Infobox Israel municipality
meaning=Well of the Oath or Seven Wells(see also)
population= 202,208 (city)
Beersheba ( _he. בְּאֵר שֶׁבַע, "Be'er Sheva", _ar. بئر السبع, "Audio-nohelp|ArBeersheva.ogg|Bi'r as-Sabi", _tr. Birüssebi) is the largest
cityin the Negevdesert of southern Israel. Often referred to as the "Capital of the Negev", it became the sixth largest city in Israel in 2008 when the population reached 202,208. Located in the Southern District of the country, the city is the district's administrative centre and is home to the Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, the Soroka Medical Center, and the Israel SinfoniettaBeersheba.
In the post-Biblical era, Beersheba only regained importance in the 19th century, when the Ottoman Turks built a regional police station there. This quickly expanded into a small town, and became a strategic point in
World War I. Then a predominantly Arab town known as "Bir Seb'a" ( _ar. بيئر شيبع), it was allocated to the Arab state in the 1947 Partition Plan. Soon after the Arab rejection of the United Nationsresolution, the surrounding Arab countries invaded Israel following its declaration of independence (May 1948) and Beersheba became an important strategic and logistical point for the Egyptian army. The city was conquered by the Israel Defense Forceson 21 October 1948in Operation Yoav, and has remained an Israeli city since. ["Guide to Israel", Zev Vilnay, Hamakor Press, Jerusalem, 1972, pp.309-314]
Beersheba has grown considerably since Israeli independence in 1948; a large portion of the population is made up of
Jews who immigrated from Arab countries after 1948, and has been significantly boosted since 1990 by newcomers from Ethiopiaand the former Soviet Union. The city is surrounded by a number of satellite towns including the predominantly Jewish Omer, Lehavimand Meitar, and the Bedouin towns of Rahat, Tel as-Sabiand Lakiya.
There are several etymologies for the origin of the name "Beersheba":
* The oath of Abraham and Abimelech ("well of the oath")
* The seven wells dug by Isaac ("seven wells"), though only three or four have been identified
* The oath of Isaac and Abimelech ("well of the oath")
* The seven ewes that sealed Abraham and Abimelech's oath ("well of the seven").
"Be'er" is the Hebrew word for "well"; "sheva" could mean "seven" or "oath" (from the Hebrew word "shvu'a").
Prehistory and biblical era
From the findings unearthed at
Tel Be'er Sheva, an archaeological site a few kilometers northeast of modern day Beersheba, it is believed that the region has been populated since the 4th millennium BC[Z. Herzog. Beer-sheba II: The Early Iron Age Settlements. Institute of Archaeology, Tel Aviv University and Ramot Publishing Co. Tel Aviv 1984] . The city was destroyed and rebuilt many times over the centuries.
Beersheba was the southernmost city of Israel in Biblical times, hence the expression "from Dan to Beersheba" to describe the whole kingdom. [http://www.jewishmag.com/61mag/beersheva/beersheva.htm Beer Sheva ] ] Beersheba is mentioned in the Book of Genesis in connection with Abraham the Patriarch and his pact with
Abimelech. Isaacbuilt an altar in Beersheba (Genesis 26:23-33). Jacobhad his dream about a stairway to heaven in the area of Beersheba. (Genesis 28:10-15 and 46:1-7). Beersheba was the territory of the tribe of Shimon and Judah (Joshua 15:28 and 19:2). The prophet Elijahtook refuge in Beersheba when Jezebelordered him killed (I Kings 19:3). The sons of the prophet Samuelwere judges in Beersheba (I Samuel 8:2). Saul, Israel's first king, built a fort for his campaign against the Amalekites(I Samuel 14:48 and 15:2-9). The prophet Amosmentions Beersheba in regard to idolatry (Amos 5:5 and 8:14).
Ottoman Turkish occupation
The last inhabitants of Tel Be'er-Sheva were the
Byzantines, who abandoned the city in the 7th century. The Turkish Ottomans, who had controlled Palestine since the 16th century, took no interest in Beersheba until the end of the 19th century. At the beginning of the 19th century, Beersheba was portrayed by European pilgrimsas a barren stretch of land with a well and a handful of Bedouinliving nearby.
Towards the end of the 19th century, the Ottomans built a
policestation in Beersheba in order to keep the Bedouin in check. They built roads and a number of small buildings from local materials which are still standing today. A town plan was created by a Swiss and a German architect, which called for a grid street pattern,cite book|title=Settlement of the Negev, 1900-1960|chapter=Basis of Beersheba City Planning|author=Gerdos, Yehuda|editor=Mordechai Na'or|publisher=Yad Yitzhak Ben-Zvi|location= Jerusalem, Israel|year=1985|pages=pp. 167-177 he icon] a pattern which can still be seen today in Beersheba's Old City. All houses built during that period were of one storey, and the two-storey police station towered above them. Most of the residents at the time were Arabs from Hebron and the Gaza area, although a slew of Bedouin abandoned their nomadic lives and built homes in Beersheba.cite encyclopedia|author=Vilnai, Ze'ev|title=Be'er Sheva|encyclopedia=Ariel Encyclopedia|volume=Volume 1|pages=pp. 473-515|publisher=Sifriyat HaSadeh|location=Tel Aviv, Israel|year=1969 he icon]
World War I, the Turks built a military railroad from the Hejaz line to Beersheba, inaugurating the station on October 30, 1915.cite book|title=The Railways of Palestine and Israel|author=Cotterell, Paul|publisher=Tourret Publishing|location=Abingdon, UK|isbn=0-905878-04-3|year=1986|chapter=Chapter 3|pages=pp. 14-31] The celebration was attended by the Turkish army commander Jamal Pasha, along with senior government officials. The train line was active until the British took over the region. Later, during Israel's War of Independence, the station was used as the headquarters of the Egyptian Army.
British Mandate era
Beersheba played an important role in the Sinai and Palestine Campaign in World War I. On
October 31 1917, 800 soldiers of the Australian4th and Light Horse Brigade, under Brigadier General William Grant, with only horses and bayonets, charged the Turkish trenches, overran them and captured the wells of Beersheba. This is often described as the Battle of Beersheba, and "the last successful cavalry charge in British military history". On the edge of Beersheba's Old City is a Commonwealth cemetery containing the graves of British and Australian soldiers. On the last row on the right, is the grave of Captain Seymour Van den Berg of the MiddlesexHussars, a British Jew who was killed five days before the capture of Beersheba.
Beersheba was a major administrative center during the period of the
British Mandate for Palestine.
In 1928, at the beginning of the tension between the Jews and the Arabs over
Palestineand wide-scale rioting which left 133 Jews dead and 339 wounded, many Jews abandoned Beersheba, although some returned occasionally. With the Arab attack on a Jewish bus in 1936 which escalated into the 1936–1939 Arab revolt in Palestine, the remaining Jews left Beersheba and did not return until after the battle with the invading Egyptian army in October, 1948.
After Israeli independence
1947 UN Partition Planincluded Beersheba in the territory allotted to the Arab state as the city's population of 4,000 was primarily Arab. [ [http://domino.un.org/maps/m0103_1b.gifPalestine Plan of Partition Map] United Nations, 1956] The Egyptian Armywas stationed in Beersheba in May 1948. Convinced that Beersheba was vital for the security of the Jewish state, Prime Minister David Ben-Guriongave the green light for Operation Yoav.
October 21, 1948, at 04:00 in the morning, the 82nd battalion advanced from Mishmar HaNegevjunction, convert|20|km|mi north of Beersheba. Part of the force attacked from the Turkish train station and part from Hatzerim. By 09:45, the Egyptian forces were surrounded, and Beersheba was in Israeli hands. On 20 November Leonard Bernsteinand the Israel Philharmonic Orchestraplayed for the soldiers. [ [http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/lbhtml/images/48a081_r.jpgIsrael Philharmonic Beersheba 1948] Library of Congress]
In the 1950s, Beersheba expanded northward. Soroka hospital opened its doors in 1960, and the Negev University, later renamed Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, was established in 1970. In the 1970s, a memorial commemorating the fallen soldiers designed by the sculptor
Danny Karavanwas erected northeast of the city (approximately convert|3|km|mi from the city entrance) on a hill overlooking the city. [ [http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/alabaster/A4499625 BBC - h2g2 - Be'er Sheva, Israel - A4499625 ] ] The Beersheba Theater opened in 1973, and Egyptian president Anwar Sadatvisited Beersheba in 1979.
For many years, Beersheba remained untouched by attacks from Palestinians. Relations between Jews and Arabs, and especially the large number of Bedouin who live in the region and do business in Beersheba, were good. This equilibrium was shattered on
August 31, 2004, when sixteen people were killed in two suicide bombings on buses in Beersheba for which Hamasclaimed responsibility. On August 28, 2005, another suicide bomber attacked the central bus station, seriously injuring two security guards and 45 bystanders. [ [http://www.nytimes.com/2005/08/29/international/middleeast/29mideast.html Palestinian Bomber Kills Only Himself Near Israeli Bus Station - New York Times ] ]
Beersheba is located on the northern edge of the
Negevdesert convert|115|km|mi south-east of Tel Avivand convert|120|km|mi south-west of Jerusalem. The city is located on the main route from the center and north of the country to Eilatin the far south. The Valley of Beer Sheva has been populated since thousands of years ago due to the presence of water which travels here from the HebronMountains in the winter and is stored underground in vast quantities.cite web |url=http://www.geocities.com/thetropics/harbor/7883/bs-climt.htm |title=The climate of Beer Sheva |accessdate=2008-02-24] The main river in Beersheba is "Nahal Beersheva", a wadiwhich floods in the winter. The Kovshim and Katef streams are other important wadis which pass through the city.
Beersheba has very hot summers, with temperature up to convert|42|°C|°F|sigfig=2. In the winter, the temperature at night can be as low as convert|0|°C|°F|sigfig=2. The average precipitation in the city is 260 mm a yearBetween summer to winter, Beersheba is prone to sandstorms that cover the whole city in dust. 200-250 tonnes/sqkm of dust are dumped in the area. Fogs and humidity at night are also unique to Beersheba and the Negev region, occurring for some 50% of nights a year and being caused by wet air coming from the sea being trapped under hot, dry air above. The relative humidity in the city reaches 86% through much of August.
Beersheba is divided into seventeen residential neighbourhoods in addition to the Old City and Ramot, an umbrella neighborhood of 4 sub-districts. Many of the neighbourhoods are named after letters of the
Hebrew alphabet, which also have numerical value, but descriptive place names have been given to some of the newer neighborhoods. The city also has three main industrial zones: Makhteshim, Emek Sara and Kiryat Yehudit - all in the southeast of the city. An additional light industrial zone is located between Kiryat Yehudit and the Old City. One of the projects under way in Beersheba is the development of a cultural-commercial center in the Old City. The Cultural, Art and Media Center for Young People was built in this part of the city, and the Negev Museum reopened as an art museum. A Science Park funded by the RASHI-SACTA Foundation, Beersheba Municipality and private donors is slated for completion in 2008. [http://duns100.dundb.co.il/2007/vp/600143622/index.asp © Dun's 100 2007 - Be'er-Sheva Municipality VP ] ]
According to Israel's Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS), Beersheba had a population of 185,400 by the end of 2006,cite web|url=http://www.cbs.gov.il/population/new_2009/table3.pdf|publisher=
Israel Central Bureau of Statistics|title=Table 3 - Population of Localities Numbering Above 1,000 Residents and Other Rural Population|date=2007-12-31|accessdate=2008-03-25] compared to 110,800 in a survey conducted 20 years earlier. This makes Beersheba the sixth largest city in Israel.In the 1990s, the population and size of Beersheba was substantially increased by a large influx of Russian and Ethiopian immigrants. In 2001, the ethnic make-up of the city was 98.9% Jewish and other non-Arab, with no significant Arabpopulation (see Population groups in Israel). According to CBS for 2001, there were 86,500 males and 91,400 females living in Beersheba. The population breakdown by age was 31.8% for 19 years old or younger, 17.4% for 20-29 year olds, 19.6% for 30-44 year olds, 15.8% for 45-59 year olds, 4.0% for 60-64 year olds, and 11.4% for 65 years of age or older. The population growth rate in 2001 was 2.9%. Many people live in Beersheba for short periods of time, e.g. while studying at the university or working at the nearby army bases.
In 1982, Israel evacuated by air a major portion of the Jewish community of Ethiopia. A large number of the community were settled in Beersheba. There are now approximately 10,000 Ethiopian Israelis living in Beersheba, with their own community center built in the 11th (Yud Aleph) Quarter of the city. To remind the members of the villages they left behind, the roof of the community center is a conic shape, much like their old homes.
According to CBS figures, Beersheba had 61,016 salaried workers and 3,010 self-employed citizens in 2000. Salaried workers earned an average monthly wage of 5,223 NIS. Men earned an average monthly wage of NIS 6,661 (a real change of 5.2%) compared to NIS 3,760 for females (a real change of 3.9%). Self-employed persons had an average income of NIS 6,533. A total of 4,719 persons received unemployment benefits, and 26,469 persons received income supplements.
The largest employers in Beersheba are the municipality,
Israel Defence Forces, Ben-Gurion University and the Soroka Medical Center. There are also a number of electronics and chemical plants including Teva Pharmaceutical Industriesin and around the city. A large high-tech park is also being built near the Beersheba North Railway Station. Three main industrial zones exist in the city proper, as well as a high-tech zone in adjacent Omer. A major Israel Aerospace Industriescomplex is located in the main industrial zone, north of Highway 60.The tallest buildings in the city are the two towers of the Rambam Squarecomplex. Rambam Square 2 is the tallest apartment building in Israel outside of the Gush DanTel Aviv Metropolitan Area. [ [http://www.emporis.com/en/wm/bu/?id=rambamsquare2-beersheva-israel Rambam Square 2, Beer Sheva] ]
The current mayor of Beersheba is
Yaakov Turner, and the deputy-mayors are David Bunfeld and Rubik Danilovitch. Sima Navon and Yitzhak Marciano are vice-mayors. Past mayors include David Tuviyahu, Zeev Zrizi, Eliyahu Navi, Moshe Zilberman, Yitzhak Ragerand David Bunfeld.
The Beersheba municipality was plagued for many years by an ineffectual leadership, political problems and poor financial planning. In the last few years, the situation has improved only slightly and has been hampered by a workforce suffering from apathy. Since 2005, attention has been focused on developing parks and infrastructure. A new youth centre opened in 2005, and a new cultural centre is slated to open in 2007. Parts of the Old City are being renovated, and after many years of financial struggle,the municipality has achieved a balanced budget. [ [http://duns100.dundb.co.il/companies/600143622/index.asp Beer-Sheva Municipality] Dun's 100, 2006]
The official emblem of the municipality of Beer Sheva depicts an eshel (tamarisk tree), the tree that Abraham planted [Genesis / Bereishit 21:33] , and the observation tower connected to the municipality building.
According to CBS, Beersheba has 81 schools and a student population of 33,623: 60 elementary schools with an enrollment of 17,211, and 39 high schools with an enrollment of 16,412. Of Beersheba's 12th graders, 52.7% earned a
Bagrutmatriculation certificate in 2001. The city also has several private schools and Yeshivot which cater to the religious sector. In terms of higher education, Beersheba is home to one of Israel's major universities, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, which is located on an urban campus in the city. Several local colleges also operate in the city, including the Kaye Academic College of Education, the Sami Shamoon Academic College of Engineeringand the Practical Engineering College of Beersheba. Also in the city is a Government college (מכללה למנהל), a technical college, and an art and performance college. Furthermore, the Israeli Air and Space college("Techni") is located in the city.
The two most popular sports in Beersheba are football and
freestyle wrestling. Hapoel Be'er Sheva is the city's most popular football club, and currently plays in Liga Leumit, the second tier of Israeli football. The club has twice won the Israeli championship (1975 and 1976), and picked up the State Cup once (1997). Two other clubs from the city, Maccabi Be'er Sheva (based in Neve Noy) and Beitar Avraham Be'er Sheva (based in the north of Dalet), have previously played at the second level, but today play in the lower reaches of the league system (Beitar having folded in 2003 and reformed as MS Be'er Sheva). Hapoel play at the Vasermil Stadium, a 14,000-capacity concrete bowl located in the Bet neighbourhood. The stadium was also used by Maccabi during their spell in Liga Leumit.
The city has the second biggest
wrestlingcenter (AMI wrestling school) in Israel. The center is run by Leonid Shulman and has approximately 2,000 students most of whom are from Russian immigrant families since the origins of the club are in the Nahal Beka integration camp. Maccabi Be'er Sheva has a freestyle wrestling team, whilst Hapoel Be'er Sheva has a Greek-Romi wrestling team.
Beersheba is also Israel's leading
chesscenter. The local chess club has won many cups and national championships. It has represented Israel in the European Cup and hosted the World teams championship in 2005. The chess club was founded in 1973 by Eliyahu Levant, who is still the driving spirit behind this club. Beersheba has a higher percentage of grandmasters than any other city worldwide with 8, many of whom are immigrants from the former Soviet Union; the city of 185,500 has one grandmaster per 23,188 residents.
Cricket (introduced by the British in the 1960s) is played in the city under the auspices of
Israeli Cricket Association, whilst the city is also home to [http://www.rugbycity.net/ The Camels-ASA Beersheba] rugby team whose senior and youth squads have won several national titles (including the recent Senior National League 2004-2005 championship). Wrestling, tennisand gliding are also popular sports. Beersheba's tennis center, which opened in 1991, features eight lighted courts, and the Be'er Sheva (Teyman) airfield is used for gliding.
Beersheba is the central transportational hub of southern Israel, served by roads, railways and air. Its central bus/train station area is one of the most crowded terminals in the country.Fact|date=March 2008Beersheba is connected to
Tel Avivvia Highway 40, the second longest highway in Israel, which passes to the east of the city and is called the Beersheba bypass because it allows travellers from the north to go to southern locations, avoiding the more congested city center. From west to east, the city is divided by Highway 25, connected it with Ashkelonand the Gaza Stripto the northwest, and Dimonato the east. Finally, Highway 60 connects Beersheba with Jerusalemand the Shoket Junction, and goes through the West Bank. On the local level, a partial ring road surrounds the city from the north and east, and Road 406 (Reger Blvd.) goes through the city center from north to south. Metrodan Beersheba, established in 2003, has a fleet of 90 buses and operates 19 lines in the city, most of which depart from the Beersheba Central Bus Station. [cite web|url=http://eng.negev-net.org.il/HTMLs/article.aspx?C2004=12553&BSP=12316|title=Transportation in the Negev|publisher=Negev Information Center|accessdate=2008-03-25] These lines were formerly operated by the Egged Bus Cooperative. Inter-city buses to and from Beersheba are operated by Egged, Egged Ta'avuraand the Metropolinecompany. Israel Railwaysoperates two stations in Beersheba: Be'er Sheva North and Be'er Sheva Central railway station, on the old Railway to Beersheba. Between the two stations, the railway splits into two, and also continues to Dimona and the Dead Sea factories. An extension is planned to Eilatcite news|url=http://www.ynet.co.il/articles/0,7340,L-3520156,00.html|publisher= Ynet|language=Hebrew|date=2008-03-17|accessdate=2008-03-25|author=Hazelkorn, Shahar|title=Mofaz Decided: A Railway to Eilat Will Be Built] and Arad. The railway line to Beersheba uses the slow single-track configuration, and is being converted to dual-track, a project expected to end in Q4 2009 and significantly decrease travel time from Tel Aviv and Haifa to Beersheba, at a cost of NIS 1,885 million.cite web|url=http://www.mof.gov.il/budget2007/docs2008/tahbura.pdf|title=Details of the Israel Railways Development Project|publisher=Israel Ministry of Transportation|accessdate=2008-03-25|pages=52]
Ilan Ramon, Israel's first astronaut; lost in "Columbia" accident
Tzvika Hadar, comedian and show host
Yehudit Ravitz, singer
Zehava Ben, singer
Avishay Braverman, professor and politician
Adana( Turkey) [http://my-negev.co.il/show7.php?idp=128&id_new=847&PHPSESSID=6dcb8c44ea5fe886b8d48dca6f42c8d4 My Negev - äáéú ùì äðâá áøùú ] ]
*flagicon|Georgia Oni (Georgia)
La Plata( Argentina)
Seattle( United States) [cite web |url=http://www.ltgov.wa.gov/International/Washington%20Organizations/Sisters/default.htm |title=Sister Cities, States, Counties & Ports |publisher= Office of Lieutenant Governorof the state of Washington |accessdate=2008-06-23 ]
*flagicon|Australia Parramatta (
Wuppertal( Germany) [ [http://www.glosk.com/BE/Antwerp/-2725089/pages/List_of_twin_towns_and_sister_cities_in_Germany/4774_en.htm Antwerp, Provincie Antwerpen, Belgium - Pages: List of twin towns and sister cities in Germany - glosk ] ]
Cebu City( Philippines) fact|date=June 2008
*flagicon|CAN Montreal (
Canada) fact|date=June 2008
Battle of Beersheba(First World War)
Beer Sheva Park, Seattle
* [http://www.flickr.com/groups/beer-sheva/ selection of photos from Beer-Sheva] from
* [http://web.bgu.ac.il/Eng/Home/ Ben-Gurion University]
* [http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/alabaster/A4499625 The city of Beersheba: a tourist's guide]
* [http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/02518a.htm Beer-Sheva] - Historical article from the
* [http://www1.cbs.gov.il/reader/?MIval=cw_usr_view_Folder&ID=141 Central Bureau of Statistics]
* [http://www.theaustralian.news.com.au/story/0,25197,22682910-2702,00.html Light Horse charges again] Article written by Martin Chulov, published in The Australian, November 1, 2007, the descendants of the Australian light-horsemen rode into the centre of Beersheva, re-enacting the gallant gallop of October 31, 1917
* [http://www.aliciapatterson.org/APF001971/Downie/Downie04/Downie04.html Israel Builds] Expansion and architecture of Beersheva in the 1960s and 1970s
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