- Journey (band)
Infobox musical artist
Name = Journey
Img_capt = Journey live in
Minneapolis, Minnesotaon September 16, 2008. Photo by Matt Becker
Img_size = 250
Landscape = yes
Background = group_or_band
Origin = San Francisco,
Genre = Rock,
hard rock, progressive rock
Years_active = 1973 – 1987, 1995 – present
Label = Columbia, Sony BMG, Sanctuary
Associated_acts = Santana,
The Babys, Steve Perry, Bad English, The Storm, Vital Information, The Zoo
URL = [http://www.journeymusic.com/ JourneyMusic.com]
Neal Schon Ross Valory Jonathan Cain Deen Castronovo Arnel Pineda| Past_members = See: Journey former members section
Journey is an American rock band formed in San Francisco,
Californiain 1973. The band has gone through several phases since its inception by former members of Santana. The band's greatest commercial success came in the late 1970s through the early 1980s with a series of power ballads and songs such as " Don't Stop Believin'", " Any Way You Want It", "Faithfully", "Open Arms", " Separate Ways", and " Wheel in the Sky".
Journey has been eligible for induction into the
Rock & Roll Hall of Famesince 2000, but Gregg Rolie is currently the only member of Journey who has been inducted—as a member of parent band Santana. In 2009, Steve Perry, the band's best-known lead vocalist, will be eligible for induction as a solo artist.
The original members of Journey came together in San Francisco in
1973under the auspices of former Santana manager Herbie Herbert. Originally called the Golden Gate Rhythm Section and intended to serve as a backup group for established Bay Area artists, the band included recent Santana alumni Neal Schon on lead guitar and Gregg Rolie on keyboards and lead vocals. Drummer Prairie Prince of The Tubes, bassist Ross Valory and rhythm guitarist George Tickner, both of Frumious Bandersnatch, rounded out the group. The band quickly abandoned the original "backup group" concept and developed a distinctive jazz-fusion style. After an unsuccessful radio contest to name the group, roadie John Villaneuva ["Journey: Frontiers and Beyond" video, NFL Films, 1983.] suggested the name "Journey." [ [http://www.journey-tribute.com/journey/resources/faq/faq-s2.html Journey FAQ at Steve Lake's Journey Tribute Page] ] The band's first public appearance came at the Winterland Ballroomon New Year’s Eve, 1973. Prairie Prince rejoined The Tubes shortly thereafter, and the band hired British drummer Aynsley Dunbar, who had recently worked with John Lennonand Frank Zappa. On February 5, 1974, the new line-up made their debut at the Great American Music Halland secured a recording contractwith Columbia Records.
Journey released their
eponymous first album in 1975, and rhythm guitarist Tickner left the band before they cut their second album, "Look into the Future" ( 1976). Neither album achieved significant sales, Journey discography] so Schon, Valory, and Dunbar took singing lessons in an attempt to add vocal harmonies to Rolie's lead. The following year's "Next" contained shorter tracks with more vocals and featured Schon as lead singer on several of the songs.
New musical direction, 1977–1980
Journey's album sales did not improve and Columbia Records requested that they change their musical style and add a frontman, with whom keyboardist Gregg Rolie could share lead vocal duties. The band hired Robert Fleischman and transitioned to a more popular style, akin to that of Foreigner and Boston. Journey went on tour with Fleischman in 1977 and together the new incarnation of the band wrote the hit "Wheel in the Sky." But fans were lukewarm to the change, and personality differences resulted in Fleischman being fired within the year. [ [http://www.journey-zone.com/Features/Interviews/26_01-03/RF.htm Robert Fleischman interview at The Journey Zone] ]
In the fall of 1977, Journey hired Steve Perry as their new lead singer. Perry added a clean, tenor sound and the band became a true pop act. Their fourth album, "Infinity" (
1978) reached No. 21 on the album charts and gave the band their first RIAA-certified platinum album plus hit singles out of "Lights" and "Wheel In the Sky"." [ Infinity (album)]
Drummer Aynsley Dunbar did not get along with singer Steve Perry and did not approve of the new musical direction. [Robyn Flans, "Journey" (NY: Cherry Lane Music, 1985), ISBN-10: 089524229X; ISBN-13: 978-0895242297.] He was fired in 1978 and replaced by Berklee-trained jazz drummer Steve Smith. [ [http://www.journey-zone.com/Features/Interviews/31_06-03.htm#ss Steve Smith interview at The Journey Zone.] ] Perry, Schon, Rolie, Smith, and bass player Ross Valory recorded
1979's "Evolution", which gave the band their first Billboard Hot 100Top 20 single, "Lovin,' Touchin,' Squeezin;'" and 1980's "Departure", which reached No. 8 on the album charts and included the top-25 hit " Any Way You Want It." [ Evolution (Journey album)]
Journey's newfound success brought the band an almost entirely new fan base. During the 1980 "Departure" world tour, the band recorded a live album, "Captured". They also recorded the soundtrack to the film "Dream After Dream" while in
Exhausted from extensive touring, keyboardist Gregg Rolie now left a successful band for the second time in his career. Keyboardist Stevie "Keys" Roseman was brought in to record the lone studio track for "Captured", "The Party's Over (Hopelessly in Love)," ["Captured" re-issue (2006) liner notes, p. 15, lines 8-9; "Time (Cubed)" liner notes pp. 11-14.] but Rolie recommended pianist Jonathan Cain of
The Babysas the permanent replacement. With Cain's replacement of Rolie's Hammond B-3 organwith his own synthesizers, the band was poised to redefine rock music for a new decade in which they would achieve their greatest musical success. [Flans, "Journey."]
Height of popularity, 1981–1983
Journey released their eighth and biggest-selling studio album, "Escape," in
1981. The album, which has thus far sold nine times platinum, went to number one on the album charts that year, and included three top-ten hits: " Who's Crying Now," " Don't Stop Believin'," and "Open Arms." [ Escape (Journey album)]
Capitalizing on their success, the band recorded
radio commercialsfor Budweiser and sold rights to their likenesses and music for use in two video games: the "Journey" arcade gameby Bally/Midway and " Journey Escape" by Data Age for the Atari 2600.
This success was met with piqued criticism. The
1983"Rolling Stone Record Guide" gave each of the band's albums only one star, with Dave Marshwriting that "Journey was a dead end for San Francisco area rock." Marsh later would anoint "Escape" as one of the worst number-one albums of all time.
Journey's next album, 1983's "Frontiers," continued their commercial success, reaching No. 2 on the album charts. Four hit singles included "
Separate Ways," which reached #8, and "Faithfully," which reached #12. [ Frontiers (album)] During the subsequent tour, the band contracted with NFL Filmsto record a video documentary of their life on the road, "Frontiers and Beyond".
Lead singer Steve Perry and guitarist Neal Schon both pursued solo projects between 1982 and 1985, and when they returned to Journey to record their
1986album "Raised on Radio", bass player Ross Valory and drummer Steve Smith were fired from the band for musical and professional differences. [ [http://www.journeymusic.com/discography.html Raised on Radio at Official Journey Discography] ] [ [http://www.journey-zone.com/Features/Interviews/31_06-03.htm#ss Steve Smith interview at The Journey Zone.] ] Studio musicians handled the two vacant slots, including future " American Idol" judge Randy Jackson and established session player Larrie Londin. The album sold two million copies. A truncated tour followed, which featured Jackson on bass and Mike Baird on drums. Steve Perry left Journey in 1987.
Neal Schon and Jonathan Cain teamed up with Cain's ex-Babys bandmates
John Waiteand Ricky Phillips, forming Bad Englishwith drummer Deen Castronovo in 1988. Steve Smith started a jazz band, Vital Information, and teamed up with Ross Valory and Gregg Rolie to create The Storm with singer Kevin Chalfantand guitarist Josh Ramos.
Between 1987 and 1995, Journey's record label released three compilations. In October
1993, Kevin Chalfant(of The Storm) performed with Neal Schon and Jonathan Cain at a roast for manager Herbie Herbert for the Thunder Road benefit (http://www.melodicrock.com/interviews/herbieherbert.html). After that, Schon, Cain, Valory, Smith and Rolie briefly considered reuniting the band with Chalfant as lead singer.Fact|date=May 2008 But in 1995Steve Perry agreed to rejoin the band on the condition that they seek new management. Herbie Herbert was fired and The Eagles Manager Irving Azoffretained.Fact|date=May 2008
1995, Perry, Schon, Cain, Valory, and Smith reunited to record "Trial by Fire." Released in 1996, the album included the hit single "When You Love a Woman," which reached #12 on the Billboard charts and was nominated in 1997 for a Grammy Award for Best Pop Performance by a Duo or Group with Vocal. [ [http://www.rockonthenet.com/archive/1997/grammys.htm Rock on the Net: 39th Annual Grammy Award Winners and Nominees for 1997] ]
Plans for a subsequent tour ended when Perry injured his hip hiking in
Hawaiiin the summer of 1997 and could not perform without hip replacement surgery — which he refused to undergo. [ [http://www.vh1.com/shows/dyn/behind_the_music/51425/episode_about.jhtml Behind the Music: Journey] ] In 1998, Schon and Cain decided to seek a new lead singer, at which point drummer Steve Smith left the band as well. [ [http://men.style.com/gq/blogs/gqeditors/2008/05/foolish-foolish.html GQ Blog on men.style.com ] ]
Lead singer replaced, 1998–2006
1998, Journey hired drummer Deen Castronovo, Schon's and Cain's Bad English bandmate, and drummer for Hardline, to replace Steve Smith. The lead vocalist position was filled by Steve Augeri, formerly of Tykettoand Tall Stories.
That same year, Journey with Steve Augeri and Deen Castronovo recorded a track for the soundtrack to the movie "Armageddon" called "Remember Me." The band released their next studio album, "Arrival", in
Japanin late 2000and in the United States in 2001. "All the Way" became a minor adult contemporaryhit from the album. In 2002, the band released a four-track CD titled "Red 13," with an album cover design chosen through a fan contest. In 2005the band was inducted into the Hollywood Walk of Fame, embarked on their 30th anniversary tour, and released their twelfth full-length studio album, "Generations," in which each band member performed lead vocals on at least one song.
Lead singer replaced again, 2006–present
2006, Steve Augeri was dropped from the band while they toured with Def Leppard, with the official statement citing a 'chronic throat infection' as the problem. Augeri had been suffering from vocal attrition problems since 2003 and Journey had been using pre-recorded lead vocals. [ [http://www.antimusic.com/news/06/june/1906.shtml Journey Lip Sync? - antiMUSIC News ] ] The band hired singer Jeff Scott Soto from Talisman to fill in, and Soto officially replaced Augeri as Journey's lead singer in December 2006. [ [http://www.punktv.ca/?c=131&a=2184 'Journey names Jeff Scott Soto official new lead singer' at PunkTV.ca] ] On June 12, 2007, Journey announced that Soto was no longer the lead singer, and said that they were looking to move in a new direction. [ [http://www.journey-zone.com/Features/News/Archive/2007.htm 'Journey announces departure of Jeff Scott Soto' reprinted from journeymusic.com at The Journey Zone] ]
In December 2007, after briefly considering the lead singer of a Virginia-based tribute band,Fact|date=August 2008 Journey hired Filipino singer
Arnel Pinedaof the cover band The Zoo after Neal Schon saw him on YouTubesinging covers of Journey songs. Journey debuted their new lead singer in February 2008in Chile, [ [http://www.lanacion.cl/prontus_noticias_v2/site/artic/20080222/pags/20080222094245.html La Nacion: Journey conquistó al público viñamarino con sus clásicos] ] [ [http://www.emol.com/noticias/todas/detalle/detallenoticias.asp?idnoticia=293521 Emol: Journey sorprende arrasando con un show enérgico] ] released the album "Revelation", and announced a summer tour with Heart and Cheap Trick. [ [http://www.journeymusic.com/home.html 'Journey Set to Release Revelation June 3 Exclusively at Wal-Mart' and 'Journey Set to Launch This Summer's Hottest Tour Along With Heart and Cheap Trick Starting July 9 in Denver' at JourneyMusic.com] ] [ [http://www.komodorock.com/live-photos/live-photos/journey%3a-live-photos-from-the-hammersmith-apollo,-london-200807126143/ Live Photos From Journey's June 17th Concert At The Hammersmith Apollo, London] ] "Revelation" debuted at #5 on the Billboard charts, selling more than 196,000 units in its first two weeks, making it the band's best selling album since "Trial by Fire". [ [http://www.melodicrock.com MelodicRock.com - Melodic News, Reviews, Interviews and Previews ] ]
Although Pineda was not the first foreign national to become a member of Journey (former drummer Aynsley Dunbar is British) nor even the first non-white (former bass player Randy Jackson is Black), the transition was difficult for a number of fans who expressed what
Marin Independent Journalwriter Paul Liberatore called "an undercurrent of racism." Keyboardist Jonathan Cain responded to such sentiments: "We've become a world band. We're international now. We're not about one color." [ [http://www.marinij.com//ci_7826224?IADID=Search-www.marinij.com-www.marinij.com Paul Liberatore: An incredible journey for band's new frontman] ]
Neal Schon- lead & rhythm guitars, vocals (1973-1987, 1995-present)
Ross Valory- bass, keyboards, recorder, vocals (1973-1985, 1995-present)
Jonathan Cain- keyboards, harmonica, guitar, vocals (1980-1987, 1995-present)
Deen Castronovo- drums, percussion, vocals (1998-present)
Arnel Pineda- lead vocals (2007-present)
Gregg Rolie- keyboards, lead vocals, backing vocals (1973-1980)
George Tickner- rhythm guitar (1973-1975)
Prairie Prince- drums, percussion (1973-1974) (touring only)
Aynsley Dunbar- drums, percussion (1974-1978)
Robert Fleischman- lead vocals (1977)
*Steve Perry - lead vocals (1977-1998)
*Steve Smith - drums, percussion, backing vocals (1978-1985, 1995-1998)
Stevie Roseman- keyboards (1980) (studio only)
Randy Jackson- bass, backing vocals (1985-1987)
Larrie Londin- drums, percussion (1985-1986) (studio only)
Mike Baird- drums, percussion (1986-1987) (touring only)
Bob Glaub- bass (1986) (studio only)
Steve Augeri- lead vocals, occasional rhythm guitar on tour (1998-2006)
Jeff Scott Soto- lead vocals (2006-2007) (touring only)
References in popular culture
*In the 1980 movie "
Caddyshack", the Rodney Dangerfieldcharacter's golfbag has a stereo that plays "Any Way You Want It" at an inopportune moment.
* In the 1981 movie "Heavy Metal", the song "Open Arms" is featured in both the movie and soundtrack.
*In the 1982 movie "The Last American Virgin" the track "Open Arms" is played as the end credits are rolling.
*In the 1982 movie "TRON" the track "Only Solutions" is played in the background of the arcade. The instrumental "1990s Theme" (originally titled "1980s Theme") is played during the end credits.
*In the 1985 movie "
Vision Quest" the song "Only The Young" is played during the end credits and appears on the film's soundtrack.
*In the 1987 movie "
White Water Summer" the song "Be Good to Yourself" is played during the end credits.
*In the 1987 movie "
The North Shore" the song "Happy to Give" is a recurring romantic theme, and played during the ending credits.
*In the 1998 movie "
BASEketball", a Parker and Stone movie, one of the competitors in the game of baseketball, in an attempt to "psyche out" his opponent, is heard singing "And I should've been gone", a line from the Steve Perry song, "Oh Sherrie." Upon his opponent missing his shot, he declares, "Dude, I thought we said no more Journey psyche-outs" (though technically "Oh Sherrie" is a song from Steve Perry's solo career and is not a Journey song). Earlier in the movie, Parker tries to psyche out Stone by saying Steve Perry's name over and over again.
*In the 1998 movie "
The Wedding Singer", the scene in which Adam Sandler's character, Robbie, is left at the altar features a string ensemble at the wedding playing "Don't Stop Believin'."
*In the 2003 film "Monster", starring
Charlize Theron, who won an Academy Awardfor her performance, "Don't Stop Believin'" was featured.
*In the 2003 movie "", the song "Any Way You Want It" is played at the end before the credits.
*In the 2003 movie "
View from the Top" starring Mike Myers and Gwenyth Paltrow, "Don't Stop Believin'" is played during the intro and the final scene.
*In the 2006 movie "", "Faithfully" is played in the bar when Susan (actress Amy Adams) convinces Ricky Bobby (actor
Will Ferrell) in an impassioned speech to resume his NASCAR stock car racing career. His former assistant, Susan then professes her love for Ricky, and they start to kiss, with Ricky warning the other customers not to watch, "because we're gonna start making animal noises".
*In the 2006 movie A guide To Recognizing Your Saints
Dito Montielsays that Puerto Ricans in Astoria, Queenslisten to Journey in the 80's.
*In the 2007 movie
The Comebacksthe characters sing "don't stop believin'" after the quarter back and Wide receiver have a fist fight and the coach locks the team in the locker room until they all get along .
*In the 2007 movie
I Now Pronounce You Chuck & Larry, 'open arms' can be hear playing in the background when Adam Sandler's character is slow dancing with actor Kevin James at the costume party.
*"Wheel in the Sky" was played on a recap segment of the sci-fi show Supernatural
*"Any Way You Want It" is played over the end credits of Simpsons episode "Burns Baby Burns" which features Dangerfield as special guest voice.
Matt Stoneand Trey Parker, have used references to the band Journey, Steve Perry, and their music as jokes in animated comedy " South Park". Episode 909, "Erection Day," a little girl playing piano in the talent competition begins to sing the opening to "Open Arms," beginning "Lying beside you, here in the dark...," before the show cuts onto another aspect of the plot.
*In the fourth season episode of "
Family Guy" entitled " Don't Make Me Over," Peter, Quagmire, Cleveland, and Joe sing "Don't stop Believin' " with a karaoke machine, causing people from all around the city to hear them and flock to the bar they were playing at, as well as inspiring the quartet to form a rock band, "Fat, Horny, Black, and Joe." Incidentally, the airing of the episode coincided with a spike in iTunesonline music sales for the song, placing it in the Top 10 most downloaded tracks for that week and the Top 25 for that month (August 2005). Since then it has remained highly downloaded and is still in the Top 5 most-bought for "Rock Music." The popularity and its resultant newsmaking further served to renew interest in the band and its recordings.
MTV's aired a segment featuring the teens singing to "Don't Stop Believin'" in 2005.
The Shield" season three episode "Safe", Detective Ronnie Gardockicomments that he was planning to go see Journey in concert when asked by one character as to his evening plans.
*In a third season episode of "Scrubs" entitled "My Journey," JD mentions to Carla that he knows a great Journey cover band called "The Lovin', Touchin', Squeezin's" and that she should book them to play at her and Turk's wedding reception. He then begins to sing the first verse of "Don't Stop Believin'." The episode concluded with the song played in full.
FOXtelevision series " The O.C.", one of the characters, Ryan Atwood, claims that Journey is his favorite band. "Open Arms" and " Separate Ways(Worlds Apart)" are used in a couple of episodes on the show. A Journey poster can be seen on the wall of the character's "pool house" living space.
*On the "
Tsst" episode of " South Park", Cartman sings a part from "Don't Stop Believin'."
*On an episode of "
Saturday Night Live", "Don't Stop Believin'" is played by the studio band. The skit was about a man who loved himself so much, he re-recorded all of his favorite music with his own voice.
*The song "Wheel in the Sky" is played at the end of the second season episode "Bust Out" of the popular
HBOdrama " The Sopranos".
*On an episode of the TV series
Yes, Dear, "Don't Stop Believin'" is sang by actor Mike O'Malleywhen his little kid manages to use the toilet instead of diapers.
Randy Pearson, a fictional character from the 8th season of " That '70s Show" enjoys listening to Journey. He represented the change between 70s rock music (other characters from the show listened to Led Zeppelin, Ted Nugent, etc.) and 80s popular rock. In the opening credits to season 8, he was seen banging his head (something most people attribute to metal music, made mainstream in the '80s)
*Steve Perry is portrayed in several episodes of the
mockumentaryseries " Yacht Rock"
*In the season 10 episode of
Stargate SG-1"Bounty", a request is made at the school reunion for Journey to be played.
*In a third season episode of
Soul Food, the character Teri Joseph, visits a therapist; this therapist believes the song "Don't Stop Believin'" is good for the soul. At the end of the episode, Teri, fired from her job at her second law firm, gets emotional when "Don't Stop Believin'" plays on her car radio.
*Journey gained new attention in the 2000s due to
Randy Jackson, who since his Journey involvement had become a successful recording-industry figure and then an " American Idol" judge. Film clips of Jackson with the band on tour have appeared on the show, and various contestants on "Idol" attempted to measure up vocally by singing Journey numbers. The best remembered of these attempts were Clay Aiken's take on "Open Arms" in a key semifinal round of the show (and later in a duet with fellow "Idol" Kelly Clarksonon their joint concert tour), and Elliott Yamin's praiseworthy performance of the same song in the 2006 semifinal round.
*In the series finale of
The Sopranos, David Chasehad "Don't Stop Believin'" run over the final scene where Tony picked it from a table jukebox. [http://www.cnn.com/2007/SHOWBIZ/TV/06/12/tv.sopranos.thatsong.ap/index.html]
*"Don't Stop Believin'", "Open Arms", "Only the Young", and "Separate Ways" have all been used by "
Cold Case" in various episodes.
February 6, 2005"Don't Stop Believin'" was heard in a FedEx Kinko'scommercial starring Burt Reynoldsthat aired during Super Bowl XXXIX.
*"Don't Stop Believin'" provided a plot device in
Dave Eggers' novel, " A Heartbreaking Work of Staggering Genius".
*In his book "I Rant, Therefore I Am", comedian
Dennis Millermentions that, while in the process of buying a house, Journey was at said house for unknown reasons; Steve Perry helped "save [Miller] $3000 by spotting a leak in the water heater."
*In "Sex, Drugs, and Cocoa Puffs: A Low Culture Manifesto" by Chuck Klosterman, Journey is equated to "Dynasty" in a brief segment in which several bands are compared to television series that would represent them.
*Journey is briefly mentioned in several novels by
*"Any Way You Want It" features as the title song for Almost Skateboards first team video "Almost Round Three".
*The anthem "Don't Stop Believin'" became a public rallying cry for the 2004 World Series Champion Boston Red Sox after they fell behind 3 to 0 against the Yankees in the American League Championship Series and again for the 2005 World Series champion
Chicago White Sox(Perry was invited to the celebration parade in Chicago, where he sang the song with members of the team).
*In 2008, in a tight battle for First Place with the
Arizona Diamondbacksin the National League West, the Los Angeles Dodgersbegan to play "Don't Stop Believing" in the middle of the 8th inning at all of their home games.
*Starting in 2008, the Minnesota Twins have used the karaoke version of "Don't Stop Believing" periodically during the 7th inning stretch.
*Steve Brown, a professional yo-yoer, used the song "Faithfully," to his 3rd place routine at the World Yo-yo Contest in 2007.
*British Rock Band
Half Man Half Biscuitpaid homage to the band on their hit single "A Lilac Harry Quinn", from the album MacIntyre, Treadmore and Davitt, with the lyric "Six weeks to live, but at least I'm not in Journey" [" [http://halfmanhalfbiscuithalfhearted.blogspot.com/2007/06/lilac-harry-quinn-mcintyre-treadmore.html Half Man Half Biscuit Half Hearted: A Collection of Song Lyrics from Half Man Half Biscuit (or HMHB to Those in the Know)] ." "halfmanhalfbiscuithalfhearted.blogspot.com," June 2006.] .
Judy Torresreleased a cover of Journey's "Faithfully" as a single CD in late 2005.
Petra Hadenreleased a cover of "Don't Stop Believin'" on a compilation album called Guilt By Association.
*"Any Way You Want It" is featured as a playable song in the game
Rock Band 2, released for the Xbox 360in 2008, and coming soon for the PlayStation 3, PlayStation 2and Wii. It was also featured as downloadable content for Guitar Hero 3.
*An Atari 2600 game,
Best selling music artists
* [http://www.journeymusic.com/ Journey's Official Site]
* [http://www.journeyband.com/ Journey's Official Site @ Legacy Records]
* [http://www.greggrolie.com/ Gregg Rolie's Official Website]
* [http://www.rossvalory.com/ Ross Valory's Official Website]
* [http://www.georgetickner.com/ George Tickner's Official Website]
* [http://www.vitalinformation.com/ Steve Smith's Official Website]
* [http://www.jonathancain.com/ Jonathan Cain's Official Website]
* [http://www.robertfleischman.com/ Robert Fleishman's Official Website]
* [http://steveperryonline.net/ Steve Perry's Official Website]
* [http://www.prairieprince.com/ Prairie Prince's Official Website]
Independent & Fan Reviews, Interviews, etc.:
* [http://www.journey-zone.com/ The Journey Zone]
* [http://members.cox.net/mrcarty/ E5C4P3.com's Herbie Herbert Interview]
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