Bourgeoisie (RP IPA|/ˌbʊ.ʒwɑːˈzi/ or /ˌbɔː.ʒwɑːˈzi/, GA IPA|/ˌbʊ(r).ʒwɑˈzi/) [http://pewebdic2.cw.idm.fr/] is a classification used in analyzing human societies to describe a
social classof people. The bourgeoisie are members of the upper or merchantclass, whose status or power comes from employment, education, and wealth. They are distinguished from those whose power comes from being born into an aristocraticfamily. The term petite bourgeoisie(also petty bourgeoisie) is used to describe the class below the bourgeoisie but above the proletariat(usually independent operators with a small number of employees). The term "urban haute bourgeois" [http://everything2.com/index.pl?node_id=709295] was coined by Whit Stillmanto describe American upper-class WASPs, who had been seen capturing more and more social and economic capital. [http://econsoc.mpifg.de/archive/econ_soc_09-3.pdf#page=3]
Usage and definitions
The term, bourgeoisie, is widely used in many non-English speaking countries as an approximate equivalent of
upper class["Karl Marx's bourgeoisie or capitalist class. That is, the upper class is the property-owning class, those who live from earnings made from the ownership, control, and exploitation of property such as land, capital, large businesses, or share holdings." (" [http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O88-upperclass.html A Dictionary of Sociology ] ")] (found in the " Communist Manifesto" by Karl Marxand Friedrich Engels).
In common usage the term has pejorative connotations suggesting either undeserved wealth, or lifestyles, tastes, and opinions that lack the sophistication of the rich or the authenticity of the intellectual or the poor. It is rare for people in the English speaking world to identify themselves as members of the bourgeoisie, although many self-identify as middle class. On the other hand some would self-identify as
proletarians. In reality many members of this class are transitory as Marx had originally argued. In the United States, where social class affiliation lacks some of the structure and rules of many other nations, "bourgeoisie" is sometimes used to refer to those seen as being either "upper class" or "upper middle class".
Bourgeoisie is a French word that was borrowed directly into English in the specific sense described above. In the French feudal order pre-revolution, "bourgeois" was a class of citizens who were wealthier members of the
Third Estate, but were overtaxed and had none of the privileges which the aristocracy held (however many bourgeois bought their way into nobility; see Venal Office).Fact|date=February 2008
Bourgeoisie were defined by conditions such as length of residence and source of income. The word evolved to mean
merchants and traders, and until the 19th century was mostly synonymous with the "middle class" (persons in the broad socioeconomic spectrum between nobilityand serfs or proletarians). Then, as the power and wealth of the nobility faded in the second half of the 19th century, the bourgeoisie emerged as the new ruling class.Fact|date=February 2008
The French word "bourgeois" evolved from the Old French word "burgeis", meaning "an inhabitant of a town" (cf.
Middle English"burgeis", Middle Dutch "burgher" and German "Bürger"). The Old French word "burgeis" is derived from "bourg", meaning a market townor medieval village, itself derived from Late Latin "burgus", meaning " fortress" [ American Heritage Dictionary etymology]
Rise of the bourgeoisie
In the late
Middle Ages, as cities were emerging, artisans and tradesmen began to emerge as both a physical and economic force. They formed guilds, associations and companies to conduct business and promote their own interests. These people were the original bourgeoisie. In the late Middle Ages (the 14th and 15th centuries), they were the highest guildsmen and artisans, as evidenced in their ability to pay the fines for breaking sumptuary laws, and by paying to be called citizens of the city in which they lived or the ability to be called bourgeoisie. In fact the King of France granted nobility to all of the bourgeoisie of Paris in the late fourteenth century. They eventually allied with the kings in uprooting the feudalist system.
After the Middle Ages and going into the renaissance they were gradually becoming the ruling class in industrialised
nation-states. In the 17th and 18th century, they generally supported the American revolutionand French revolutionin overthrowing the laws and privileges of the absolutist feudal order, clearing the way for the rapid expansion of commerce and the establishment of a capitalist society.
The bourgeoisie was never without its critics; it was first accused of narrow-mindedness,
materialism, hypocrisy, and lack of culture, among other things, by persons such as the playwright Truldière and the novelist Flaubert, who denounced its supposed banality and mercenary aspirations. The earliest recorded pejorative uses of the term "bourgeois" are associated with aristocratic contempt for the lifestyle of the bourgeoisie. Successful embourgeoisement typically meant being able to retire and live on invested income.
With the expansion of commerce, trade, and the market economy, the bourgeoisie grew in size, influence, and power, owning 39,000 of the 50,000
venal offices. In all industrialized countries, the aristocracy either faded away slowly or found itself overthrown by a bourgeois revolution. Thus, the bourgeoisie rose to the top of the social hierarchy.
The Marxist view
One of the most influential of the aforementioned criticisms came from
Karl Marx, who attacked bourgeois political theory and its view of civil society and culture for believing these concepts and institutions to be universally true; in Marx's view, these concepts were only the ideologyof the bourgeoisie as a new ruling class, which sought to reshape societyafter its own image.Fact|date=February 2008 Marxismdefines the bourgeoisie as the social classwhich obtains income from ownership or tradein capital assets, or from commercial activities such as the buying and selling of commodities, wares, and services. In medieval times, the bourgeois was typically a self-employed proprietor, small employer, entrepreneur, banker, or merchant. In industrial capitalism, on the other hand, the bourgeoisie becomes the ruling class - which means it also owns the bulk of the means of production(land, factories, offices, capital, resources) as well as the means of coercion (national armed forces, prison systems, court systems). Ownership of the means of production enables it to employ and exploit the work of a large mass of wage workers (the working class), also known as the industrial middle class, who have no other means of livelihood than to sell their labour to property owners; while control over the means of coercion allows intervention during challenges from below. [http://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1850/class-struggles-france/index.htm]
Marx distinguished between "functioning capitalists" actually managing enterprises, and others merely earning property rents or interest-income from financial assets or real estate ("rentiers"). [A Dictionary of Marxist ThoughtT. B. BottomorePage 272 states this distinction was made in Marx's work Capital III]
Marxism sees the
proletariat(wage labourers) and bourgeoisie as directly waging an ongoing class struggle, in that capitalists exploit workers and workers try to resist exploitation. This exploitation takes place as follows: the workers, who own no means of production of their own, must seek employment in order to make a living. They get hired by a capitalist and work for him, producing some sort of goods or services. These goods or services then become the property of the capitalist, who sells them and gets a certain amount of money in exchange. Part of this money is used to pay workers' wages, another part is used to pay production costs, and a third part is kept by the capitalist in the form of profit(or surplus valuein Marxist terms). Thus the capitalist can earn money by selling the surplus (profit) from the work of his employees without actually doing any work, or in excess of his own work. Marxists argue that new wealth is created through work; therefore, if someone gains wealth that he did not work for, then someone else works and does not receive the full wealth created by his work. In other words, that "someone else" is exploited. In this way, the capitalist might turn a large profit by exploiting workers.Fact|date=February 2008
rhetoricof some Communist parties, "bourgeois" is sometimes used as a pejorative, and those who are perceived to collaborate with the bourgeoisie are called its lackeys. Socialists, especially Marxists have multiple uses for the term: the original meaning, the social class of capitalists, and the pejorative. When something or someone is described as bourgeois it generally lacks authenticity, is superficial and/or is counterrevolutionary.Fact|date=February 2008
Marx himself primarily used the term "bourgeois", with or without sarcasm, as an objective description of a social class and of a lifestyle based on ownership of private capital, not as a pejorative. He commended the industriousness of the bourgeoisie, but criticised it for its moral hypocrisy. This attitude is shown most clearly in the
Communist Manifesto. He also used it to describe the ideology of this class; for example, he called its conception of freedom "bourgeois freedom" and opposed it to what he considered more substantive forms of freedom. He also wrote of bourgeois independence, individuality, property, family, etc.; in each case he referred to conceptions of these ideals which are compatible with condoning the existence of a class society.Fact|date=February 2008
In the view of some 20th century Marxist currents, the
nomenklaturaor lower state bureaucrats in " communist states" were or are a "state bourgeoisie" presiding over a system of state capitalism. To some schools of anarchists, "all" prominent members, functionaries and leaders of any kind of state are part of this state bourgeoisie. According to these interpretations, the bourgeoisie is composed of any individuals who have exclusive control over the means of production, regardless of whether this control comes in the form of private ownership or state power.Fact|date=February 2008
In urban pop culture, the word bourgeoisie is shortened to "bougie." The word is often used by working class African Americans who accuse more successful black people of selling out.Fact|date=July 2008 A music track by the
songwritingand recording artistduo Ashford & Simpsonspecifically mentions this, actually being titled "Bourgie Bourgie" [ [http://www.discogs.com/release/626929 Ashford & Simpson - Love Don't Make It Right / Bourgie Bourgie (Warner Bros. Records - K 17679 T)] ] .
Popular revolt in late medieval Europe
The Communist Manifesto
*Hal Draper, "Karl Marx's Theory of Revolution, Vol. 2: The Politics of Social Classes". New York: Monthly Review Press, 1979.
*Ralph Miliband, "Class and class power in contemporary capitalism", in: Stanislaw Kozyr-Kowalski and Jacek Tittenbrun, "On Social Differentiation. A Contribution to the Critique of Marxist Ideology, Part 2". Poznan: Adam Mickiewicz University Press, 1992, pp. 7-62.
*Ernest Mandel, "Social differentiation in capitalist and postcapitalist societies", in: Stanislaw Kozyr-Kowalski and Jacek Tittenbrun, "On Social Differentiation. A Contribution to the Critique of Marxist Ideology, Part 2." Poznan: Adam Mickiewicz University Press, 1992, pp. 63-91.
*Erik Olin Wright et al., "The Debate on Classes." London: Verso, 1989.
*Anthony Giddens, "The Class Structure of the Advanced societies", 1981.
* [http://www.gegenstandpunkt.com/english/state/toc.html The Democratic State] – A Critique of Bourgeois Sovereignty
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