- Landscape architecture
Landscape architecture involves the investigation and designed response to the landscape. The scope of the profession includes architectural design,
site planning, environmental restoration, town or urban planning, urban design, parks and recreation planning. A practitioner in the field of landscape architecture is called a landscape architect.
The history of landscape architecture is related to the
history of gardeningbut is not coextensive. Both arts are concerned with the composition of planting, landform, water, paving and other structures but:
* garden design is essentially concerned with enclosed private space (
parks, gardens etc)
* landscape design is concerned with the design of enclosed space, as well as unenclosed space which is open to the public (
town squares, country parks, park systems, greenways etc).
The Romans undertook landscape architecture on an extensive scale, and
Vitruviuswrote on many topics (eg the layout of towns) which still concern landscape architects. As with the other arts, it was not until the Renaissancethat garden design was revived, with outstanding examples including the pleasure grounds at the Villa d'Este, Tivoli. The renaissance garden developed through the 16th and 17th centuries, reaching an ultimate grandeur in the work of André le Nôtreat Vaux-le-Vicomteand Versailles.
In the 18th century, England became the focus of a new style of landscape design. Figures such as
William Kent, Humphry Repton, and most famously Lancelot 'Capability' Brownremodelled the great estate parks of the English gentry to resemble a neat and tidy version of nature. Many of these parks remain today. The term 'landscape architecture' was first used by the Scotsman Gilbert Laing Meason in the title of his book on "The Landscape Architecture of the Great Painters of Italy" (London, 1828). It was about the type of architecture found in landscape paintings. The term "landscape architecture" was then taken up by JC Loudon and AJ Downing.
Through the 19th century, urban planning became more important, and it was the combination of modern planning with the tradition of landscape gardening that gave Landscape Architecture its unique focus. In the second half of the century,
Frederick Law Olmstedcompleted a series of parks which continue to have a huge influence on the practices of Landscape Architecture today. Among these were Central Parkin New York, Prospect Park in Brooklyn, and Boston's so called Emerald Necklacepark system.
Landscape architecture continues to develop as a design discipline, and has responded to many of the movements of design and architecture through the 20th century. Today, a healthy level of innovation continues to provide challenging design solutions for streetscapes, parks and gardens. The work of
Martha Schwartzin the US, and in Europe designs such as Schouwburgpleinin Rotterdamby the Dutch design group West 8are just two examples. Ian McHargis considered an important influence on the modern Landscape Architecture profession and land planning in particular. With his book "Design with Nature", he popularized a system of analyzing the layers of a site in order to compile a complete understanding of the qualitative attributes of a place. This system became the foundation of today's Geographic Information Systems (GIS). McHarg would give every qualitative aspect of the site a layer, such as the history, hydrology, topography, vegetation, etc. GIS software is ubiquitously used in the landscape architecture profession today to analyze materials in and on the earth's surface and is similarly used by Urban Planners, Geographers, Forestry and Natural Resources professionals, etc.
Landscape architecture is a multi-disciplinary field, which includes:
geography, mathematics, science, engineering, art, horticulture, technology, social sciences, politics, history, philosophyand more recently, ecology. The activities of a landscape architect can range from the creation of public parks and parkways to site planning for corporate office buildings, from the design of residential estates to the design of civil infrastructure and the management of large wilderness areas or reclamation of degraded landscapes such as mines or landfills. Landscape architects work on all types of structures and external space - large or small, urban or rural, and with "hard"/"soft" materials, hydrologyand ecologicalissues.
The breadth of the professional task that landscape architects collaborate on is very broad, but some examples of project types include:
* The planning, form, scale and siting of new developments
* Civil design and public
* Stormwater management including
rain gardens, green roofs and treatment wetlands
* Campus and site design for institutions
Parks, botanical gardens, arboretums, greenways, and nature preserves
* Recreation facilities like golf courses,
theme parks and sports facilities
* Housing areas, industrial parks and commercial developments
Highways, transportation structures, bridges, and transit corridors
Urban design, town and city squares, waterfronts, pedestrian schemes, and parking lots
* Large or small urban regeneration schemes
* Forest, tourist or historic landscapes, and
historic gardenappraisal and conservation studies
dams, power stations, reclamation of extractive industry applications or major industrial projects
Environmental assessmentand landscape assessment, planning advice and land management proposals.
* Coastal and offshore developments
Ecological Designany form of design that minimizes environmentally destructive impacts by integrating itself with living processes.
The most valuable contribution is often made at the earliest stage of a project in generating ideas and bringing flair and creativity to the use of space. The landscape architect can contribute to the overall concept and prepare an initial master plan, from which detailed designs can subsequently be prepared. He or she can also let and supervise contracts for construction work, prepare design impact assessments, conduct environmental assessments or audits and act as an expert witness at inquiries on land use. He or she can also support or prepare applications for capital or revenue funding grants.
For the period before 1800 (see section on History, below), the history of landscape architecture is largely that of master planning. The first person to write of "making" a landscape was
Joseph Addisonin 1712. The term "landscape gardener" was invented by William Shenstonein 1754but the first professional designer to use this term was Humphry Reptonin 1794. The term "landscape architecture" was invented by Gilbert Laing Measonin 1828and was first used as a professional title by Frederick Law Olmstedin 1863. Lancelot Brown, (also known as "Capability" Brown), who remains one of the best known "landscape gardeners" actually called himself a "place maker". During the nineteenth century, the term "landscape gardener" became applied to people who build (and sometimes design) landscapes and the term "landscape architect" became reserved for people who design (and sometimes build) landscapes. This use of "landscape architect" became established after the American Society of Landscape Architectswas founded in 1899and the International Federation of Landscape Architects(IFLA) in 1948.
"Landscape designers" and "Landscape technicians or engineers" are employed with landscape construction and service companies or may be independent professionals. Landscape designers, like
garden designers, design all types of planting and green spaces - and are not registered. Many landscape engineers work in public offices in central and local government while others work for landscape architecture firms.
"Landscape managers" use their knowledge of plants and the natural environment to advise on the long-term care and development of the landscape.
Landscape managers work in horticulture, estate management, forestry, nature conservation and agriculture.
"Landscape scientists" have specialist skills such as
soil science, hydrology, geomorphologyor botanythat they relate to the practical problems of landscape work. Their projects can range from site surveys to the ecological assessment of broad areas for planning or management purposes. They may also report on the impact of development or the importance of particular speciesin a given area.
"Landscape planners" are concerned with landscape planning for the location, scenic, ecological and recreational aspects of urban, rural and coastal land use. Their work is embodied in written statements of policy and strategy, and their remit includes masterplanning for new developments, landscape evaluations and assessments, and preparing countryside management or policy plans. Some may also apply an additional specialism such as landscape archaeology or law to the process of landscape planning.
"Garden designers" are concerned with the design of small gardens and outdoor spaces and also with
historic garden conservation.
Green roofdesigners" design extensive and intensive roof gardens for storm watermanagement, sustainable architecture, aesthetics, and habitat creation.
In many countries, a professional
institute, comprised of members of the professional community, exists in order to protect the standing of the profession and promote its interests, and sometimes also regulate the practice of landscape architecture. The standard and strength of legal regulations governing HI landscape architecture practice varies from nation to nation, with some requiring licensure in order to practice; and some having little or no regulation.
In the United States, Landscape Architecture is regulated by individual state governments, with only 1 requiring no regulation at all (Vermont). For a landscape architect, obtaining licensure or membership of a professional institute requires advanced education and/or continuing training and work experience. Full membership or licensure often depends on the outcome of
examinations in professional practice matters, and/or an interview with senior members of the profession. In the U.S. licensing is overseen both at the state level, and nationally by the Council of Landscape Architectural Registation Boards (CLARB). Landscape architecture has been identified as an above average growth profession by the US Bureau of Labor Statistics and was listed in US News and World Report's list of Best Jobs to Have in 2006. Landscape architects are considered professionals because they are often required to obtain specialized education and professional licensure.
In Canada, Landscape architecture is regulated by provincial or territorial components. These components are then governed by a national organization, the Canadian Society of Landscape Architects / L'Association des Architectes Paysagistes du Canada. Membership in the CSLA/AAPC is obtained through joining one of the provincial or territorial components. Two provinces, British Columbia and Ontario, require successful completion of the L.A.R.E (Landscape Architecture Registration Examination), a series of exams that aims to determine whether potential landscape architects have sufficient knowledge to practice the profession without endangering the public, in order to acquire full membership in the CSLA/AAPC. Quebec has an innovative mentor system HI in which experienced landscape architects mentor new intern members toward gaining full membership after at least two years of practice, of which six months should be under the direct supervision of the mentor.
Known as Canada's Premier Landscape Architect, Cornelia Hahn Oberlander, works on many significant sites, such as the Vancouver Public Library Central Branch including rooftop garden, the National Gallery, the NY Times Building, and the Law Courts at Robson Square in Vancouver. She was raised in connection with
Rudolf Steiner, and has crossed paths with John Todd (biologist). Her work on the C.K Choi [ [http://www.sustain.ubc.ca/greenbuilding.html] ] Building at UBC includes similar designs.
The Australian Institute of Landscape Architects (AILA) provides professional recognition for landscape architects. Once recognised, landscape architects use the title ‘Registered Landscape Architect’.
Across the eight states and territories within Australia, there is a mix of requirements for landscape architects to be ‘Registered’. Generally there is no clear legislative registration requirement in place. Any regulations or requirements are state based, not national.
The AILA’s system of professional recognition is a national system overseen by AILA’s National Office in Canberra.
Most agencies require AILA professional recognition or registration as part of the pre-requisite for contracts. Landscape architects within Australia find that many contracts and competitions require the AILA recognition or ‘registration’ as the basis of demonstrating a professional status.
To apply for AILA Registration, an applicant usually needs to satisfy the following pre-requisites:
1. A university qualification from an AILA accredited program.
2. At least two years of practice.
3. A record of Continuing Professional Practice (CPD).
The application is in two stages:
1. First Stage: A minimum 6 months (12 months preferred) period of mentoring and assessment.
2. Second Stage: Oral assessment/interview.
Professional recognition includes a commitment to continue professional development. AILA Registered Landscape Architects are required to report annually on their Continuing Professional Development.
The AILA has in place processes to recognise equivalent qualifications and experience, which when combined with a number of years of recognised practice as a landscape architect, may provide the basis of recognition as a Registered Landscape Architect.
The UK’s professional body is the
Landscape Institute. They are a royal chartered body who accredit Landscape professionals and university courses. At present there are fifteen accredited schools in the UK. Membership of the LI is available to students, academics and professionals Landscape Architects.
The Institute provides services to assist members including support and promotion of the work of landscape architects; information and guidance to the public and industry about the specific expertise offered by those in the profession; and training and educational advice to students and professionals looking to build upon their experience.
In 2008 the LI launched a major recruitment drive entitled I want to be a Landscape Architect to encourage the study of Landscape Architecture. The campaign aims to raise the profile of landscape architecture and highlight its valuable role in building
sustainable communitiesand fighting climate change.
AIAPP (Italian Association of Landscape Architecture)is the Italian association of professional landscape architects formed in 1950 and is a member of EFLA and IFLA. AIAPP is in the process of contesting this new law which has given the Architects’ Association the new title of Architects, Landscape Architects, Planners and Conservationists whether or not they have had any training or experience in any of these fields other than Architecture. At the same time the Existence of AIAPP has been totally ignored in spite of its international recognition [http://www.efla.org/base/frames/centre.asp?LG=uk] In Italy there are several different professions involved in landscape architecture :
*Paesaggisti (Landscape designs)
*Dottori Agronomi Paesaggisti e Dottori Forestali Paesaggisti (
Doctor landscape agronomistsand Doctor landscape foresters)
*Periti Agrari e Periti Agrari Laureati (
Agrarian Expertsand Graduated Agrarian experts)
*Energy-efficient landscape design
Environmental graphic design
Hard landscape materials
History of landscape architecture
List of landscape architects
Lyle Center for Regenerative Studies
Principles of Intelligent Urbanism
List of schools of landscape architecture
Soft landscape materials
Sustainable landscape architecture
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