Tron (film)

Tron (film)

Infobox Film
name = Tron

caption = "Tron" movie poster
imdb_rating =
director = Steven Lisberger
producer = Donald Kushner
writer = Story: Steven Lisberger Bonnie MacBird Screenplay: Steven Lisberger
starring = Jeff Bridges Bruce Boxleitner David Warner
Cindy Morgan Barnard Hughes
music = Wendy Carlos (score)
Journey (songs)
cinematography = Bruce Logan
editing = Jeff Gourson
distributor = Buena Vista Pictures
released = July 9, 1982 (USA)
runtime = 96 min.
country = USA
language = English
budget = $20,000,000 (estimated)
gross = $33,000,000 (USA)
followed_by = Tr2n
amg_id = 1:51066
imdb_id = 0084827

"Tron" is a 1982 Disney science fiction film starring Jeff Bridges as Kevin Flynn (and his counterpart inside the electronic world, Clu), Bruce Boxleitner as Alan Bradley (and Tron), Cindy Morgan as Dr. Lora Baines (and Yori) and Dan Shor as Ram. David Warner plays the villain, Ed Dillinger (and Sark), as well as providing the voice of the Master Control Program. It was written and directed by Steven Lisberger. "Tron" has a distinctive visual style, as it was one of the first films from a major studio to use computer graphics extensively.


Kevin Flynn is a young and gifted programmer who once worked for the software mega-corporation, ENCOM. Flynn created several video games on the ENCOM mainframe while working after hours with the aim of eventually creating his own games company. Before he was ready to present his projects to senior management, his work was stolen by another programmer, Ed Dillinger. Dillinger locked Flynn out of the system and went on to present the games as his own work, thus earning himself a series of promotions.

Three years later, Dillinger is now a senior executive of ENCOM, and the company is run mainly by the Master Control Program (MCP), a self-evolving artificial intelligence originally written by Dillinger. Flynn, meanwhile, has been reduced to running his own video game arcade, featuring several new games he created. As a result, he regularly attempts to break into the ENCOM mainframe and find the evidence he needs to prove Dillinger's wrongdoing. The MCP catches one of Flynn's computer programs, Clu, poking around in sensitive memory and "de-rezzes" (erases) the program. The MCP then summons Dillinger to discuss the matter, and Dillinger authorizes it to shut down access to all personnel in Flynn's former security group (Group-7). This inadvertently locks out a current ENCOM employee, Alan Bradley.

Alan goes to speak with Dillinger, revealing in the process that he is working on a security program named Tron, which would be used to monitor communications between ENCOM and outside systems, and which would serve as a watchdog for the MCP rather than being part of it. Dillinger dismisses Alan quickly and is confronted by the MCP about Alan's project. The MCP informs Dillinger that it plans to take over the Pentagon's computer systems, having calculated that it can run things "900 to 1200 times better than any human." When Dillinger attempts to reassert his control over the MCP, it essentially blackmails him into keeping quiet and complying with its wishes.

Meanwhile, Alan goes to speak with his girlfriend, Dr. Lora Baines, an ENCOM laser lab technician and Flynn's ex-girlfriend. In the lab, Lora and her coworker Dr. Walter Gibbs (who started ENCOM in his garage) have just successfully digitized an orange using a powerful laser (causing it to disappear and reappear intact). Alan and Lora decide to set off to Flynn's arcade/apartment to warn him that Dillinger knows about his hacking. After being convinced that Flynn was cheated, Alan and Lora sneak him into the laser lab, where he works on forging an access code for a different security group. This would allow him to find the information he is looking for, and would also allow Alan to finish his work and get Tron online.

Flynn settles down at Lora's lab terminal, where her laser points directly at the terminal, while Alan heads back to his terminal. As Flynn tries to gain access to the system, the MCP confronts him. While he "chats" with the MCP, it takes control of the laser and suddenly digitizes Flynn into the world inside the computer, where programs are physical characters that resemble their creators.

Flynn materializes in the digital world and is taken to a holding pit. There, a financial program, Ram, tells Flynn that he is a "guest" of the Master Control Program, and that he is going to be made to play games. Flynn, who is convinced that he is dreaming, seems excited about this at first, saying "I play video games better than anybody."

Flynn and a number of other Programs are soon taken to meet Sark (Dillinger's counterpart in the digital world). Sark tells each of the Programs that either they can join the MCP willingly, or they will be forced to compete in gladiator-style games that will result in their eventual elimination. Each Program receives an identity disc that stores their actions and experiences, and also doubles as a powerful weapon. On their way back to the holding pen, Flynn sees Tron fighting a number of other Programs, and Ram tells him that Tron fights for the Users.

Before he can return to the holding pit, Flynn is taken to his first game. The game is essentially a vertical version of jai alai, except that the players stand on platforms made up of concentric rings that disappear when the ball hits them, forcing them to jump over the gaps. Flynn is forced to face Crom, "one of his own kind" according to Sark. After several volleys, Crom falls off his platform and struggles to climb back up. When Flynn refuses to finish off his opponent, Sark terminates the game and sends Crom plummeting to his death. Sark considers deleting the rings around Flynn, but as he reaches for the termination button, the MCP repeats its admonition: "I want him in the games until he dies playing." Reluctantly, Sark restores the rings and returns Flynn to the holding area.

Upon Flynn's return to the holding area, Ram and Tron are waiting for him. Flynn immediately mistakes Tron for Alan, and Tron reveals that Alan is his User. Feigning disorientation, Flynn says that he is starting to remember "all kinds of stuff", including that his "User" wants him to take out the MCP. Tron states that that is his goal as well, but before they can talk much more, the three are taken to the Light Cycle arena. In here, the three must attempt to guide their opponents into their light trails. They team up and manage to force one of their enemies into the side of the arena, opening a large crack in the wall through which they escape. Sark quickly launches his security forces (which consist of Tank and Recognizer programs originally written by Flynn himself) to seek them out.

The three locate an I/O tower that Tron needs to access in order to communicate with Alan, but on the way, Flynn's and Ram's Light Cycles are destroyed by a Tank and Tron is separated from the group. Flynn, uninjured, takes the severely injured Ram to a pile of junk, which turns out to be a damaged Recognizer. He "accidentally" activates it, and uses the opportunity to head for the I/O tower. However, on the way, Ram begins to die. Ram asks Flynn if he is a User, which Flynn confirms, and then he asks Flynn to help Tron just before he dies and de-resolves.

Meanwhile, Tron breaks into a simulation chamber where a Solar Sailer is being constructed. There, he finds Yori, a program written by Dr. Lora Baines. After Tron breaks Yori out of her reporting routine, the two programs make their way to the I/O tower and confront Dumont (Dr. Walter Gibbs's computer counterpart), the keeper of the tower. He grants Tron access to the port, and Tron receives the critical instructions he needs from Alan in order to destroy the Master Control Program. They then make their way back to the Solar Sailer, narrowly escaping Sark's forces, and set off for the MCP. Along the way, Flynn rejoins them, having accidentally disguised himself as one of Sark's troops. He explains to Tron and Yori at this point that he is actually a User.

Sark eventually captures Flynn and Yori, ramming the Solar Sailer with his ship and apparently destroying Tron. Sark then disembarks and begins de-rezzing the ship. Although Yori and the ship begin to fade away around him, Flynn manages to keep her alive and the ship intact. Tron has escaped on Sark's shuttle, which lands nearby the MCP's core. Here, a number of captured programs, including Dumont, are locked against a wall to face the MCP, which appears as a giant red face on a huge spinning cylinder. The MCP senses Tron's presence and sends Sark out to battle him, and then the MCP begins to tell the Programs of their impending fate: "You will each be part of me, and together, we will be complete."

Sark and Tron battle on the mesa, until Tron gains the upper hand, severely damaging Sark and destroying his disc. The MCP then transfers his functions to Sark, causing him to grow many times Tron's size. Tron begins to attack the MCP directly, attempting to break through the shield protecting its core. As the battle continues, Yori guides the remains of Sark's ship toward the core, where Flynn jumps inside. This distracts the MCP long enough for Tron to throw his disc through a gap in the shield, destroying the MCP and Sark with him. The MCP itself is revealed to be an old and tired program using an outdated typewriter-like keyboard (with appropriate sounds), just before it moves back into the darkened husk; it is unclear whether the MCP de-rezzes or simply retreats.

The digital world comes alive after the MCP's defeat. I/O towers light up all over the landscape, and the Programs rejoice in the fact that their world has again become a free system. They ponder Flynn's fate, but Flynn is sent back to the real world, the laser re-materializing him at the terminal. A nearby printer then begins printing the evidence that Flynn's programs were "annexed" by Dillinger.

Dillinger arrives at the office the next morning to discover a message on his computer's screen showing the evidence of his wrongdoing and that he has been defeated. The movie closes with a brief scene where Alan and Lora greet Flynn at the helicopter pad on top of the ENCOM building. Flynn is now the "boss".


Note: Many of the actors played people in the real world and the programs they have written which appear in physical form in the digital world; for example, Bruce Boxleitner plays programmer Alan Bradley and his program Tron.

*Jeff Bridges as Kevin Flynn/Clu
*Bruce Boxleitner as Alan Bradley/Tron
*David Warner as Ed Dillinger/Sark/Master Control Program (voice)
*Cindy Morgan as Dr. Lora Baines/Yori
*Barnard Hughes as Dr. Walter Gibbs/Dumont
*Dan Shor as Ram
*Peter Jurasik as Crom



The inspiration for "Tron" occurred when Steve Lisberger saw video games for the first time.cite news | last = Patterson | first = Richard | coauthors = | title = The Making of "Tron" | work = American Cinematographer | pages = | language = | publisher = | date = August 1982 | url = | accessdate = ] He was immediately fascinated by them and wanted to do a film incorporating them. According to Lisberger, "I realized that there were these techniques that would be very suitable for bringing video games and computer visuals to the screen. And that was the moment that the whole concept flashed across my mind." He was frustrated by the clique-ish nature of computers and video games and wanted to create a film that would open this world up to everyone. Lisberger and his business partner Donald Kushner moved to the West Coast in 1977 and set up an animation studio to develop Tron. While a popular rumor states that the title of the film was meant to reference the programming command "TRace ON", Lisberger has insisted in interviews that he did not become aware of this command until after the movie was produced, and that the movie's title was based on the word "Electronic"(elec TRON ic).Fact|date=May 2007

Originally, the film was conceived to be predominantly an animated film with live-action sequences acting as book ends. The rest would involve a combination of computer generated visuals and back-lit animation. Lisberger planned to finance the movie independently by approaching several computer companies but had little success. However, one company, Information International, Inc., was receptive. He met with Richard Taylor, a representative, and they began talking about using live-action photography with back-lit animation in such a way that it could be integrated with computer graphics. At this point, Lisberger already had a script written and the film entirely storyboarded with some computer animation tests completed. He had spent approximately $300,000 developing "Tron" and had also secured $4-5 million in private backing before reaching a standstill. Lisberger and Kushner decided to take the idea to Disney, which was interested in producing more daring productions at the time. However, Disney executives were uncertain about giving $10-12 million to a first-time producer and director using techniques that, in most cases, had never been attempted.

The studio agreed to finance a test reel which involved a flying disc champion throwing a rough prototype of the discs used in the film. It was a chance to mix live-action footage with back-lit animation and computer generated visuals. It impressed the executives at Disney and they agreed to back the film. The script was subsequently re-written and re-storyboarded with the studio's input.


Three designers were brought in to create the look of the computer world. Renowned French comic book artist Jean Giraud (aka Moebius) was the main set and costume designer for the movie. Most of the vehicle designs (including Sark's aircraft carrier, the light cycles, the tank and the solar sailer) were created by industrial designer Syd Mead, of "Blade Runner" fame. Peter Lloyd, a high-tech commercial artist, designed the environments. However, these jobs often overlapped with Giraud working on the solar sailer and Mead designing terrain, sets and the film's logo. The original Program character design was inspired by the main Lisberger Studios logo, a glowing body builder hurling two discs.

To create the computer animation sequences of "Tron", Disney turned to the four leading computer graphics firms of the day: Information International Inc. of Culver City, California, who owned the Super Foonly F-1 (the fastest PDP-10 ever made and the only one of its kind); MAGI of Elmsford, New York; Robert Abel and Associates of California; and Digital Effects of New York City. Bill Kovacs worked on this movie while working for Robert Abel before going on to found Wavefront Technologies. "Tron" was one of the first movies to make extensive use of any form of computer animation, and is celebrated as a milestone in the computer animation industry.

However, the film contains less computer-generated imagery than is generally supposed: Only fifteen to twenty minutes of actual animation were used.Interview with Harrison Ellenshaw, supplemental material on "Tron" DVD] Because the technology to combine computer animation and live action did not exist at the time, these sequences were intercut with the filmed characters.

Most of the scenes, backgrounds and visual effects in the film were created using more traditional techniques and a unique process known as "backlit animation". In this process, live-action scenes inside the computer world were filmed in black-and-white on an entirely black set, printed on large-format high-contrast film, then colorized with photographic and rotoscopic techniques to give them a "technological" feel. With multiple layers of high-contrast, large-format positives and negatives, this process required truckloads of sheet film and a workload even greater than that of a conventional cel-animated feature. In addition, the varying quality and age of the film layers caused differing brightness levels for the backlit effects from frame to frame, explaining why glowing outlines and circuit traces tended to flicker in the original film. Due to its difficulty and cost, this process would never be repeated for another feature film.

This film features parts of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory — the multi-story ENCOM laser bay was the target area for the SHIVA solid state multi-beamed laser. Also, the stairway that Alan, Lora, and Flynn use to get to Alan's office is the stairway in Building 451 near the entrance to the main machine room. The cubicle scenes were shot in another room of the lab. "Tron" is the only movie to have scenes filmed inside this lab.

The original script called for "good" programs to be colored yellow and "evil" programs (those loyal to Sark and the MCP) to be colored blue. Partway into production, this coloring scheme was changed to blue for good and red for evil, but some scenes were produced using the original coloring scheme: Clu, who drives a tank, has yellow circuit lines, and all of Sark's tank commanders are blue (but appear green in some presentations). Also, the light-cycle sequence shows the heroes driving yellow, orange and red cycles, while Sark's troops drive blue cycles.

Budgeting the production was difficult because they were constantly breaking new ground as they progressed with additional challenges like an impending Directors Guild of America strike and a fixed release date.


The background music for "Tron" was written by pioneer electronic musician Wendy Carlos, who is best-known for her album "Switched-On Bach" and for the soundtracks to many films, including "A Clockwork Orange" and "The Shining". The music featured a mix of an analog Moog synthesizer and GDS digital synthesizer (complex additive and phase modulation synthesis), along with non-electronic pieces performed by the London Philharmonic Orchestra (hired at the insistence of Disney, which was concerned that Carlos might not be able to complete her score on time). Two additional musical tracks were provided by the band Journey. They were originally going to be recorded by British band Supertramp. The soundtrack album was released on record and tape by CBS Records. It has been recently re-released by Walt Disney Records.


"Tron" was released on July 9, 1982 in 1,091 theaters grossing USD $4.8 million on its opening weekend. It went on to make $33 million in North America, moderately successful considering its $17 million budget.cite news | last = | first = | coauthors = | title = "Tron" | work = Box Office Mojo | pages = | language = | publisher = | date = | url = | accessdate = 2008-07-09 ]

Critical reviews were mixed with a 67% positive reviews from Rotten Tomatoes. Roger Ebert of the "Chicago Sun-Times" gave the film four out of four stars and described the film as "a dazzling movie from Walt Disney in which computers have been used to make themselves romantic and glamorous. Here's a technological sound-and-light show that is sensational and brainy, stylish, and fun".cite news | last = Ebert | first = Roger | coauthors = | title = "Tron" | work = Chicago Sun-Times | pages = | language = | publisher = | date = January 1, 1982 | url = | accessdate = 2008-07-09 ] However, near the end of his review he noted (in a positive tone) that, "This is an almost wholly technological movie. Although it's populated by actors who are engaging (Bridges, Cindy Morgan) or sinister (Warner), it is not really a movie about human nature. Like [the last two "Star Wars" films] , but much more so, this movie is a machine to dazzle and delight us".

On the other hand, "Variety" disliked the film and said in its review, "Tron" is loaded with visual delights but falls way short of the mark in story and viewer involvement. Screenwriter-director Steven Lisberger has adequately marshaled a huge force of technicians to deliver the dazzle, but even kids (and specifically computer game geeks) will have a difficult time getting hooked on the situations".cite news | last = | first = | coauthors = | title = "Tron" | work = Variety | pages = | language = | publisher = | date = January 1, 1982 | url = | accessdate = 2008-07-09 ] In her review for the "New York Times", Janet Maslin criticized the film's visual effects: "They're loud, bright and empty, and they're all this movie has to offer".cite news | last = Maslin | first = Janet | coauthors = | title = "Tron" | work = New York Times | pages = | language = | publisher = | date = July 9, 1982 | url = | accessdate = 2008-07-09 ]

"In the year it was released", says director Lisberger, "the Motion Picture Academy refused to nominate "Tron" for special effects because they said we 'cheated' when we used computers which, in the light of what happened, is just mind-boggling".

Following the film's moderate success in theatres, it grew to become a cult favorite due mainly to its innovative use of computer graphics and its computer and video-game plot line. In 1987, the French radio station TopFM voted "Tron" the best film with computer graphics in its annual film competition. It retained that title for ten years until "Titanic" was released in 1997.

In 1997, Ken Perlin of the Mathematical Applications Group, Inc. won an Academy Award for Technical Achievement for his invention of Perlin noise for "Tron" [Kerman, Phillip. "Macromedia Flash 8 @work: Projects and Techniques to Get the Job Done." Sams Publishing. 2006.] .

Comic book

In 2003, 88 MPH solicited a mini-series titled "Tron 2.0: Derezzed". This comic was canceled before any issues were released.

In 2005, Slave Labor Graphics announced its six-issue limited series comic, "". The first issue was released in April 2006, the second issue in November of the same year. The comic book is set 6 months after the events of "Tron 2.0", when Jet Bradley, now emotionally scarred and distrustful of technology, returns to the computer world against his will. The comic book is written by Landry Walker and Eric Jones, with art in the first two issues by Louie De Martinis. The artist on the third issue is Mike Shoykhet.

The comic from Slave Labor Graphics opens with a detailed history of the "Tron" universe, providing this previously unseen background on the events that allowed Ed Dillinger and the MCP to rise to power:

In the early 1970s a small engineering company called ENCOM introduced a revolutionary type of software designed to direct and streamline the transfer of data between networked machines. Ed Dillinger, the lead programmer on this project, realized the enormous potential of his team's creation and secretly encoded a secondary function to be activated upon installation: to copy the sub-routines of other programs and absorb their functions. This alteration allowed Dillinger to appropriate research and claim it as his own, and he rose quickly through ENCOM’s corporate ranks. This was the beginning of the Master Control Program.

Video games

Since games play a central role in the film, many video games based on "Tron" have been produced over the years. Atari, Inc. had plans to develop a real "Space Paranoids" game, but this was cancelled due to the video game crash of 1983, along with arcade adaptations of "Superman III" and "The Last Starfighter". In 1982, Midway Games released the "Tron" arcade game, which consisted of four mini-games based on sequences in the movie. This game earned more than the film's initial release. In 1983, Midway released "Discs of Tron", a sequel that focused on disc combat. Mattel Electronics released three separate "Tron" games (unrelated to the arcade game) for the Intellivision game console in 1982: "Tron Deadly Discs", "Tron Maze-A-Tron", and "Tron Solar Sailer". "Deadly Discs" was later ported to the Atari 2600 (along with an original "Tron" game for that platform, "Adventures of Tron"), and a version also appeared for the short-lived Aquarius home computer. A special joystick resembling the "Tron" arcade game joystick was also created as a free giveaway in a special pack that included both Atari 2600 "Tron" video games.

Tron 2.0

"Tron 2.0," a PC game sequel released for Windows and Macintosh, was released on August 26, 2003. In this first person shooter game, the player takes the part of Alan Bradley's son Jet, who is pulled into the computer world to fight a computer virus. A separate version of this game, called "Tron 2.0 Killer App", is available for the Xbox, and features new multiplayer modes. In the Game Boy Advance version of "Tron 2.0 Killer App", Tron and a Light Cycle program named Mercury (first seen in "Tron 2.0" for the PC) fight their way through the ENCOM computer to stop a virus called The Corruptor. The game includes light cycle, battle tank, and recognizer battle modes, several security-related minigames, and the arcade games "Tron" and "Discs of Tron". While the game is only minimally connected to the PC game, one of the 100 unlockable chips shows a picture of Jet Bradley.

Kingdom Hearts II

"Kingdom Hearts II" (PS2), by Disney/Square Enix, features a world named "Space Paranoids" (after one of Flynn's games in the film) that is set in the world of "Tron". This world is the most important Disney-based world in the game in terms of plot. Tetsuya Nomura, director of the "Kingdom Hearts" series, stated in an interview that "Tron" was the first Disney movie to be suggested for use in the game. He got his inspiration after seeing a game designer working on "Tron 2.0 Killer App" on a computer during a visit to Disney in the United States. [cite web |url = |title = Nomura Dengeki Interview #3 |publisher = Kingdom Hearts Ultimania |accessdate = 2007-07-18] Bruce Boxleitner reprises his role as Tron in the English version, while Sark and the MCP are voiced by Corey Burton.


On July 29, 1999, ZDnet news reported a rumor from an unnamed source that a "Tron" film remake or sequel was being considered by Pixar.cite news | last = Barry | first = Richard | coauthors = | title = Pixar Studios to remake Disney's "Tron"? | work = ZDNet | pages = | language = | publisher = | date = July 24, 1999 | url = | accessdate = 2008-10-10 ] In 2002, Steven Lisberger discussed the planning of the sequel.cite news | last = Helfand | first = Greg | coauthors = | title = Director discusses groundbreaking computer animated film | work = San Francisco Chronicle | pages = | language = | publisher = | date = January 9, 2002 | url = | accessdate = 2008-07-09 ]

On January 12, 2005, it was announced that Disney hired screenwriters Brian Klugman and Lee Sternthal to write a sequel to "Tron".cite news | last = Fleming | first = Michael | coauthors = | title = Mouse uploads "Tron" redo | work = Variety | pages = | language = | publisher = | date = January 12, 2005 | url = | accessdate = 2008-07-09 ] As of 2007, director Joseph Kosinski was in final negotiations to develop and direct "Tron", described as "the next chapter" of the 1982 film, with Lisberger co-producing.cite news | last = Kit | first = Borys | coauthors = | title = New "Tron" races on | work = Hollywood Reporter | pages = | language = | publisher = | date = September 11, 2007 | url = | accessdate = 2008-07-09 ]


On July 24, 2008 Disney surprised San Diego Comic Con attendees with test footage from a sequel to "Tron". The footage began with an update of the lightcycle duel from the original film, pitting a blue program against a yellow one with the two racing (where the rider is now exposed) through a futuristic landscape. The duel is being observed from a high, cliff-side structure by a human figure – an older, bearded Kevin Flynn played again by Jeff Bridges. One of the duel's participants is shown to have the face of the younger Jeff Bridges. The footage ended with a '2' appearing in the traditional "Tron" font and the title, "TR2N", emerging around it, then fading away to leave the number. [cite news | last = Vejvoda | first = Jim | coauthors = | title = SDCC 08: Tron 2 Revealed | publisher = IGN | date = July 24, 2008 | url = | accessdate = 2008-07-24 ] As of August 9, 2008, the Internet Movie Database entry for the film is titled " [ TR2N] " with a projected release date of 2011.

When asked on Q&A forum on his official website, Boxleitner offered the following: "I have not yet been approached to do the new Tron. I'm open to it if they want me." [cite news | last = Boxleitner | first = Bruce | coauthors = | title = The Official Website for Bruce and Melissa | publisher = | date = | url = | accessdate = 2008-10-01 ]


Joseph Kosinski directed the promo and is currently slated to direct the film. Kosinski previously directed commercials for "Gears of War", "Halo 3", Apple, Inc. and others, and was noted for his skill at blending photoreal CGI with real actors and scenery. "Lost" writers Edward Kitsis and Adam Horowitz are slated to write the film. [cite news | last = Kit | first = Borys | coauthors = | title = Kosinski will program Disney's 'Tron' sequel | publisher = Hollywood Reporter | date = September 11, 2007 | url = | accessdate = 2008-07-26 ]

The production is currently looking at Vancouver, BC for filming.Fact|date=September 2008

ee also

* Simulated reality
* Jay Maynard (Tron Guy)
* Tron 2.0


External links

* [ "Tron"] at The Movie Information Network
* [ "TRON-Sector"] A large TRON fan website.
* [ Article about the CGI in "Tron"]
* [ Special Effects article] in the "New York Times"

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