groszówka” estate, district of Wesoła, by the eastern border). The lowest point lies at a height 75.6 metres (248.0 ft) (at the right bank of the Vistula, by the eastern border of Warsaw). There are some hills (mostly artificial) located within the confines of the city – e.g. Warsaw Uprising Hill (121 metres (397.0 ft)), Szczęśliwice hill (138 metres (452.8 ft) – the highest point of Warsaw in general).

Warsaw is located on two main geomorphologic forms: the plain moraine plateau and the Vistula Valley with its asymmetrical pattern of different terraces. The Vistula River is the specific axis of Warsaw, which divides the city into two parts, left and right. The left one is situated both on the moraine plateau (10 to 25 m (32.81 to 82.02 ft) above Vistula level) and on the Vistula terraces (max. 6.5 m (21.33 ft) above Vistula level). The significant element of the relief, in this part of Warsaw, is the edge of moraine plateau called Warsaw Escarpment. It is 20 to 25 m (65.62 to 82.02 ft) high in the Old Town and Central district and about 10 m (32.81 ft) in the north and south of Warsaw. It goes through the city and plays an important role as a landmark.

The plain moraine plateau has only a few natural and artificial ponds and also groups of clay pits. The pattern of the Vistula terraces is asymmetrical. The left side consist mainly of two levels: the highest one contains former flooded terraces and the lowest one the flood plain terrace. The contemporary flooded terrace still has visible valleys and ground depressions with water systems coming from the Vistula old – riverbed. They consist of still quite natural streams and lakes as well as the pattern of drainage ditches. The right side of Warsaw has a different pattern of geomorfological forms. There are several levels of the plain Vistula terraces (flooded as well as former flooded once) and only small part and not so visible moraine escarpment. Aeolian sand with a number of dunes parted by peat swamps or small ponds cover the highest terrace. These are mainly forested areas (pine forest).


Warsaw's climate is humid continental (Koppen Dfb) with cold winters and mild summers. The average temperature is −3 °C (27 °F) in January and 19.3 °C (66.7 °F) in July. Temperatures may often reach 30 °C (86 °F) in the summer. Yearly rainfall averages 495 millimetres (19.5 in), wettest month being July. Spring and Autumn are usually beautiful seasons, the former crisp and sunny and full of blooms and the latter alternately sunny and misty, and cool but not cold.

Climate data for Warsaw
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 12.5
Average high °C (°F) 0.1
Daily mean °C (°F) −3
Average low °C (°F) −6.1
Record low °C (°F) −30.7
Precipitation mm (inches) 21
humidity 81 82 78 71 67 68 72 74 75 77 80 86 76
Avg. precipitation days 15 14 13 12 12 13 13 12 12 13 14 16 159
Sunshine hours 43 59 115 150 211 237 226 214 153 99 39 25 1,571
Source: [38]


Until 1994, there were 7 districts in Warsaw: Śródmieście, Praga Północ, Praga Południe, Żoliborz, Wola, Ochota, Mokotów. Between 1994 and 2002, there were 11 districts: Centrum, Białołęka, Targówek, Rembertów, Wawer, Wilanów, Ursynów, Włochy, Ursus, Bemowo, Bielany. In 2002, the town Wesoła was incorporated and the territorial division of Warsaw was established as follows:

District Population Area
Mokotów 225,571 35.4 km2 (13.7 sq mi)
Praga Południe 182,588 22.4 km2 (8.6 sq mi)
Ursynów 148,876 48.6 km2 (18.8 sq mi)
Wola 137,692 19.26 km2 (7.44 sq mi)
Bielany 133,778 32.3 km2 (12.5 sq mi)
Śródmieście 126,143 15.57 km2 (6.01 sq mi)
Targówek 123,214 24.37 km2 (9.41 sq mi)
Bemowo 113,066 24.95 km2 (9.63 sq mi)
Ochota 89,383 9.7 km2 (3.7 sq mi)
Białołęka 89,234 73.04 km2 (28.20 sq mi)
Praga Północ 71,675 11.4 km2 (4.4 sq mi)
Wawer 69,898 79.71 km2 (30.78 sq mi)
Ursus 50,355 9.35 km2 (3.61 sq mi)
Żoliborz 48,060 8.5 km2 (3.3 sq mi)
Włochy 39,690 28.63 km2 (11.05 sq mi)
Rembertów 23,320 19.30 km2 (7.45 sq mi)
Wesoła 22,757 22.6 km2 (8.7 sq mi)
Wilanów 19,146 36.73 km2 (14.18 sq mi)
Total 1,714,446 521.81 km2 (201.47 sq mi)

Warsaw is a powiat (county), and is further divided into 18 boroughs, each one known as a dzielnica (districts – see map), each one with its own administrative body.[39] Each of the boroughs includes several neighbourhoods which have no legal or administrative status. Warsaw has two historic districts, called Old Town (Stare Miasto) and New Town (Nowe Miasto) in the borough of Śródmieście.[40]



Warsaw's mixture of architectural styles reflects the turbulent history of the city and country. During WWII, Warsaw was razed to the ground by bombing raids and planned destruction.[29] After liberation, rebuilding began as in other cities of the communist-ruled PRL. Most of the historical buildings were thoroughly reconstructed. However, some of the buildings from the 19th century that had been preserved in reasonably reconstructible form were nonetheless eradicated in the 1950s and 1960s (e.g. Leopold Kronenberg Palace).[41] Mass residential blocks were erected, with basic design typical of Eastern bloc countries.

Public spaces attract heavy investment, so that the city has gained entirely new squares, parks and monuments. Warsaw's current urban landscape is one of modern and contemporary architecture. 


Warsaw's palaces, churches and mansions display a richness of color and architectural details. Buildings are representatives of nearly every European architectural style and historical period. The city has wonderful examples of architecture from the gothic, renaissance, baroque and neoclassical periods, all of which are located within easy walking distance of the town centre.

Łazienki Palace, also called the Palace on the Water

Gothic architecture is represented in the majestic churches but also at the burgher houses and fortifications. The most significant buildings are St. John's Cathedral (14th century), the temple is a typical example of the so-called Masovian gothic style, St. Mary's Church (1411), a town house of Burbach family (14th century),[42] Gunpowder Tower (after 1379) and the Royal Castle Curia Maior (1407–1410). The most notable examples of Renaissance architecture in the city are the house of Baryczko merchant family (1562), building called "The Negro" (early 17th century) and Salwator tenement (1632). The most interesting examples of mannerist architecture are the Royal Castle (1596–1619) and the Jesuit Church (1609–1626) at Old Town. Among the first structures of the early baroque the most important are St. Hyacinth's Church (1603–1639) and Zygmunt's Column (1644).

Building activity occurred in numerous noble palaces and churches during the later decades of the 17th century. One of the best examples of this architecture are Krasiński Palace (1677–1683), Wilanów Palace (1677–1696) and St. Kazimierz Church (1688–1692). The most impressive examples of rococo architecture are Czapski Palace (1712–1721), Palace of the Four Winds (1730s) and Visitationist Church (façade 1728–1761). The neoclassical architecture in Warsaw can be described by the simplicity of the geometrical forms teamed with a great inspiration from the Roman period. Some of the best examples of the neoclassical style are the Palace on the Water (rebuilt 1775–1795), Królikarnia (1782–1786), Carmelite Church (façade 1761–1783) and Evangelical Holy Trinity Church (1777–1782). The economic growth during the first years of Congress Poland caused a rapid rise architecture. The Neoclassical revival affected all aspects of architecture, the most notable are the Great Theater (1825–1833) and buildings located at Bank Square (1825–1828).

Bas-relief of an iron forger at MDM neighbourhood, one of prime examples of socialist realism in Polish architecture.

Exceptional examples of the bourgeois architecture of the later periods were not restored by the communist authorities after the war (like mentioned Kronenberg Palace and Insurance Company Rosja building) or they were rebuilt in socialist realism style (like Warsaw Philharmony edifice originally inspired by Palais Garnier in Paris). Despite that the Warsaw University of Technology building (1899–1902)[43] is the most interesting of the late 19th century architecture. Lot of the 19th century buildings is restored in Praga (Vistula’s right bank), though they are in a pretty bad condition. Warsaw’s municipal government authorities have decided to rebuild the Saxon Palace and the Brühl Palace, the most distinctive buildings in prewar Warsaw.[44]

Notable examples of contemporary architecture include the Palace of Culture and Science (1952–1955), a Soc-realist skyscraper located in the city centre, and the Constitution Square with its monumental Socialist realism architecture (MDM estate).[45] The central part of the right-bank (east) Praga borough it is a place where very run-down houses stand right next to modern apartment buildings and shopping malls.

Modern architecture in Warsaw is represented by the Metropolitan Office Building at Pilsudski Square by Lord Foster,[46] Warsaw University Library (BUW) by Marek Budzyński and Zbigniew Badowski, featuring a garden on its roof and view of the Vistula River, Rondo 1 office building by Skidmore, Owings and Merrill and Golden Terraces, consisting of seven overlapping domes retail and business centre.

It has been said that Warsaw, together with Frankfurt, London, Paris, Moscow, Istanbul and Rotterdam is one of the tallest cities in Europe.[47] Of the 21 tallest skyscrapers in Poland, 18 are situated in Warsaw (the first of the list which is not in Warsaw, is the 9th – the Sea Tower in Gdynia).

Flora and Fauna

Greenspace covers 40% of the surface area of Warsaw,[48] including a broad range of greenstructures, from small neighborhood parks, green spaces along streets and in courtyards, trees and avenues to large historic parks, nature conservation areas and the urban forests at the fringe of the city.

Peacocks – one of a number of animal species in the Royal Baths Park.

There are as many as 82 parks in the city which cover 8 % of its area.[49] The oldest ones, once parts of representative palaces, are Saxon Garden, the Krasiński Palace Garden, the Royal Baths Park, the Wilanów Palace Park and the Królikarnia Palace Park (See also: Greenery in the city).

The Saxon Garden, covering the area of 15.5 ha, was formally a royal garden. There are over 100 different species of trees and the avenues are a place to sit and relax. At the east end of the park, the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier is situated. In the 19th century the Krasiński Palace Garden was remodelled by Franciszek Szanior. Within the central area of the park one can still find old trees dating from that period: maidenhair tree, black walnut, Turkish hazel and Caucasian wingnut trees. With its benches, flower carpets, a pond with ducks on and a playground for kids, the Krasiński Palace Garden is a popular strolling destination for the Varsovians. The Monument of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising is also situated here. The Royal Baths Park covers the area of 76 ha. The unique character and history of the park is reflected in its landscape architecture (pavilions, sculptures, bridges, cascades, ponds) and vegetation (domestic and foreign species of trees and bushes). What makes this park different from other green spaces in Warsaw is the presence of peacocks and pheasants, which can be seen here walking around freely, and royal carps in the pond. The Wilanów Palace Park, dates back to the second half of the 17th century. It covers the area of 43 ha. Its central French-styled area corresponds to the ancient, baroque forms of the palace. The eastern section of the park, closest to the Palace, is the two-level garden with a terrace facing the pond. The park around the Królikarnia Palace is situated on the old escarpment of the Vistula. The park has lanes running on a few levels deep into the ravines on both sides of the palace.

19th century New Orangery houses a palm house.

Other green spaces in the city include the Botanic Garden and the University Library garden. They have extensive botanical collection of rare domestic and foreign plants, while a palm house in the New Orangery displays plants of subtropics from all over the world.[50] Besides, within the city borders, there are also: Pole Mokotowskie (a big park in the northern Mokotów, where was the first horse racetrack and then the airport), Park Ujazdowski (close to the Sejm and John Lennon street), Park of Culture and Rest in Powsin, by the southern city border, Park Skaryszewski by the right Vistula bank, in Praga. The oldest park in Praga, the Praga Park, was established in 1865–1871 and designed by Jan Dobrowolski.[51] In 1927 a zoological garden (Ogród Zoologiczny) was established on the park grounds,[52] and in 1952 a bear run, still open today.

The flora of the city may be considered very rich in species. The species richness is mainly due to the location of Warsaw within the border region of several big floral regions comprising substantial proportions of close-to-wilderness areas (natural forests, wetlands along the Vistula) as well as arable land, meadows and forests. Bielany Forest, located within the borders of Warsaw, is the remaining part of the Masovian Primeval Forest. Bielany Forest nature reserve is connected with Kampinos Forest.[53] It is home to rich fauna and flora. Within the forest there are three cycling and walking trails. Other big forest area is Kabaty Forest by the southern city border. Warsaw has also two botanic gardens: by the Łazienki park (a didactic-research unit of the University of Warsaw) as well as by the Park of Culture and Rest in Powsin (a unit of the Polish Academy of Science).

There is 13 nature reserves in Warsaw – among others, Bielany Forest, Kabaty Woods, Czerniaków Lake. About 15 km from Warsaw, the Vistula river's environment changes strikingly and features a perfectly preserved ecosystem, with a habitat of animals that includes the otter, beaver and hundreds of bird species.[54] There is also several lakes in Warsaw – mainly the oxbow lakes, like Czerniaków Lake, the lakes in the Łazienki or Wilanów Parks, Kamionek Lake. There are lot of small lakes in the parks, but only part of them is permanent – the most of them is being emptied before winter to clean them of plants and sediments.

The Warsaw Zoo covers an area of 40 hectares (100 acres).[55] There are about 5,000 animals representing nearly 500 species.[55] Although officially created in 1928,[55] it traces back its roots to 17th century private menageries, often open to the public.[56][57]


Historical populations
Year Pop. ±%
1700 30,000
1792 120,000 +300.0%
1800 63,400 −47.2%
1830 139,700 +120.3%
1850 163,600 +17.1%
1882 383,000 +134.1%
1901 711,988 +85.9%
1909 764,054 +7.3%
1925 1,003,000 +31.3%
1933 1,178,914 +17.5%
1939 1,300,000 +10.3%
1945 422,000 −67.5%
1950 803,800 +90.5%
1960 1,136,000 +41.3%
1970 1,315,600 +15.8%
1980 1,596,100 +21.3%
1990 1,655,700 +3.7%
2000 1,672,400 +1.0%
2002 1,688,200 +0.9%
2006 1,702,100 +0.8%
2009 1,714,466 +0.7%
Note: 2006[58]

Historically, Warsaw has been a destination for internal and foreign immigration, especially from Central and Eastern Europe. For nearly 300 years it was known as the "Old Paris" or "Second Paris".[24] It was always a centre of European culture, existed as a major European city, and was a destination for many Europeans. Demographically it was the most diverse city in Poland, with a significant numbers of foreign-born inhabitants. In addition to the Polish majority, there was a significant Jewish minority in Warsaw. According to Russian census of 1897, out of the total population of 638,000, Jews constituted 219,000 (around 34% percent).[59] Warsaw's prewar Jewish population of more than 350,000 constituted about 30 percent of the city's total population.[60] In 1933 out of 1,178,914 inhabitants 833,500 were of Polish mother tongue.[61] World War II changed all of this, and to this day there is much less ethnic diversity than in the previous 300 years of the city's history.[60] Most of the modern day population growth is based on internal migration and urbanisation.

Comparison of Warsaw's city boundaries today and in 1939

In 1939, ca. 1,300,000 people lived in Warsaw,[62] but in 1945 – only 420,000. During the first years after the war, the population growth was ca. 6%, so shortly the city started to suffer from the lack of flats and of areas for new houses. The first remedial measure was the Warsaw area enlargement (1951) – but the city authorities were still forced to introduce registration limitations: only the spouses and children of permanent residents as well as some exceptional persons (like good and famous specialists) were allowed to get registration. These limitations caused that the population growth decreased ca. twofold, but aroused among other Poles some kind of belief that the Varsovians feel themselves as somebody better than others only because they live in the capital. This belief unfortunately still lives in Poland (in much lower intensity) – even though there are not registration limitations anymore (since 1990).[63][64]

Municipal government

The municipal government existed in Warsaw until World War II and was restored in 1990 (during the communist times, the National City Council – Miejska Rada Narodowa – governed in Warsaw). Since 1990, the system of city administration has been changed several times – also as the result of the reform which restored powiats, cancelled in 1975. Finally, according the Warsaw Act, the city is divided into 18 districts and forms one city powiat with a unified municipal government.[65]

Commission Palace, a neoclassical palace at the Bank Square, the house of the city's government.

The basic unit of territorial division in Poland is a commune (gmina).[66] A city is also a commune – but with the city charter.[66] Both cities and communes are being governed by a mayor – but in the communes the mayor is vogt (wójt in Polish), however in the cities – burmistrz. Some bigger cities obtain the entitlements, i.e. tasks and privileges, which are possessed by the units of the second level of the territorial division – counties or powiats. An example of such entitlement is a car registration: a gmina cannot register cars, this is a powiat's task (i.e. a registration number depends on what powiat a car had been registered, not gmina). In this case we say about city county or powiat grodzki. Such cities are for example Kraków, Gdańsk, Poznań. In Warsaw, its districts additionally have some of powiat's entitlements – like already mentioned car registration. For example, the district Wola has its own evidence and the district Ursynów – its own (and the cars from Wola have another type of registration number than these from Ursynów). But for instance the districts in Kraków do not have entitlements of powiat, so the registration numbers in Kraków are of the same type for all districts.

Legislative power in Warsaw is vested in a unicameral Warsaw City Council (Rada Miasta), which comprises 60 members.[65] Council members are elected directly every four years. Like most legislative bodies, the City Council divides itself into committees which have the oversight of various functions of the city government.[65] Bills passed by a simple majority are sent to the mayor (the President of Warsaw), who may sign them into law. If the mayor vetoes a bill, the Council has 30 days to override the veto by a two-thirds majority vote.

Each of the 18 separate city districts has its own council (Rada dzielnicy).[65] Their duties are focused on aiding the President and the City Council, as well as supervising various municipal companies, city-owned property and schools. The head of each of the District Councils is named the Mayor (Burmistrz) and is elected by the local council from the candidates proposed by the President of Warsaw.

The rococo Branicki Palace houses the city's council.

The mayor of Warsaw is called President. Generally, in Poland, the mayors of bigger cities are called presidents – i.e. such cities, which have over 100,000 people or these, where already was president before 1990. The first Warsaw President was Jan Andrzej Menich (1695–1696).[67] Between 1975 and 1990 the Warsaw Presidents was simultaneously the Warsaw Voivode. Since 1990 the President of Warsaw had been elected by the City council.[68] In the years of 1994–1999 the mayor of the district Centrum automatically was designed as the President of Warsaw: the mayor of Centrum was elected by the district council of Centrum and the council was elected only by the Centrum residents. Since 2002 the President of Warsaw is elected by all of the citizens of Warsaw.[68]

The current President of Warsaw is Hanna Gronkiewicz-Waltz (since 2006-12-02) – the former president of the National Bank of Poland.[69] The first president elected according these rules was Lech Kaczyński. When he was elected on the President of Polish Republic (December 2005), there was not an additional election in Warsaw, hence formally he was simultaneously the President of Poland and the President of Warsaw.


The Sejm building.

As the capital of Poland, Warsaw is the political centre of the country. All state agencies are located there, including the Polish Parliament, the Presidential Office and the Supreme Court. In the Polish parliament the city and the area are represented by 31 MPs (out of 460). Additionally, Warsaw elects two MEPs.

The Sejm is the lower house of the Polish parliament. The Sejm is made up of 460 deputies, or Poseł in Polish (literally 'Envoy'). It is elected by universal ballot and is presided over by a speaker called the Marshal of the Sejm (Marszałek Sejmu).


Warsaw has seen major infrastructural changes over the past few years amidst increased foreign investment and economic growth. The city has a much improved infrastructure with new roads, flyovers, bridges, etc.[70]

The city centre – view on Dmowski Roundabout

Warsaw lacks a good circular road system and most traffic goes directly through the city centre. Warsaw ring road has been planned consisting of three express roads: S2, S8 and S17. Currently parts of S2 and S8 are under construction and to be completed up to 2012. The city has one international airport, Warsaw Frédéric Chopin Airport, located just 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) from the city centre.[71] With around 100 international and domestic flights a day and with over 9,268,551 passengers served in 2007, it is by far the biggest airport in Poland.[71]

Public transport in Warsaw includes buses, trams (streetcars), Metro, light rail Warszawska Kolej Dojazdowa line, urban railway Szybka Kolej Miejska and regional rail Koleje Mazowieckie (Mazovian Railroads).[72] The buses, trams, urban railway and Metro are managed by Zarząd Transportu Miejskiego (ZTM, the Warsaw Transport Authority).

Plac Wilsona metro station

The regional rail and light rail is operated by Polish State Railways (PKP). There are also some suburban bus lines run by private operators.[73] Bus service covers the entire city, with approximately 170 routes totalling about 2,603 kilometres (1,617 mi) long, and with some 1,600 vehicles.

Currently, the Tramwaje Warszawskie (Warsaw Trams) company runs 863 cars on over 240 kilometres (150 mi) of tracks. Twenty-odd lines run across the city with additional lines opened on special occasions (such as All Saints' Day).

The first section of the Warsaw Metro was opened in 1995 initially with a total of 11 stations.[74] It now has 21 stations running a distance of approximately 23 kilometres.[75] Initially, all of the trains were Russian built. In 1998, 108 new carriages were ordered from Alstom.[74] The second line running east-west will be about 31 kilometres. The central section is now in the bidding stage and will be 6 km. long with seven stations.[74] The main railway station is Warszawa Centralna serving both domestic traffic to almost every major city in Poland, and international connections. There are also five other major railway stations and a number of smaller suburban stations.


Visualization of the National Temple of Divine Providence (under construction).

Warsaw has seen major infrastructural changes over the past few years amidst increased foreign investment and economic growth. The city has a much improved infrastructure with new healthcare facilities, sanitation, etc.[70]

Warsaw ranks among the best in medical facilities in Poland. The city is home to the Children's Memorial Health Institute (CMHI), the highest-reference hospital for all of Poland, as well as an active research and education center.[76] While the Maria Skłodowska-Curie Institute of Oncology it is one of the largest and most modern oncological institutions in Europe.[77] The clinical section is located in a 10-floor building with 700 beds, 10 operating theatres, an intensive care unit, several diagnostic departments, and an outpatient clinic.[77]


Throughout its existence, Warsaw has been a multi-cultural city.[78] According to a census of 1901, out of 711,988 inhabitants there were 56,2% Catholics, 35,7% Jews, 5% Greek orthodox Christians and 2,8% Protestants.[79] Eight years later, in 1909, there were 281,754 Jews (36,9%), 18,189 Protestants (2,4%) and 2,818 Mariavites (0,4%).[80] This led to construction of hundreds of places of religious worship in all parts of the town. Most of them were destroyed in the aftermath of the Warsaw Uprising of 1944. After the war the new communist authorities of Poland discouraged church construction and only a small part of them were rebuilt.[81]

Leisure activities


Jazz concert in Tygmont Club.

Several commemorative events take place every year. Gatherings of thousands of people on the banks of the Vistula on Midsummer’s Night for a festival called Wianki (Polish for Wreaths) have become a tradition and a yearly event in the programme of cultural events in Warsaw.[82][83] The festival traces its roots to a peaceful pagan ritual where maidens would float their wreaths of herbs on the water to predict when they would be married, and to whom.[82] By the 19th century this tradition had become a festive event, and it continues today.[82] The city council organize concerts and other events.[83] Each Midsummer’s Eve, apart from the official floating of wreaths, jumping over fires, looking for the fern flower, there are musical performances, dignitaries' speeches, fairs and fireworks by the river bank.[83]

The Warsaw Film Festival, an annual festival that takes place every October.[84] Films are usually screened in their original language with Polish subtitles and participating cinemas include Kinoteka (Palace of Science and Culture), Multikino at Golden Terraces and Kultura. Over 100 films are shown throughout the festival, and awards are given to the best and most popular films.[84]


On 9 April 2008 the President of Warsaw, Hanna Gronkiewicz-Waltz, obtained from the mayor of Stuttgart Wolfgang Schuster a challenge award – a commemorative plaque awarded to Warsaw as the European capital of Sport in 2008.[85]

The National Stadium, a planned 56,000 seat football (soccer) stadium, is currently under construction on the site of Warsaw's recently demolished 10th-Anniversary Stadium.[86] The national stadium is due to host the opening match (a group match), remaining 2 group matches, a quarterfinal, and a semifinal of the UEFA Euro 2012 hosted jointly by Poland and Ukraine.[87]

The Olympic Center in Warsaw

There are many sports centres in the city as well. Most of these facilities are swimming pools and sports halls, many of them built by the municipality in the past several years. The main indoor venue is Hala Torwar, used for all kinds of indoor sports (mainly, indoor skating rink). There is also open-air skating rink (Stegny) and the horse racetrack (Służewiec).

The best of the city's swimming centres is at Wodny Park Warszawianka, 4 km south of the centre at Merliniego Street, where there's an Olympic-sized pool as well as water slides and children's areas.[88]

From the Warsovian football teams, the most famous is Legia Warszawa – the army club with a nationwide following play at Polish Army Stadium, just southeast of the centre at Łazienkowska Street. Established in 1916, they have won the country’s championship 8 times (most recently in 2006) and won the Polish Cup 14 times. They have never been relegated divisions. In the Champions League season 1995/96 they reached the quarter-finals, where they lost to Panathinaikos Athens.

Their local rivals, Polonia Warsaw, have significantly fewer supporters, yet they managed to win Ekstraklasa Championship in 2000. They also won the country’s championship in 1946, and won the cup twice as well. Polonia's home venue is located at Konwiktorska Street, a ten-minute walk north from the Old Town.

Club Sport Founded League Venue Head Coach
Legia Warszawa[89] Football 1916 Ekstraklasa Polish Army Stadium Maciej Skorża
Polonia Warszawa[90] Football 1911 Ekstraklasa Stadion Polonii Jacek Zieliński
Legia Warszawa[91] Basketball 1947 Second League OSiR Bemowo Wojciech Kiełbasiewicz
Polonia Gaz Ziemny Warszawa[92] Basketball 1911 Polska Liga Koszykówki Hala Sportowa "Koło" Wojciech Kamiński
AZS Politechnika Warszawa Volleyball 1918 Polska Liga Siatkówki Hala UCSiR Radosław Panas
Cumann Warszawa (Warsaw GAA) Gaelic Football and Hurling 2009 European Gaelic Football Championship Stadion Skra, Pole Mokotowskie Eoin Sheedy


European Capital of Culture 2016 Candidate

Warsaw is a shortlisted candidate for the European Capital of Culture 2016 title.[93] With the title of European Capital of Culture 2016, Warsaw has the chance to become a city known for how it managed the transition from improvisation, chaos and unpredictable processes into a truly contemporary metropolis, which found innovative solutions to its problems.[93]

The Core Themes of Warsaw's application include: The Vistula: River of Possibilities, City of Talents and Warsaw under Construction.

Theatre in the past

Great Theater, home of Poland's National Theatre and Opera.

From 1833 to the outbreak of World War II, Plac Teatralny (Theatre Square) was the country's cultural hub and home to the various theatres.[94]

The main building housed the Great Theatre from 1833 to 1834, the Rozmaitości Theatre from 1836 to 1924 and then the National Theatre, the Reduta Theatre from 1919 to 1924, and from 1928 to 1939 – the Nowy Theatre, which staged productions of contemporary poetical drama, including those directed by Leon Schiller.[94]

Nearby, in Ogród Saski (the Saxon Garden), the Summer Theatre was in operation from 1870 to 1939,[95] and in the inter-war period, the theatre complex also included Momus, Warsaw's first literary cabaret, and Leon Schiller's musical theatre Melodram. The Wojciech Bogusławski Theatre (1922–26), was the best example of "Polish monumental theatre". From the mid-1930s, the Great Theatre building housed the Upati Institute of Dramatic Arts – the first state-run academy of dramatic art, with an acting department and a stage directing department.[94]

Plac Teatralny and its environs was the venue for numerous parades, celebrations of state holidays, carnival balls and concerts.


Warsaw is home to over 30 major theatres spread throughout the city, including the National Theatre (founded in 1765) and the Grand Theatre (established 1778).[96]

Warsaw also attracts many young and off-stream directors and performers who add to the city's theatrical culture. Their productions may be viewed mostly in smaller theatres and Houses of Culture (Domy Kultury), mostly outside Śródmieście (Central Warsaw). Warsaw hosts the International Theatrical Meetings.


Thanks to numerous musical venues, including the Teatr Wielki, the Polish National Opera, the Chamber Opera, the National Philharmonic Hall and the National Theatre, as well as the Roma and Buffo music theatres and the Congress Hall in the Palace of Culture and Science, Warsaw hosts many events and festivals. Among the events worth particular attention are: the International Frederick Chopin Piano Competition, the International Contemporary Music Festival Warsaw Autumn, the Jazz Jamboree, Warsaw Summer Jazz Days, the International Stanisław Moniuszko Vocal Competition, the Mozart Festival, and the Festival of Old Music.[97]

Museums and art galleries

The levelling of Warsaw during the war has left gaping holes in the city's historic collections. [98] And although a considerable amount of treasures were spirited away to safety as the storm clouds gathered in 1939, it is also true that a great number of collections from palaces and museums in the countryside were brought to Warsaw at that time as the capital was considered a safer place than some remote castle in the borderlands.[98] Thus losses were heavy.[98]

Yet in spite of this, Warsaw still boasts some wonderful museums. As interesting examples of expositions the most notable are: the world’s first Museum of Posters boasting one of the largest collections of art posters in the world,[99] Museum of Hunting and Riding and the Railway Museum. From among Warsaw’s 60 museums, the most prestigious ones are National Museum with a wide collection of works whose origin ranges in time from antiquity till the present epoch as well as one of the best collections of paintings in the country and Museum of the Polish Army whose set portrays the history of arms.

The collections of Łazienki and Wilanów palaces (both buildings came through the war in good shape) are a delight, as are those of the Royal Castle. The Palace in Natolin – a former rural residence of Duke Czartoryski. Its interiors and park are accessible to tourists.

Holding Poland's largest private collection of art, the Carroll Porczyński Collection Museum[100] displays works from such varied artists as Rubens, Goya, Constable, Renoir, van Gogh and Dalí, and countless others.[101]

A fine tribute to the fall of Warsaw and history of Poland can be found in the Warsaw Uprising Museum and in the Katyń Museum which preserves the memory of the crime.[102] Museum of Independence host of sentimental and patriotic paraphernalia connected with these fateful epochs, as well as some invaluable art collections. Dating back to 1936 Warsaw Historical Museum contains 60 rooms which host a permanent exhibition of the history of Warsaw from its origins until today.

17th century Ostrogski Castle houses the Chopin Museum.

The 17th century Royal Ujazdów Castle currently houses Centre for Contemporary Art, with some permanent and temporary exhibitions, concerts, shows and creative workshops. The centre also develops unique art programs that correlated with the reconstruction and organization of the Ujazdów Castle architectural spaces. The Centre of Contemporary Art currently realizes about 500 projects a year.

Zachęta National Gallery of Art is the oldest exhibition site in Warsaw, with a tradition stretching back to the mid 19th century. The gallery organises exhibitions of modern art by Polish and international artists and promotes art in many other ways.

The city also possesses some marvellous oddities such as the Museum of Caricature (the only one of its kind in the world)[103] and a magnificent Motorisation Museum, which has everything from 1930s classics to cars that were owned by Elvis Presley and Marilyn Monroe.[104]

The newly established in 2011 Erotic Museum in Warsaw is the only such museum in Poland and one of the few of a kind in Europe.[105] Over 2,000 exhibits collected by the Erotic Museum, reveals the erotic fascinations of artists from all continents.[105] Museum collections include the 14th century German chastity belts, erotic Peruvian pottery, Persian miniatures, Tibetan votive paintings, Indian carvings, Chinese porcelain, African folk art, Japanese Shunga paintings, Thai votive penises and many other exhibits.[105]

Media and film

Main TVP headquarters at Woronicza street.

Warsaw is the media centre of Poland, and the location of the main headquarters of TVP and other numerous local and national TV and radio stations, such as TVN, Polsat, TV4, TV Puls, Canal+ Poland, Cyfra+ and MTV Poland.[106]

Since May 1661 the first Polish newspaper, Polish Ordinary Mercury, was printed in Warsaw. The city is also the printing capital of Poland with a wide variety of domestic and foreign periodicals expressing diverse views, and domestic newspapers are extremely competitive. Rzeczpospolita, Gazeta Wyborcza, Dziennik Polska-Europa-Świat Poland's large nationwide daily newspapers[107] have their headquarters in Warsaw.

Warsaw also has a sizable movie and television industry. The city houses several movie companies and studios. Among the movie campanies are TOR, Czołówka, Zebra and Kadr who is behind several international movie productions.[108]

Over the next few years the new Film City in Nowe Miasto, located a mere 80 km from Warsaw, will become the centre of Polish film production and international co-production.[108] It is to be the largest high-tech film studio in Europe.[108] The first projects filmed in the new Film City will be two films about the Warsaw Uprising.[108] Two backlots will be constructed for these projects – a lot of pre-WWII Warsaw and city ruins.[108]

Since World War II, Warsaw has been the most important centre of film production in Poland. It has also been featured in numerous movies, both Polish and foreign, for example: Kanał and Korczak by Andrzej Wajda, The Decalogue by Krzysztof Kieślowski, also including Oscar winner The Pianist by Roman Polański.[109]


Rococo Czapski Palace houses the Academy of Fine Arts.

Warsaw holds some of the finest institutions of higher education in Poland. It is home to four major universities and over 62 smaller schools of higher education.[110] The overall number of students of all grades of education in Warsaw is almost 500,000 (29.2% of the city population; 2002). The number of university students is over 280,000.[111] Most of the reputable universities are public, but in recent years there has also been an upsurge in the number of private universities.

The University of Warsaw was established in 1816, when the partitions of Poland separated Warsaw from the oldest and most influential Polish academic center, in Kraków.[112] Warsaw University of Technology is the second academic school of technology in the country, and one of the largest in Central Europe, employing 2,000 professors.[113] Other institutions for higher education include the Medical University of Warsaw, the largest medical school in Poland and one of the most prestigious, the National Defence University, highest military academic institution in Poland, the Fryderyk Chopin Music Academy the oldest and largest music school in Poland, and one of the largest in Europe,[114] the Warsaw School of Economics, the oldest and most renowned economic university in the country,[115] and the Warsaw University of Life Sciences the largest agricultural university founded in 1818.[116]

Warsaw University Library

Warsaw has numerous libraries, many of which contain vast collections of historic documents. The most important library in terms of historic document collections include the National Library of Poland. Library holds 8.2 million volumes in its collection.[117] Formed in 1928[118] sees itself as a successor to the Załuski Library, the biggest in Poland and one of the first and biggest libraries in the world.[118][119]

Another important library – the University Library, founded in 1816,[120] is home to over two million items.[121] The building was designed by architects Marek Budzyński and Zbigniew Badowski and opened on the 15 December 1999.[122] It is surrounded by green. The University Library garden, designed by Irena Bajerska, was opened on 12 June 2002. It is one of the largest and most beautiful roof gardens in Europe with an area of more than 10,000 m2 (107,639.10 sq ft), and plants covering 5,111 m2 (55,014.35 sq ft).[123] As the university garden it is open to the public every day.[123]


In 2008, Warsaw was ranked the world's 35th most expensive city to live in.[124] It was classified as an Alpha- world city (also known as a "major world city") by the Globalization and World Cities (GaWC) Study Group and Network from Loughborough University, placing it on a par with cities such as Amsterdam or Rome.[125] The city also ranked 8th out of 65 cities on Mastercard's Emerging Markets Index (2008).[126]

Business and commerce

Warsaw city centre

Warsaw, especially its city centre (Śródmieście), is home not only to many national institutions and government agencies, but also to many domestic and international companies. In 2006, 304,016 companies were registered in the city.[127] Warsaw's ever-growing business community has been noticed globally, regionally, and nationally. Mastercard Emerging Market Index has noted Warsaw's economic strength and commercial center. Moreover, Warsaw was ranked as the 7th greatest emerging market. Foreign investors' financial participation in the city's development was estimated in 2002 at over 650 million euro. Warsaw produces 12% of Poland's national income,[128] which in 2008 was 305.1% of the Polish average, per capita (or 160% of the European Union average). The GDP per capita in Warsaw amounted to PLN 94 000 in 2008 (ca. EUR 23 800, USD 33 000).[129] Warsaw leads the region of Central Europe in foreign investment and in 2006, GDP growth met expectations with a level of 6.1%.[130] It also has one of the fastest growing economies, with GDP growth at 6.5 percent in 2007 and 6.1 percent in the first quarter of 2008.[131]

Golden Terraces shopping centre.

At the same time the unemployment rate is one of the lowest in Poland, not exceeding 3%, according to the official figures. The city itself collects around 8,740,882,000 złotys in taxes and direct government grants.

Warsaw Stock Exchange

Exchange Building, home of the exchange from 1876 until World War II.

Warsaw's first stock exchange was established in 1817 and continued trading until World War II. It was re-established in April 1991, following the end of the post-war communist control of the country and the reintroduction of a free-market economy.[132] Today, the Warsaw Stock Exchange (WSE) is, according to many indicators,[131] the largest market in the region, with 374 companies listed and total capitalization of 162 584 mln EUR as of 31 August 2009.[133] From 1991 until 2000, the stock exchange was, ironically, located in the building previously used as the headquarters of the Polish United Workers' Party (PZPR).[134] The city is considered to be one of the most attractive business locations in Europe.[131]


During Warsaw's reconstruction after World War II, the communist authorities decided that the city would become a major industrial centre. As a result, numerous large factories were built in and around the city. The largest were the Huta Warszawa Steel Works, the car factory FSO and the tractor factory “Ursus”.

As the communist economy deteriorated, these factories lost significance and most went bankrupt after 1989.[135][136] Today, the Arcelor Warszawa Steel Mill (formerly Huta Warszawa) is the only major factory remaining.

The FSO Car Factory was established in 1951. A number of vehicles have been assembled there over the decades, including the Warszawa, Syrena, Fiat 125p (under license from Fiat, later renamed FSO 125p when the license expired) and the Polonez. The last two models listed were also sent abroad and assembled in a number of other countries, including Egypt and Columbia. In 1995 the factory was purchased by the South Korean car manufacturer Daewoo, which assembled the Tico, Espero, Nubia, Tacuma, Leganza, Lanos and Matiz there for the European market. In 2005 the factory was sold to AvtoZAZ, a Ukrainian car manufacturer which assembled there the Chevrolet Aveo. The license for the production of the Aveo expired in February 2011 and has since not been renewed.

The “Ursus” factory opened in 1893 and is still in operation today. Throughout its history various machinery was assembled there, including motorcycles, military vehicles, trucks and buses. However, since World War II only tractors are still being assembled there.

The number of state-owned enterprises continues to decrease while the number of companies operating with foreign capital is on the rise, reflecting the continued shift towards a modern market-based economy.[135] The largest foreign investors are Daewoo, Coca-Cola Amatil and Metro AG.[135] Warsaw has the biggest concentration of electronics and high-tech industry in Poland, while the growing consumer market perfectly fosters the development of the food-processing industry.[135]

Tourist attractions


Historic Centre of Warsaw *
UNESCO World Heritage Site
Warsaw - Royal Castle Square.jpg
Country Poland
Type Cultural
Criteria ii, vi
Reference 30
Region ** Europe
Inscription history
Inscription 1980 (4th Session)
* Name as inscribed on World Heritage List
** Region as classified by UNESCO

Although today's Warsaw is a fairly young city, it has many tourist attractions. Apart from the Warsaw Old Town quarter, reconstructed after World War II, each borough has something to offer. Among the most notable landmarks of the Old Town are the Royal Castle, King Zygmunt's Column, Market Square, and the Barbican.

Further south is the so-called Royal Route, with many classicist palaces, the Presidential Palace and the University of Warsaw campus. Wilanów Palace, the former royal residence of King John III Sobieski, is notable for its baroque architecture and parks.[137]

Warsaw's oldest public park, the Saxon Garden, is located within 10 minutes' walk from the old town.[138] Warsaw's biggest public park is the Royal Baths Park, established in the 17th century and given its current classical shape in late 18th century.[139] It is located further south, on the Royal Route, about 3 km (1.9 mi) from the Warsaw Old Town.

The Powązki Cemetery is one of the oldest cemeteries in Europe,[140] full of sculptures, some of them by the most renowned Polish artists of the 19th and 20th centuries. Since it serves the religious communities of Warsaw, be it Catholics, Orthodox, Jews, Muslims or Protestants, it is often called a necropolis. Nearby is the Okopowa Street Jewish Cemetery, one of the largest Jewish cemeteries in Europe.

In many places in the city the Jewish culture and history resonates down through time.[141] Among them the most notable are the Jewish theater, the Nożyk Synagogue, Janusz Korczak's Orphanage and the picturesque Próżna Street.[141] The tragic pages of Warsaw’s history are commemorated in places such as the Monument to the Ghetto Heroes, the Umschlagplatz, fragments of the Ghetto wall on Sienna Street and a mound in memory of the Jewish Combat Organization.[141]

There are also many places commemorating the heroic history of Warsaw.[142] Pawiak, an infamous German Gestapo prison now occupied by a Mausoleum of Memory of Martyrdom and the museum, is only the beginning of a walk in the traces of Heroic City.[142] The Warsaw Citadel, an impressive 19th century fortification built after the defeat of the November Uprising, was a place of martyr for the Poles.[142] Another important monument, the statue of Little Insurgent located at the ramparts of the Old Town, commemorates the children who served as messengers and frontline troops in the Warsaw Uprising, while the impressive Warsaw Uprising Monument by Wincenty Kućma was erected in memory of the largest insurrection of World War II.[142][143]

In Warsaw there are many places connected with the life and work of Frédéric Chopin. The heart of Polish-born composer is sealed inside Warsaw's Holy Cross Church.[144] During the summer time the Chopin Statue in the Royal Baths Park is a place where pianists give concerts to the park audience.[145]

Also many references to Marie Curie, her work and her family can be found in Warsaw: Marie's birthplace at the Warsaw New Town, the working places where she did her first scientific works[146] and the Radium Institute at Wawelska Street for the research and the treatment of cancer which she founded in 1925.[147]

Warsaw Mermaid

The 1659 coat of arms of Old Warsaw on the cover of one of Warsaw's accounting books.

The mermaid (syrenka) is Warsaw's symbol[148] and can be found on statues throughout the city and on the city's coat of arms. This imagery has been in use since at least the mid-14th century.[149] The oldest existing armed seal of Warsaw is from the year 1390, consisting of a round seal bordered with the Latin inscription Sigilium Civitatis Varsoviensis (Seal of the city of Warsaw).[150] City records as far back as 1609 document the use of a crude form of a sea monster with a female upper body and holding a sword in its claws.[151] In 1653 the poet Zygmunt Laukowski asks the question:

Warsaw of strong walls; why was the emblem Mermaid with sharp sword, given you by the kings?

—Zygmunt Laukowski[152]

1855 bronze sculpture of The Warsaw Mermaid in the Old Town Market Place

The origin of the legendary figure is not fully known. The best-known legend, by Artur Oppman, is that long ago two of Triton's daughters set out on a journey through the depths of the oceans and seas. One of them decided to stay on the coast of Denmark and can be seen sitting at the entrance to the port of Copenhagen. The second mermaid reached the mouth of the Vistula River and plunged into its waters. She stopped to rest on a sandy beach by the village of Warszowa, where fishermen came to admire her beauty and listen to her beautiful voice. A greedy merchant also heard her songs; he followed the fishermen and captured the mermaid.[153]

Another legend says that a mermaid once swam to Warsaw from the Baltic Sea for the love of the Griffin, the ancient defender of the city, who was killed in a struggle against the Swedish invasions of the 17th century. The mermaid, wishing to avenge his death, took the position of defender of Warsaw, becoming the symbol of the city.[153]

Every member of the Queen's Royal Hussars of the United Kingdom light cavalry wears the Maid of Warsaw, the crest of the City of Warsaw, on the left sleeve of his No. 2 (Service) Dress.[154] Members of 651 Squadron Army Air Corps of the United Kingdom also wear the Maid of Warsaw on the left sleeve of their No. 2 (Service) Dress.[155]

Famous people

Marie Curie-Skłodowska was born in Warsaw.

One of the most famous people born in Warsaw was Maria Skłodowska-Curie, who achieved international recognition for her scientific discovery of radiation.[156] Famous musicians include Władysław Szpilman and Frédéric Chopin. Chopin was born in the village of Żelazowa Wola, about 60 kilometers from Warsaw, but moved to the city with his family when he was seven months old.[157] Kazimierz Pułaski, a hero of the American Revolutionary War, was born here in 1745.

Tamara de Lempicka was a famous artist born in Warsaw.[158] She was born Maria Górska in Warsaw to wealthy parents and in 1916 married a Polish lawyer Tadeusz Łempicki.[159] Better than anyone else she represents the Art Deco style in painting.[158] Nathan Alterman, the Israeli poet, was born in Warsaw, as was Moshe Vilenski, the Israeli composer, lyricist, and pianist, who studied music at the Warsaw Conservatory.[160] Warsaw was the beloved city of Isaac Bashevis Singer, which he described in many of his novels:[161] Warsaw has just now been destroyed. No one will ever see the Warsaw I knew. Let me just write about it. Let this Warsaw not not disappear forever, he commented.[162]


International relations

Twin towns – Sister cities

Warsaw is twinned with:[163]

References – city's official site[177]


See also




  1. ^ "European Metropolitan Transport Authorities". EMTA. http://www.emta.com/article.php3?id_article=43. Retrieved 2011-06-03. 
  2. ^ "CityProfiles". Urban Audit. http://www.urbanaudit.org/CityProfiles.aspx?CityCode=PL001C&CountryCode=PL. Retrieved 2011-06-03. 
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  22. ^ (English) Witold Lawrynowicz. "Battle Of Warsaw 1920". www.scrapbookpages.com. http://www.hetmanusa.org/engarticle1.html. Retrieved 14 July 2008. 
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  26. ^ a b c (English) "The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising". United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Archived from the original on 17 May 2008. http://web.archive.org/web/20080517043736/http://www.ushmm.org/outreach/wgupris.htm. Retrieved 29 July 2008. 
  27. ^ (English) "The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising". www.aish.com. Archived from the original on 23 June 2008. http://web.archive.org/web/20080623220055/http://www.aish.com/holocaust/overview/he05n27.htm. Retrieved 29 July 2008. 
  28. ^ (English) "Warsaw Uprising". ww.britannica.com. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/636161/Warsaw-Uprising. Retrieved 5 February 2009.  Hoping to gain control of Warsaw before the Red Army could "liberate" it, the Home Army followed the Soviet suggestion to revolt.
  29. ^ a b c d e f g (English) "Warsaw Uprising of 1944". www.warsawuprising.com. http://www.warsawuprising.com/timeline.htm. Retrieved 14 July 2008. 
  30. ^ The Soviet troops, ordered by Stalin to wait until the Germans had destroyed the remnants of Polish resistance, then moved into what was left of Warsaw, flushed out the remaining Germans, and proclaimed themselves liberators of the city.
    (English) Wesley Adamczyk (2004). When God looked the other way: an odyssey of war, exile, and redemption. University of Chicago Press. p. 170. ISBN 02-26004-43-0. http://books.google.com/?id=77sneNTXojQC&pg=PA170&dq=The+Soviet+troops,+ordered+by+Stalin+to+wait+until#v=onepage&q=The%20Soviet%20troops%2C%20ordered%20by%20Stalin%20to%20wait%20until&f=false. 
  31. ^ Borkiewicz, Adam (1957). Powstanie warszawskie 1944: zarys działań natury wojskowej. Warsaw: PAX. 
  32. ^ (English) "Warsaw Uprising of 1944". www.warsawuprising.com. http://www.warsawuprising.com/faq.htm#Warsaw%20Ghetto%20Uprising. Retrieved 14 July 2008. 
  33. ^ (English) "Historic Centre of Warsaw". whc.unesco.org. http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/30. Retrieved 24 July 2008. 
  34. ^ a b c (English) "Pope in Warsaw". www.destinationwarsaw.com. http://www.destinationwarsaw.com/site.php5/Show/135.html. Retrieved 5 February 2009. 
  35. ^ (English) "Attracting foreign investments". www.polandtrade.com.hk. The Warsaw Voice. http://www.polandtrade.com.hk/new/eng/news_september2004.htm. Retrieved 24 July 2008. 
  36. ^ (English) "The National Stadium in Warsaw". www.poland2012.net. http://www.poland2012.net/stadiums-in-poland/. Retrieved 24 July 2008. 
  37. ^ (English) "Geography of Warsaw". geography.howstuffworks.com. http://geography.howstuffworks.com/europe/geography-of-warsaw.htm. Retrieved 27 February 2009. 
  38. ^ (English) "Institute of Meteorology and Water Management". www.imgw.pl. http://www.imgw.pl/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=147&Itemid=180. 
  39. ^ (Polish) "Dzielnice". www.um.warszawa.pl. http://www.um.warszawa.pl/v_syrenka/miasto/dzielnice.htm. Retrieved 11 July 2008. 
  40. ^ (English) "Old Town Warsaw". www.scrapbookpages.com. http://www.scrapbookpages.com/poland/Warsaw/Warsaw02.html. Retrieved 11 July 2008. 
  41. ^ (Polish) "Pałac Leopolda Kronenberga". www.warszawa1939.pl. http://www.warszawa1939.pl/index.php?r1=malachowskiego_4&r3=0. Retrieved 29 July 2008. 
  42. ^ (English) "A town house of Burbach family". eGuide / Treasures of Warsaw on-line. http://um.warszawa.pl/v_syrenka/perelki/index_en.php?mi_id=43&dz_id=2. Retrieved 23 February 2009. 
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  44. ^ (English) "As good as new". www.e-warsaw.pl. http://www.e-warsaw.pl/new/index.php?dzial=aktualnosci&ak_id=551&kat=3. Retrieved 30 January 2009. 
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  46. ^ (English) "Metropolitan Life". www.warsawvoice.pl. 4 February 2004. http://www.warsawvoice.pl/view/4682/. Retrieved 23 February 2009. 
  47. ^ (English) "Europes Top Skyscraper Cities". www.skyscrapernews.com. http://www.skyscrapernews.com/britains.htm. Retrieved 29 April 2009. 
  48. ^ (English) Warsaw Tourist Office. "Parks & Gardens". www.warsawtour.pl. http://www.warsawtour.pl/en/warsaw-for-everyone/parks-gardens-2075.html. Retrieved 23 February 2009.  "Warsaw is a green city. Almost 1/4 of its area is comprised of fields, parks, green squares and lush gardens, making Warsaw a European metropolis that truly offers its visitors a breath of fresh air."
  49. ^ (Polish) "Parki i lasy Warszawy". www.um.warszawa.pl. http://www.um.warszawa.pl/v_syrenka/miasto/parki-5.php. Retrieved 25 February 2009. 
  50. ^ (Polish) "Nowa Pomarańczarnia". ePrzewodnik / Perełki Warszawy on-line. http://um.warszawa.pl/v_syrenka/perelki/?mi_id=148&dz_id=14. Retrieved 24 February 2009. 
  51. ^ (Polish) "Park Praski". zielona.um.warszawa.pl. http://zielona.um.warszawa.pl/tereny-zielone/park-praski. Retrieved 2011-04-19.  Powstał w latach 1865–1871, według projektu Jana Dobrowolskiego, na prawym brzegu Wisły.
  52. ^ (Polish) "Park Praski". naszemiasto.pl. Archived from the original on 2008-03-14. http://web.archive.org/web/20080314235541/http://warszawa.naszemiasto.pl/rekreacja_i_wypoczynek/58717_63.html. Retrieved 2008-02-18. 
  53. ^ (English) "Nature reserves as a refuge of Grifola frondosa (DICKS.: FR.) GRAY in central Poland". bpn.com.pl. http://bpn.com.pl/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=230&Itemid=170. Retrieved 24 February 2009. 
  54. ^ (English) "Kayaking on the Vistula". www.warsawvoice.pl. 30 August 2006. http://www.warsawvoice.pl/view/12179/. Retrieved 24 February 2009. 
  55. ^ a b c (English) "Warsaw Zoo". www.zoo.waw.pl. http://www.zoo.waw.pl/. Retrieved 24 February 2009. 
  56. ^ Warsaw Zoo opened 11 March 1928, on Ratuszowa Street. It was not the first zoological garden in Warsaw; King Jan Sobieski III kept a court menagerie in Wilanów. Several private zoos were also established in Warsaw in the 19th century. (English) "New Zoo Revue". www.warsawvoice.pl. 24 April 2003. http://www.warsawvoice.pl/view/2044/. Retrieved 9 May 2009. 
  57. ^ (English) Vernon N. Kisling, ed (2000). Zoo and aquarium history: ancient animal collections to zoological gardens. CRC Press. pp. 118–119. ISBN 08-49321-00-X. http://books.google.pl/books?id=dxTrR5nOE0UC&printsec=frontcover. 
  58. ^ (English) "Demographic Yearbooks of Poland 1939–1979, 1980–1994". www.stat.gov.pl. Central Statistical Office of Poland. http://www.stat.gov.pl/gus/index_ENG_HTML.htm. Retrieved 29 August 2008. 
  59. ^ (English) Joshua D. Zimmerman (2004). Poles, Jews and the politics of nationality. University of Wisconsin Press. p. 16. ISBN 0-299-19464-7. http://books.google.com/?id=6sbr9cZyw_4C&pg=PA16&dq=population+Brest+Poles+Jews. 
  60. ^ a b (English) "Warsaw". www.ushmm.org. http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/article.php?lang=en&ModuleId=10005069. Retrieved 29 August 2008. 
  61. ^ (German) F.A. Brockhaus Verlag Leipzig (1935). Der Grosse Brockhaus: Handbuch des Wissens. 20 (15 ed.). Brockhaus. p. 25. 
  62. ^ (English) Dānishgāh-i Tihrān. Faculty of Fine Arts (1990). International Conference on Reconstruction of War-Damaged Areas: 6–16 March 1986 : Faculty of Fine Arts, University of Tehran, Iran. University of Tehran Press. p. 148. 
  63. ^ (Polish) Michał Kopiński (28 November 2008). "Warszawa da się lubić? Nie w Poznaniu". poznan.gazeta.pl/poznan. http://poznan.gazeta.pl/poznan/1,36001,6000225.html. Retrieved 29 September 2010. 
  64. ^ (Polish) Joanna Blewąska (28 November 2008). "Warszawa da się lubić?". wyborcza.pl. http://wyborcza.pl/1,76842,5999966,Warszawa_da_sie_lubic_.html. Retrieved 29 September 2010. 
  65. ^ a b c d (English) "Administration". e-warsaw.pl. http://e-warsaw.pl/2/index.php?id=568. Retrieved 31 January 2009. 
  66. ^ a b (English) Uwe Altrock (2006). Spatial planning and urban development in the new EU member states: from adjustment to reinvention. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. p. 262. ISBN 07-54646-84-X. 
  67. ^ (Polish) Barbara Petrozolin-Skowrońska (1994). "Encyklopedia Warszawy". Warsaw Encyclopedia. Polish Scientific Publishers PWN. p. 94. ISBN 83-01088-36-2. http://books.google.com/?id=BjjjAAAAMAAJ. 
  68. ^ a b (English) Masa Djordjevic (2006). [web.ceu.hu/polsci/ADC/2006/papers/Djordjevic%20Masa%20paper.doc Politics of Urban Development Planning: Building Urban Governance in Post-Socialist Warsaw?]. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. p. 8. web.ceu.hu/polsci/ADC/2006/papers/Djordjevic%20Masa%20paper.doc. Retrieved 10 October 2010. 
  69. ^ (English) "Mayor of Warsaw". e-warsaw.pl. http://www.e-warsaw.pl/2/index.php?id=566. Retrieved 10 October 2010. 
  70. ^ a b (English) Michal Jeziorski (7 March 2007). "Improving Infrastructure". www.warsawvoice.pl. http://www.warsawvoice.pl/view/14144. Retrieved 28 May 2009. 
  71. ^ a b (English) "Frederick Chopin International Airport". www.airport-technology.com. http://www.airport-technology.com/projects/fredericchipin/. Retrieved 24 July 2008. 
  72. ^ (English) "Public transport". www.e-warsaw.pl. http://www.e-warsaw.pl/miasto/transport.htm. Retrieved 22 August 2008. 
  73. ^ (English) "From monopoly towards market". siteresources.worldbank.org. http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTTRANSPORT/Resources/336291-1119275973157/td-ut5.pdf. Retrieved 22 August 2008. 
  74. ^ a b c (English) "A History of Subway Construction". www.metro.waw.pl. http://www.metro.waw.pl/page.php?id=111. Retrieved 30 January 2009. [dead link]
  75. ^ (English) "Technical and Operating Data of the Existing Subway Section". www.metro.waw.pl. http://www.metro.waw.pl/page.php?id=56. Retrieved 30 January 2009. [dead link]
  76. ^ (English) Ewa Pronicka and coordinators (27 April 2004). "Perfect for Children". www.warsawvoice.pl. http://www.warsawvoice.pl/view/5508/. Retrieved 2 March 2009. 
  77. ^ a b (English) Denise Wise, PT, PhD, with Kristin Wodzinski, PT. "People to People: Russia and Poland". www.apta.org. http://www.apta.org/AM/Template.cfm?Section=Home&TEMPLATE=/CM/HTMLDisplay.cfm&CONTENTID=28705. Retrieved 2 March 2009. 
  78. ^ (English) Geert Mak (2008). In Europe: travels through the twentieth century. Pantheon Books. p. 427. ISBN 03-07280-57-8.  Today Warsaw is a monocultural city, which is some people's ideal. But before 1939 it was a typically multicultural society. Those were the city's most productive years. We lost that multicultural character during the war.
  79. ^ (German) Hermann Julius Meyer (1909). Meyers Konversations-Lexikon. 20 (6 ed.). Leipzig and Vienna. p. 388. 
  80. ^ (German) Erich Zechlin (1916). Die Bevölkerungs- und Grundbesitzverteilung im Zartum Polen (The distribution of population and property in tsaristic Poland). Reimer, Berlin. pp. 82–83. 
  81. ^ (English) Marian S. Mazgaj (2010). Church and State in Communist Poland: A History, 1944–1989. McFarland. p. 67. ISBN 07-86459-04-2. 
  82. ^ a b c (English) Staś Kmieć. "Midsummer’s Eve". www.polamjournal.com. http://www.polamjournal.com/Library/Holidays/Sobotka/sobotka.html. Retrieved 2 February 2009. 
  83. ^ a b c (Polish) Staś Kmieć. "Wianki 2008". www.aktivist.pl. http://www.aktivist.pl/wydarzenie/eventId,393787,wianki-2008-wydarzenie.html. Retrieved 2 February 2009. 
  84. ^ a b (English) "Warsaw Film Festival". www.wff.pl. http://www.wff.pl/en/o-festiwalu/. Retrieved 16 February 2009. 
  85. ^ (English) "European Capitals of Sport". www.aces-europa.eu. http://www.aces-europa.eu/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=i8gr5Zb1M8I%3D&tabid=55&mid=379. Retrieved 30 January 2009. 
  86. ^ (English) Ryan Lucas. "UEFA turns attention to Euro 2012". sports.sportsillustrated.cnn.com. http://sports.sportsillustrated.cnn.com/euro/story.asp?i=20080630175055520000101&ref=hea&tm=. Retrieved 31 January 2009. 
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  88. ^ (English) "Wodny Park". www.wodnypark.com.pl. http://www.wodnypark.com.pl/index.php?lang=en. Retrieved 31 January 2009. 
  89. ^ (Polish) "KP Legia Warszawa". legia.com. http://legia.com/www/index.php. Retrieved 5 November 2008. 
  90. ^ (Polish) "KSP Polonia Warszawa". www.ksppolonia.pl. http://www.ksppolonia.pl/. Retrieved 5 November 2008. 
  91. ^ (Polish) "Legia LIVE!". www.legialive.pl. http://www.legialive.pl/kosz/. Retrieved 5 November 2008. 
  92. ^ (Polish) "Polonia". www.polonia.waw.pl. http://www.polonia.waw.pl/. Retrieved 5 November 2008. 
  93. ^ a b (English) "Why is Warsaw interested in the title of ECC 2016?". www.warszawa2016.pl. http://www.warszawa2016.pl/index.php/eng/Warsaw-ECC-2016/Why-Warsaw. Retrieved 2011-06-19. 
  94. ^ a b c (English) "The Theatre's history". www.teatrwielki.pl. 1998. Archived from the original on 18 April 2008. http://web.archive.org/web/20080418103152/http://www.teatrwielki.pl/show_book.php?book=historia&nlang=en. Retrieved 21 February 2008. 
  95. ^ (Polish) "Teatr Letni". warszawa1939.pl. http://www.warszawa1939.pl/index.php?r1=letni&r3=0. Retrieved 14 February 2008. 
  96. ^ "Teatr Wielki-Polish National Opera". Archived from the original on 8 February 2008. http://web.archive.org/web/20080208223208/http://www.teatrwielki.pl/show_book.php?book=historia. Retrieved 11 February 2008. 
  97. ^ (English) Poland. Rough Guides. 2002. ISBN 18-58288-49-5. http://books.google.com/?id=YgQ0B1CNYfQC&pg=PA70&dq=guide+warsaw#PPA128,M1. 
  98. ^ a b c (Polish) Włodzimierz Kalicki. "Sztuka zagrabiona". Polish American Congress of Southern California. http://www.poloniacal.org/sztuka/sztuka1.htm. Retrieved 30 January 2009. 
  99. ^ (English) "The Poster Museum at Wilanów". www.postermuseum.pl. http://www.postermuseum.pl/en/page/show/history. Retrieved 10 February 2009. 
  100. ^ Official name: Museum of John Paul II Collection
  101. ^ (English) "Museum of John Paul II Collection". www.muzeummalarstwa.pl. http://www.muzeummalarstwa.pl/collection.htm. Retrieved 24 February 2009. 
  102. ^ (English) Mark Baker, Kit F. Chung (2009). Frommer's Poland. Frommer's. p. 79. ISBN 04-70158-19-0. http://books.google.pl/books?id=ypJ5fzK_uSkC&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=false. 
  103. ^ (English) "Exhibitions". www.warsaw.com. http://www.warsaw.com/v/exhibitions/. Retrieved 30 January 2009. 
  104. ^ (English) "Museum history". www.muzeum-motoryzacji.com.pl. http://www.muzeum-motoryzacji.com.pl/podstrony/hist_muzeum_ang.html. Retrieved 30 January 2009. 
  105. ^ a b c (English) "Museum history". muzeumerotyki.com. http://muzeumerotyki.com/index.php?lang=en. Retrieved 2011-08-27. "The Erotic Museum in Warsaw is a unique place in Poland and one of a few in Europe where you can see pieces of art hidden bashfully from visitors in order museums. (...) Over 2000 exhibits displayed in the Erotic Museum in Warsaw let you explore erotic fantasies of artists from all over the world." 
  106. ^ (English) Chris Dziadul. "A decade of progress". www.broadbandtvnews.com. http://www.broadbandtvnews.com/2007/10/05/a-decade-of-progress/. Retrieved 14 February 2009. 
  107. ^ (English) "Press release". www.instytut.com.pl. 6 October 2008. http://www.instytut.com.pl/IMM/o_firmie/Press_release_media_August2008.pdf. Retrieved 14 February 2009. 
  108. ^ a b c d e (English) "Poland film production guide 2008". www.pisf.pl. http://www.pisf.pl/pliki/47/ed/47ed315731f90c9/pg2008_i.pdf. Retrieved 14 February 2009. 
  109. ^ (English) "The Pianist". www.thepianistmovie.com. Archived from the original on 22 August 2008. http://web.archive.org/web/20080822051023/http://www.thepianistmovie.com/index2.html. Retrieved 14 February 2009. 
  110. ^ (English) "Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of Poland 2008". www.stat.gov.pl. http://www.stat.gov.pl/cps/rde/xbcr/gus/PUBL_as_statitical_yearbook_of_the_rep_of_poland_2008.pdf. Retrieved 30 January 2009. 
  111. ^ (Polish) "Studia w liczbach: Warszawa bije Kraków". miasta.gazeta.pl. 10 March 2008. http://miasta.gazeta.pl/krakow/1,37650,5009717.html. Retrieved 30 January 2009. 
  112. ^ (English) "University of Warsaw". www.uw.edu.pl. http://www.uw.edu.pl/en/page.php/about_uw/rese.html. Retrieved 30 January 2009. 
  113. ^ (English) "Warsaw University of Technology (WUT)". www.onelab.eu. http://www.onelab.eu/index.php/about/management/steering-committee/122-warsaw-university-of-technology-wut.html. Retrieved 30 January 2009.  With over 30,000 students served by over 2,000 professors and instructors, WUT is the largest and the highest-ranking engineering university in Poland.
  114. ^ (English) "The Fryderyk Chopin University of Music". www.infochopin.pl. http://www.infochopin.pl/en/miejsca.php/99/. Retrieved 30 January 2009. 
  115. ^ (English) "Warsaw School of Economics – Overview". www.sgh.waw.pl. http://www.sgh.waw.pl/en/ogolne-en/. Retrieved 30 January 2009. 
  116. ^ (English) "Warsaw University of Life Sciences". www.sggw.pl. http://www.sggw.pl/2009/10/12/warsaw-university-of-life-sciences/?lang=en. Retrieved 30 January 2009.  Warsaw University of Life Sciences – SGGW (WULS – SGGW) is the oldest agricultural academic school in Poland, its history dates back to 1816.
  117. ^ (Polish) "Historia zbiorów". www.bn.org.pl. http://www.bn.org.pl/index.php?id=4. Retrieved 30 January 2009. 
  118. ^ a b (English) Maria Witt (15 September and 15 October 2005). "The Zaluski Collection in Warsaw". The Strange Life of One of the Greatest European Libraries of the Eighteenth Century. FYI France. http://www.fyifrance.com/f102005c.htm. Retrieved 17 February 2008. 
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  179. ^ The painting shows the Vistula embankment near the Kierbedź Bridge in Warsaw. The framework bridge was constructed by Stanisław Kierbedź in 1850–1864. It was recognized by once as modern structure and as "amazing heap of iron" by others. The bridge was destroyed by the Nazis in 1944.
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Coordinates: 52°13′48″N 21°00′39″E / 52.23°N 21.01083°E / 52.23; 21.01083

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