Suburbs are commonly defined as residential areas on the outskirts of a
cityor large town. Most suburbs in the U.S. are commuter towns with a prevalence of detached [ [http://books.google.com/books?id=uULJlcYkJ1oC Land Development Calculations] 2001 Walter Martin Hosack. "single-family detached housing" = "suburb houses" p133] single-family homes. [ [http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/recs/recs2005/hc2005_tables/hc1housingunit/pdf/tablehc2.1.pdf. "Housing Unit Characteristics by Type of Housing Unit, 2005"] Energy Information Association] Many suburbs have some degree of political autonomy, and most have lower population density than inner cityneighborhoods. Mechanical transport, including automobiles and high speed trains, enabled the 20th century growth of suburbs, which tend to proliferate near cities with an abundance of adjacent flat land. [ [http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=2t2P4t8fkJMC "The Fractured Metropolis: Improving the New City, Restoring the Old City, Reshaping the Region"] by Jonathan Barnett]
Etymology and usage
The word is derived from the
Old French"subburbe" and ultimately from the Latin"suburbium", formed from "sub", meaning "under", and "urbs", meaning "city". Important people tended to live on hills near centers of commercial and political activity, while the lower classes often lived in marginal areas. "Under" in later usage sometimes referred variously to lesser wealth, political power, population, or population density. The first recorded usage, according to the Oxford English Dictionary, comes from Wycliffe in 1380, where the form "subarbis" is used.
United States, Canada, and most of Western Europe the word "suburb" usually refers to a separate municipality, borough, or unincorporated area outside a central town or city. This definition is evident in the title of David Rusk's book "Cities Without Suburbs" (ISBN 0-943875-73-0 ), which promotes metropolitan government. U.S. colloquial usage sometimes shortens the term to "'burb", and "the Burbs" first appeared as a term for the suburbs of Chicago.Fact|date=April 2008
This division is not as prevalent in
Ireland, United Kingdom, Australiaand New Zealand, where "suburb" merely refers to residential neighborhoods outside of the city centre whether they lie in a separate municipality or not. In Australia and New Zealand, suburbs have become formalized as geographic subdivisions of a city and are used by postal services in addressing. In rural areas of Australia their equivalent are called localities (see suburbs and localities). In Australia, the terms "inner suburb" and "outer suburb" are used to differentiate between the higher-density suburbs with close proximity to the city center, and the lower-density suburbs on the outskirts of the urban area. Inner suburbs, such as Te Aroin Wellington, Prahran in Melbourneand Ultimo in Sydney, are usually characterised by higher density apartmenthousing and greater integrationbetween commercial and residential areas.
Prior to the 19th century, "suburb" often correlated with the outlying areas of cities where work was most inaccessible; implicitly, where the poorest people had to live.
Charles Dickensused the word this way, albeit not exclusively, in his descriptions of contemporary London. Our modern usage of the term came about during the course of the 19th century, as improvements in transportation and sanitation made it possible for wealthy developments to exist on the outskirts of cities.
The growth of suburbs was facilitated by the development of
zoninglaws, redliningand various innovations in transport. After World War II availability of FHA loans stimulated a housing boom in American suburbs. In the older cities of the northeast U.S., streetcar suburbs originally developed along trainor trolley lines that could shuttle workers into and out of city centers where the jobs were located. This practice gave rise to the term " bedroom community", meaning that most daytime businessactivity took place in the city, with the working population leaving the city at night for the purpose of going home to sleep.
The growth in the use of trains, and later automobiles and highways, increased the ease with which workers could have a job in the city while
commutingin from the suburbs. In the United Kingdom, railways stimulated the first mass exodus to the suburbs. The Metropolitan Railway, for example, was active in building and promoting its own housing estates in the north-west of London, consisting mostly of detached houses on large plots, which it then marketed as " Metro-land". [ [http://www.transportdiversions.com/publicationshow.asp?pubid=5800 LONDON`S METROLAND] ] As car ownership rose and wider roads were built, the commuting trend accelerated as in North America. This trend towards living away from towns and cities has been termed the urban exodus.
Zoning laws also contributed to the location of residential areas outside of the city centre by creating wide areas or "zones" where only residential buildings were permitted. These suburban residences are built on larger lots of land than in the urban city. For example, the lot size for a residence in
Chicagois usually convert|125|ft|m|lk=on deep, while the width can vary from convert|14|ft|m wide for a row house to convert|45|ft|m wide for a large standalone house.Fact|date=February 2007 In the suburbs, where standalone houses are the rule, lots may be convert|85|ft|m wide by convert|115|ft|m deep, as in the Chicago suburb of Naperville.Fact|date=February 2007 Manufacturing and commercial buildings were segregated in other areas of the city.
Increasingly, more people moved out to the suburbs, known as
suburbanization. Moving along with the population, many companies also located their offices and other facilities in the outer areas of the cities. This has resulted in increased density in older suburbs and, often, the growth of lower density suburbs even further from city centers. An alternative strategy is the deliberate design of "new towns" and the protection of green belts around cities. Some social reformers attempted to combine the best of both concepts in the garden city movement. [ [http://www.library.cornell.edu/Reps/DOCS/howard.htm Garden Cities of To-Morrow] ]
In the United States, since the 18th century urban areas have often grown faster than city boundaries. Until the 1900s, new neighborhoods usually sought or accepted
annexationto the central city to obtain city services. In the 20th century, however, many suburban areas began to see independence from the central city as an asset. In some cases, Whitesuburbanites saw self-government as a means to keep out people who could not afford the added suburban property maintenance costs not needed in city living. Federal subsidiesfor suburban development accelerated this process as did the practice of redliningby banks and other lending institutions. [ [http://books.google.com/books?vid=ISBN0813339529 Comeback Cities: A Blueprint for Urban Neighborhood Revival] By Paul S. Grogan, Tony Proscio. ISBN 0813339529. Published 2002. Page 142.
"Perhaps suburbanization was a 'natural' phenomenon—rising incomes allowing formerly huddled masses in city neighborhoods to breathe free on green lawn and leafy culs-de-sac. But, we will never know how natural it was, because of the massive federal subsidy that eased and accelerated it, in the form of tax, transportation and housing policies."]
Cleveland, Ohiois typical of many American central cities; its municipal borders have changed little since 1922, even though the Cleveland urbanized area has grown many times over.Fact|date=February 2007 Several layers of suburban municipalities now surround cities like Cleveland, Chicago, and Philadelphia.
While suburbs had originated far earlier; the suburban population in North America exploded after
World War II. Returning veterans wishing to start a settled life moved en masse to the suburbs. Levittown developed as a major prototype of mass-produced housing. At the same time, African Americans were rapidly moving north for better jobs and educational opportunities than were available to them in the segregated South. Their arrival in Northern cities en masse – in addition to race riots in several large cities such as Detroit, Chicago, and Philadelphia – further stimulated white suburban migration.
In the U.S., 1950 was the first year that more people lived in suburbs than elsewhere. ["Managing Urban America"] In the U.S, the development of the skyscraper and the sharp inflation of downtown real estate prices also led to downtowns being more fully dedicated to businesses, thus pushing residents outside the city center.
Urban development in Canada has largely paralleled development in the United States. After World War II, large bedroom communities of single-family homes and shopping centres sprouted on the outskirts of Canadian cities.
However, Canada has far fewer suburban municipalities than the U.S. does. Many large cities, such as
Winnipeg, Calgary, Edmonton, and Ottawa, extend all the way to, and even include the countryside. However, the fact that literal boundaries of suburbs are not present in Canada does not in any way eliminate suburbs "per se". The boundaries of Canadian cities are under the jurisdiction of the Provinces and the Provinces have imposed city-suburb mergers. The Vancouver, Montrealareas still have suburban municipalities, although their suburban areas are generally grouped into fewer cities than is typical in the United States. British Columbia created a "metropolitan" government for the Vancouver area in 1954, but the urbanized area has since grown well beyond it.
Today, Toronto has some of the largest suburban municipalities in North America, and the two largest suburbs in Canada are in this metro area.
Mississauga(668,549) and Brampton (433,806) together claim 1.1 million inhabitants, and would be the third largest city in Canada if merged. Many Toronto suburbs have significantly improved on the suburban philosophy, adding a downtown to many suburban centers, notably Mississauga, Brampton, Vaughan and Markham. In 1998 the governmental structure was reorganized to include many of these formerly independent suburbs into the Greater Toronto Area (see Greater Toronto Area).
Vancouver has several large suburbs, with more than three quarters of a million people living in Surrey (the third largest suburb in Canada), Richmond, and
Burnaby. Montreal has its two largest suburbs, Laval and Longueuil, as well as a suburban group of smaller municipalities neighbouring Montreal known as the West Island.
In the United States
Typically, many post-
World War IIAmerican suburbs have been characterized by:
* Lower densities than central cities, dominated by single-family homes on small plots of land, surrounded at close quarters by very similar dwellings.
* Zoning patterns that separate residential and commercial development, as well as different intensities and densities of development. Daily needs are not within walking distance of most homes.
* Subdivisions carved from previously
ruralland into multiple-home developments built by a single real estate company. These subdivisions are often segregated by minute differences in home value, creating entire communities where family incomes and demographics are almost completely homogenous, although suburban developments have become and are becoming more diverse.
Shopping mallsand strip mallsbehind large parking lots instead of a classic downtownshopping district.
* A road network designed to conform to a hierarchy, including
culs-de-sacleading to larger residential streets, in turn leading to large collector roads, in place of the grid pattern common to most central cities and pre- World War IIsuburbs.
* A greater percentage of one-story adminstrative buildings than in urban areas.
* Limited or no access to
public transitFact|date=May 2008
* Sometimes a lower crime rate than a comparable urban neighborhood
In other countries
In many parts of the globe, however, suburbs are economically poor areas, inhabited by people sometimes in real misery, keeping them at the limit of the city borders for economic or social reasons like the impossibility of affording the (usually higher) costs of life in the town. An example in the developed world would be the "
banlieues" of France, or the concrete suburbs of Swedenwhich are comparable to the inner cities of the U.S.
In the UK, the government is seeking to impose minimum densities on newly approved housing schemes in parts of southeast England. The new catch phrase is 'building sustainable communities' rather than housing estates. However, commercial concerns tend to retard the opening of services until a large number of residents have occupied the new neighbourhood.
In the illustrative case of
Rome, Italy, in the 1920s and 1930s, suburbs were intentionally created "ex novo" in order to give lower classes a destination, in consideration of the actual and foreseen massive arrival of poor people from other areas of the country. Many critics have seen in this development pattern (that was circularly distributed in every direction) also a quick solution to a problem of public order(keeping the unwelcome poorest classes together with the criminals, in this way better controlled, comfortably remote from the elegant "official" town). On the other hand, the expected huge expansion of the town soon effectively covered the distance from the central town, and now those suburbs are completely engulfed by the main territory of the town. Other newer suburbs were created at a further distance from them.
In China, the term suburb is new. Chinese suburbs are very similar to that of the
United States, in that many of its inhabitants are mainly Upper-class, or Middle-class people. Many of the new homes, being built with pools, two car garages and extra rooms are replicas of the U.S. However, most of the suburbs are fenced, and generally guarded because of the extraordinary crime rate.Fact|date=July 2008
Suburbs typically have more
traffic congestionand longer travel times than traditional neighborhoods. [ [http://bicycleuniverse.info/transpo/roadbuilding-futility.html Why adding lanes makes traffic worse ] ] Only the traffic "within" the short streets themselves is less. This is due to three factors:Fact|date=April 2008 almost-mandatory automobileownership due to poor suburban bus systems, longer travel distances and the hierarchy system, which is less efficient at distributing traffic than the traditional gridof streets.
In the suburban system, most trips from one component to another component requires that cars enter a
collector road, no matter how short or long the distance is. This is compounded by the hierarchy of streets, where entire neighborhoods and subdivisions are dependent on one or two collector roads. Because all traffic is forced onto these roads, they are often heavy with traffic all day. If a traffic accident occurs on a collector road, or if road construction inhibits the flow, then the entire road system may be rendered useless until the blockage is cleared. The traditional "grown" grid, in turn, allows for a larger number of choices and alternate routes.
Suburban systems of the sprawl type are also quite inefficient for cyclists or
pedestrians, as the direct route is usually not available for them either. This encourages car trips even for distances as low as several hundreds of meters(which may have become up to several kilometresdue to the road network). Improved sprawl systems, though retaining the car detours, possess cycle paths and foot pathconnecting across the arms of the sprawl system, allowing a more direct route while still keeping the cars out of the residential and side streets.
The 1960s television series "
The Dick Van Dyke Show" starring Dick Van Dykeand Mary Tyler Moorewas set in New Rochelle, New York, an affluent Westchester County suburb of New York City. New Rochelle is a first-suburb and one of the original "bedroom communities".
The term suburbia is frequently used to encapsulate the concept of suburbs as slices of tract-home nuclear family.
The 1962 song "
Little Boxes" by Malvina Reynoldslampoons the development of suburbiaand what manyWho|date=April 2008 consider its bourgeois conformistvalues. It is best known through Pete Seeger's performance of the song. A book about a Daly City, California, suburb "Little Boxes: The Architecture of a Classic Midcentury Suburb", is named for the song. ["Little Boxes: The Architecture of a Classic Midcentury Suburb" by Rob Keil, Daly City, CA: Advection Media, 2006. ISBN 0977923649.]
The popular TV show "
The Wonder Years", which was set in the late 1960s and early 1970s, took place in an undisclosed suburb. In the very first episode, the show's narrator comments on the seeming sameness of suburbia, in the ending narration noting that despite the rows of identical houses and carports, within each one are people with unique stories and individual lives. Ben Folds's song "Rockin' the Suburbs" satirizes the teenage angst of "male, middle class, and white" suburban residents.
The concept of "suburbia" came to envelop this and other, sometimes endearing, idiosyncrasies of suburban life — for example, backyard
barbecues on Independence Day and Labor Day, and neighborhood trick or treating on Halloween. Popular culturelargely recognized this concept during the 1980s and early 1990s. In Britain, television series such as "The Good Life", "Butterflies" and " The Fall and Rise of Reginald Perrin" depicted suburbia as well-manicured but relentlessly boring, and its residents as either conforming their behaviour to this situation or going stir crazythrough its regimented blandness. In America, similar but more violent themes could be found in the works of David Lynch, most notably " Blue Velvet", which establishes a view of idealistic suburbia and then showcases a dark, depraved underworld. A distinctive depiction of American suburbs is Joe Dante's comedy film " The 'Burbs" from 1989, starring Tom Hanks and Carrie Fisher, in which the people living in the suburbs are portrayed as paranoiacs looking for adventure, which ends up in the explosion of one of their neighbors' houses in which they presume a huge number of dead bodies. The Oscar-winning 1999 film "American Beauty" centers the life of two suburban families and their eventual downfalls. Todd Field's Oscar-nominated film "Little Children" portrays the suburbs as a place full of paranoid and sometimes hypocritical and judgmental security moms and dads, and bored and unhappy wives and husbands driven to adultery.
In 1994, playwright
Eric Bogosianwrote and directed the play " subUrbia", which focused on suburban twentysomethings with no real life goals or direction reacting to the return of a high school friend who had become famous. The play was made into a low-budget, independent film in 1997, with Richard Linklaterdirecting and featuring actors Steve Zahn, Parker Posey, Ajay Naidu, and Giovanni Ribisiin lead roles.
The Showtime series "Weeds" centers on a suburban housewife selling drugs in a stereotypical suburban neighborhood. Its depictions of the people and situations surrounding them can be seen as a negative critique of the suburban lifestyle.
Neil Stephenson's science fiction novel " Snow Crash" depicts a future evolution of gated suburbs into "burbclaves".
* Developed environments:
List of largest suburbs by population
Urban rural fringe
* Settlement types
* Baumgartner, M. P. "The Moral Order of a Suburb." New York: Oxford University Press, 1988.
* Baxandall, Rosalyn and Elizabeth Ewen. "Picture Windows: How the Suburbs Happened." New York: Basic Books, 2000.
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* Gans, Herbert J. "The Levittowners: Ways of Life and Politics in a New Suburban Community". New York: Pantheon, 1967.
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* Mumford, Louis. "The Culture of Cities." New York: Harcourt Brace, 1938.
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* O'Toole, Randall. "The Vanishing Automobile and Other Urban Myths" [http://www.ti.org/va.html The Thoreau Institute.]
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* Rybczynski, Witold. "How to Build a Suburb." "The Wilson Quarterly" 19 no. 3 (Summer 2005): 114-126.
* Rybczynski, Witold (November 7, 2005). [http://www.slate.com/id/2129636/?nav=tap3 "Suburban Despair"] . "Slate".
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* Winkler, Robert. "Going Wild: Adventures with Birds in the Suburban Wilderness". Washington, D.C.: National Geographic, 2003.
* __________. "All the World's a Mall: Reflections on the Social and Economic Consequences of the American Shopping Center." " The American Historical Review" 101 no. 4 (October 1996): 1111-1121.
* [http://www.hgs.org.uk/mystreet/index.html provides images of a mature north London suburb illustrating a wide range of domestic architecture]
* [http://www.endofsuburbia.com/ The End of Suburbia] , documentary film
* [http://fass.kingston.ac.uk/research/suburban_studies/ Europe's first interdisciplinary research centre for the study of suburbs, based at
* [http://www.fanniemaefoundation.org/programs/census_notes_6.shtml "Boomburbs":] The Emergence of Large, Fast-Growing Suburban Cities in the United States, from
* [http://www.sierraclub.org/sprawl/ Sierra Club Stopping Sprawl Main Page]
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