Other transcription(s)
 – Arabic رام الله
 – Also spelled Ramallah (official)
Ramallah skyline

Municipal Seal of Ramallah
Ramallah is located in the Palestinian territories
Location of Ramallah within the Palestinian territories
Coordinates: 31°54′18.46″N 35°12′21.16″E / 31.9051278°N 35.2058778°E / 31.9051278; 35.2058778Coordinates: 31°54′18.46″N 35°12′21.16″E / 31.9051278°N 35.2058778°E / 31.9051278; 35.2058778
Governorate Ramallah & al-Bireh
Founded 16th century
 – Type City (from 1995)
 – Head of Municipality Janet Mikhail
 – Jurisdiction 16,344 dunams (16.3 km2 / 6.3 sq mi)
Population (2007)[1]
 – Jurisdiction 27,460
Website www.ramallah.ps

Ramallah (Arabic: رام اللهAbout this sound   Rāmallāh) (literally "Height of God")[2] is a Palestinian city in the central West Bank located 10 kilometers (6 miles) north of Jerusalem, adjacent to al-Bireh. It currently serves as the de facto administrative capital of the Palestinian National Authority. With a population of nearly 25,500,[3] Ramallah was historically a Christian town, but today Muslims form the majority of the population, with a strong Christian minority.



Early history

Modern Ramallah was founded in the mid-16th century by the Haddadins, a Jordanian tribe of brothers descended from Ghassanid Christian Arabs. The Haddadins, led by Rashid Haddadin, arrived from east of the Jordan River near the Jordanian town of Shoubak.[4] The Haddadin migration is attributed to fighting and unrest among clans in that area.[4] According to modern living descendents of original Haddadin family members, Rashid's brother Sabra Haddadin was hosting Emir Ibn Kaysoom, head of a powerful Muslim clan in the region, when Sabra's wife gave birth to a baby girl. According to custom, the Emir proposed a betrothal to his own young son when they came of age. Sabra believed the proposal was in jest, as Muslim-Christian marriages were not customary, and gave his word. When the Emir later came to the Haddadins and demanded that they fulfill their promise, they refused. This set off bloody conflict between the two families. The Haddadins fled west and settled on the hilltops of Ramallah, where only a few Muslim families lived at the time. Today, a large community of people descended directly from the Haddadins live in the United States. The town is now predominately Muslim.[4]

In 1596, Ramallah appeared in Ottoman tax registers as being in the Nahiya of Quds of the Liwa of Quds. It had a population of 71 Christian households and 9 Muslim households. It paid taxes on wheat, barley, olives, vines or fruit trees, and goats or beehives.[5]

Christian town

Ramallah grew dramatically throughout the 17th and 18th centuries as an agricultural village; thus, attracting more (predominantly Christian) inhabitants from all around the region. In 1700, Yacoub Elias was the first Ramallah native to be ordained by the Eastern Arab Orthodox Church, the Christian denomination prevailed in the Holy Land at the time. In the early 19th century, the first Arab Orthodox Christian church was built. Later in the 1850s, "The Church of Transfiguration", was built to replace it and is the sole Orthodox Church in Ramallah today. During that same decade, the Latin (Roman Catholic) Church established its presence in Ramallah, constituting the second largest Christian denomination in the city. The Roman Catholic Church established the St. Joseph's Girl's School runs by St. Joseph sisters, as well as the co-educational Al-Ahliyyah College high school runs by Rosary sisters. With the influx of Muslim and Christian refugees and internal migration, new mosques and churches were built. The Jamal Abdel Nasser Mosque is one of the city's largest. The Melkite Catholic Church, Evangelical Lutheran Church, Arab Episcopal (Anglican) Church, Ramallah Local Church (Evangelical\Born Again) and Ramallah Baptist Church all operate schools in the city.[6] A large new church has been built on top of one of the highest hills of Ramallah, belonging to the Coptic Orthodox Church. A small group of Jehovah Witnesses are present in the area as well and others.

In the 19th century, the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers) established a presence in Ramallah and built the Ramallah Friends Schools, one for girls and later a boys school, to alleviate the dearth of education for women and girls. Eli and Sybil Jones opened “The Girls Training Home of Ramallah” in 1869. A medical clinic was established in 1883, with Dr. George Hassenauer serving as the first doctor in Ramallah. In 1889, the girls academy became the Friends Girls School (FGS). As the FGS was also a boarding school, it attracted a number of girls from surrounding communities, including Jerusalem, Lydda, Jaffa, and Beirut. The Friends Boys School (FBS) was founded in 1901 and opened in 1918. The Quakers opened a Friends Meeting House for worship in the city center in 1910.[7] According to the schools' official website, most high school students choose to take the International Baccalaureate exams instead of the traditional "Tawjihi" university exams.[6][8]

The activity of foreign churches in southern Ottoman Syria in the late 19th century increased awareness of prosperity in the West. In Ramallah and Bethlehem, a few miles south, local residents began to seek their fortunes overseas. In 1901, merchants from Ramallah emigrated to the United States and established import-export businesses, selling handmade rugs and other exotic wares across the Atlantic. Increased trade dramatically improved living standards for Ramallah's inhabitants. American cars, mechanized farming equipment,radios, and later televisions became attainable luxuries for upper class families. As residents of Jaffa and Lydda moved to Ramallah, the balance of Muslims and Christians began to change. Before the 20th century, it was a vibrant agricultural town where the majority of the population was Christian. Hence several churches in the old town of Ramallah. Eastern Orthodox, Roman Catholic and Melkite Eastern Catholic presence is quite strong here, with Christian monasteries, institution, schools and charities. With the influx of refugees in the 20th century, Muslims came to constitute the majority of Ramallah’s population.

Modern era

Lion sculpture in Ramallah's central square

By the beginning of the 20th century Ramallah was an active agricultural town.[citation needed] It was declared a city in 1908 and had an elected municipality as well as partnership projects with the adjacent town of al-Bireh. In World War I, a few locals joined the Turkish army, a number of whom were killed in battle.[citation needed] The Friends Boys School became a temporary hospital during the War. The British Army occupied Ramallah in December 1917. The city remained under British rule until 1948.

The economy improved in the 1920s. The landed aristocracy and merchants who formed the Palestinian upper class built stately multi-storied villas during this period; many of these estates are still standing today.[9] The Jerusalem Electric Company brought electricity to Ramallah in 1936, and most homes were wired shortly thereafter. That same year, the British authorities inaugurated the "Palestine Broadcasting Service" in Ramallah, the staff of which was trained by the British Broadcasting Corporation to deliver daily broadcasts in Arabic, Hebrew, and English. This station was later renamed "Kol Yerushalayim" (The Voice of Jerusalem).[10]

By 1953, Ramallah's population had doubled, but the economy and infrastructure were not equipped to handle the influx of poor villagers. Natives of Ramallah left, primarily to the United States. By 1946, 1,500 of Ramallah's 6,000 natives (or about a quarter) had emigrated, and Arabs from the surrounding towns and villages particularly Hebron, bought up the property and homes the émigrés left behind.[citation needed]

Jordanian and Israeli Management

Residential neighborhood in Ramallah

Ramallah was relatively tranquil during the years of Jordanian rule between 1948 and 1967, with residents enjoying freedom of movement between the West Bank, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, and elsewhere. Jordan had annexed the West Bank, applying its law to the territory. However, many Palestinians were jailed for being members of what the Jordanian government regarded as illegal political parties, including the Palestine Communist Party and other socialist and pro-independence groups. Jordanian law also restricted the creativity and freedom desired by many Palestinians at the time.[citation needed]

During the Six-Day War in 1967, Israel captured Ramallah, imposing a military closure and conducting a census a few weeks later. Every person registered in the census was given an Israeli identity card which allowed the bearer to continue to reside there. Those who were abroad during the census lost their residency rights.[11] For residents of Ramallah, the situation had now[when?] reversed itself; for the first time in 19 years residents could freely visit Israel and the Gaza Strip and engage in commerce there.

Unlike the Jordanians, Israel did not attempt to annex all of the West Bank or offer citizenship to the residents. Ramallah residents were issued permits to work in Israel. The city remained under Israeli military rule for over four decades. The Israeli Civil Administration established in 1981, was in charge of civilian and day-to-day services such as issuing permission to travel, build, export or import, and host relatives from abroad.[12] The CA reprinted Jordanian textbooks for distribution in schools but did not update them. The CA was in charge of tax collection and land expropriation, which sometimes included olive groves that Arab villagers claimed to have tended for generations.[13][14] According to the Israeli Human Rights activists, Jewish settlements in the Ramallah area, such as Beit El and Psagot, prevented the expansion of the city and cut it off from the surrounding villages.[15] As resistance increased, Ramallah residents were jailed or deported to neighboring countries for membership in the Palestine Liberation Organization.[16] In December 1987, the popular uprising known as the Intifada erupted.

First Intifada

Ramallah residents were among the early joiners of the First Intifada. The Intifada Unified Leadership, an umbrella organization of various Palestinian factions, distributed weekly bulletins on the streets of Ramallah with a schedule of the daily protests, strikes and action against Israeli patrols in the city. At the demonstrations, tyres were burned in the street and the crowds threw stones and Molotov cocktails. The IDF responded with tear gas and rubber bullets. Schools in Ramallah were forcibly shut down, and opened gradually for a few hours a day.[citation needed] House arrests were carried out and curfews were imposed that restricted travel and exports in what Palestinians regarded as collective punishment. In response to the closure of schools, residents organized home schooling sessions to help students make up missed material; this became one of the few symbols of civil disobedience.[17] The Intifada leadership organized "tree plantings" and resorted to the tactics used in pre-1948 Palestine, such as ordering general strikes in which no commercial businesses were allowed to open and no cars were allowed on the streets.

In 1991, the Palestinian delegation to the Madrid International Peace Conference included many notables from Ramallah. As the Intifada wound down and the peace process moved forward, normal life in Ramallah resumed. On September 13, 1993 the famous White House handshake between Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin and Palestinian Leader Yasser Arafat took place, and schoolchildren in Ramallah handed out olive branches to Israeli soldiers patrolling the streets. In December 1995, in keeping with the Oslo Accords, the Israeli army abandoned the Mukata'a and withdrew to the city outskirts. The newly established Palestinian Authority assumed civilian and security responsibility for the city, which was designated "Area A" under the accords.

Second Intifada

Tomb of Yasser Arafat

The years between 1993 and 2000 (known locally as the "Oslo Years") brought relative prosperity to Ramallah. Many expatriates returned to establish businesses there and the atmosphere was one of optimism. In 2000, unemployment began to rise and the economy of Ramallah declined.[18][19] The Israel Defense Force remained in control of the territories, the freedom of movement enjoyed by Ramallah residents prior to the first Intifada was not restored. Travel to Jerusalem required special permits, and expansion of Israeli settlements around Ramallah increased dramatically. A network of bypass roads for use of Israeli citizens only was built around Ramallah, and land was confiscated for settlements.[20][21] Many official documents previously handled by the Israeli Civil Administration were now handled by the Palestinian Authority but still required Israeli approval. A Palestinian passport issued to Ramallah residents was not valid unless the serial number was registered with the Israeli authorities, who controlled border crossings.[22] The failure of the Camp David summit in July 2000 led to the outbreak of the al-Aqsa Intifada (Second Intifada) in September 2000.

Young Ramallah residents demonstrated daily against the Israeli army, with marches to the Israeli checkpoints at the outskirts of the city. Over time, the marches were replaced by sporadic use of live ammunition against Israeli soldiers; and various attacks targeting Jewish settlers, particularly on the Israeli-only bypass roads. Army checkpoints were established to restrict movement in and out of Ramallah.[23][24][25]

On October 12, 2000, two Israeli army reservists, Vadim Norzhich and Yosef Avrahami were lynched in Ramallah. They had taken a wrong turn, and were set upon by a mob, enraged in particular by the Muhammad al-Durrah incident in Gaza.[26] A frenzied crowd killed the two IDF reservists, mutilated their bodies, and dragged them through the streets.[27] Later that afternoon, Israeli army carried out an air strike on Ramallah, demolishing the police station, Israel later succeeded in capturing and prosecuting some of those involved in the deaths.

In 2002, Ramallah was reoccupied by Israel in an IDF operation codenamed Operation Defensive Shield, which resulted in curfews, electricity cuts, school closures and disruptions of commercial life.[28] Many Ramallah institutions, including government ministries, were vandalized, and equipment was destroyed or stolen.[29][30][31][32] The IDF took over local Ramallah television stations, and social and economic conditions deteriorated.[33] Many expatriates left, as did many other Palestinians who complained that the living conditions had become intolerable.[34][35][36] The Israeli West Bank barrier has furthered Ramallah's isolation.

Economic development

Dunia trade center under construction June 2010.

By 2010 Ramallah had become the leading center of economic and political activity in the territories under the control of the Palestinian Authority.[37] A building boom in the early years of the 21st century saw apartment buildings and "five-star" hotels erected, particularly in the Al-Masyoun neighborhood.[37] In 2010, "more than one hundred" Palestinian businesses were reported to have moved to Ramallah from East Jerusalem, because “Here they pay less taxes and have more customers."[37] One local boasted to a journalist that “Ramallah is becoming the de facto capital of Palestine.”[37] This boast was seconded by the New York Times which, in 2010, called Ramallah the "de facto capital of the West Bank.[38] According to Sani Meo, the publisher of This Week in Palestine, "Capital or no capital, Ramallah has done well and Palestine is proud of its achievements.”[37] Many foreign nations have located their diplomatic missions to the Palestinian Authority in Ramallah, including, as of 2010, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Korea, South Africa, Norway, Sri Lanka, Switzerland, China, Poland, Portugal, The Netherlands, Russia, Jordan, Brazil, Finland, Denmark, Ireland, Germany, India, Japan, the Czech Republic, Canada and Mexico.[37]

Other Palestinians, however, allege that Ramallah's prosperity is part of an Israeli "conspiracy" to make Ramallah the capital of a Palestinian state, instead of Jerusalem.[37] Munir Hamdan, a member of Fatah and a Ramallah businessman, told a journalist that the fact that “The president and prime minister have their offices here.[37] So do the parliament and all the government ministries,” represents a "collusion" between the Palestinian Authority and Israel to turn Ramallah into the political as well as the financial capital of the Palestinians. He is particularly worried by the construction of a large new governmental complex by the PA.[37] Hatem Abdel Kader, a Jerusalem resident, Fatah legislator and former Minister for Jerusalem Affairs, complained that “If they are building a new government compound here, that means they have no plans to be based in Jerusalem... Unfortunately, the Palestinian government of Salam Fayyad has abandoned Jerusalem in favor of Ramallah.”[37] According to Kader, who resigned the post of Minister for Jerusalem Affairs upon learning that the Ministry had no budget, not even funds to purchase a desk and chair, “I have to be honest with you and tell you that we have lost the battle for Jerusalem,... One of the reasons is because the Palestinian government doesn’t really care about Jerusalem.”[37]


Main street in Ramallah

According to the 1922 British Mandate census, Ramallah had a population of 3,067 which included 10 Jews.[39][40] In Sami Hadawi's 1945 survey, the population stood at 5,080,[41] with Christians forming the majority of the population. However, the demographic makeup of the town changed drastically between 1948 and 1967 with only slightly more than half of the city's 12,134 inhabitants being Christian, the other half Muslim.[42]

Ramallah's population drastically decreased in the late 20th century from 24,722 inhabitants in 1987 to 17,851 in 1997. In the Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics (PCBS) census in 1997, Palestinian refugees accounted for 60.3% of the population which was 17,851.[43] There were 8,622 males and 9,229 females. People younger than 20 years of age made up 45.9% of the population, while those aged between 20 and 64 were 45.4%, and residents aged over 64 constituted 4.7%.[44]

Only in 2005 did the population reach over 24,000. In a PCBS projection in 2006, Ramallah had a population of 25,467 inhabitants.[45] In the 2007 PCBS census, there were 27,460 people living in the city.[1] Sources vary about the current Christian population in the city, ranging around 25%.[46][47]


Mukataa in Ramallah

Yasser Arafat established his West Bank headquarters, the Mukata'a, in Ramallah. Although considered an interim solution, Ramallah has become the de facto capital of the Palestinian Authority, hosting almost all governmental headquarters. In December 2001, Arafat held meetings at the Mukata'a, but lived with his wife and daughter in Gaza City. After suicide bombings in Haifa, Arafat was confined to the Ramallah compound. In 2002, the compound was partly demolished by the IDF and Arafat's building was cut off from the rest of the compound.

On November 11, 2004 Arafat died at the Percy training hospital of the Armies near Paris. He was buried in the courtyard of the Mukata'a on November 12, 2004. The site still serves as the Ramallah headquarters of the Palestinian Authority, as well the official West Bank office of Mahmoud Abbas.

In December 2005, local elections were held in Ramallah in which candidates from three different factions competed for the 15-seat municipal council for a four-year term. The council elected Janet Mikhail as mayor, the first woman to hold the post.[48][49]


Bank Of Palestine Head Office in Ramallah
Kebab stand in Ramallah

Ramallah is generally considered the most affluent and cultural, as well as the most liberal, of all Palestinian cities,[50][51] and is home to a number of popular Palestinian activists, poets, artists, and musicians. It boasts a lively nightlife, with many restaurants including the Stars and Bucks Cafe, a branch of the Tche Tche Cafe and the Orjuwan Lounge, described in 2010 as two among the "dozens of fancy restaurants, bars and discotheques that have cropped up in Ramallah in the last three years."[37]

One hallmark of Ramallah is Rukab's Ice Cream, which is based on the resin of chewing gum and thus has a distinctive taste. Another is the First Ramallah Group, a boy- and girl-scout club that also holds a number of traditional dance (Dabka) performances and is also home to men's and women's basketball teams that compete regionally. During the annual "Saturday of Light" religious festival (which occurs on the Saturday between Good Friday and Easter Sunday to commemorate the light that tradition holds shone from the tomb of Jesus), the scouts hold a parade through the city streets to receive the flame from Jerusalem. (The flame is ignited in Jerusalem's Church of the Holy Sepulchre and is passed on through candles and lanterns to regional churches.) A variety of mosques and churches of different denominations dot the landscape. International music and dance troupes occasionally make a stop in Ramallah, and renowned Israeli pianist Daniel Barenboim performs there often. The Khalil Sakakini Cultural Center, founded in 1996, is a popular venue for such events. The Al-Kasaba Theatre is a venue for plays and movies. In 2004, the state-of-the art Ramallah Cultural Palace opened in the city. The only cultural center of its kind in the Palestinian territories, it houses a 736-seat auditorium, as well as conference rooms, exhibit halls, and movie-screening rooms. It was a joint venture of the Palestinian Authority, the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), and the Japanese government.[52] Ramallah hosted its first annual international film festival in 2004.

Palestinian costume

Due to the difficulty of travel in the 19th century, villages in southern Ottoman Syria remained isolated. As a result, clothing and accessories became a statement of region. In Ramallah, the back panels of dresses often incorporated a palm tree motif embroidered in cross-stitch.[53] Ramallah women were famous for their distinctive dress of white linen fabric embroidered with red silk thread. The headdress or smadeh worn in Ramallah was common throughout northern Palestine: a small roundish cap, padded and stiffened, with gold and silver coins set in a fringe with a long veil pinned to the back, sometimes of silk and sometimes embroidered.


Edward Sayre, Assistant Professor of International Development, University of Southern Mississippi, said in a 14 January 2009 interview, that "Ramallah is the seat of power for the Fatah-led Palestinian Authority of the West Bank and it serves as the headquarters for most international NGOs and embassies. It is through Ramallah that nearly all of the hundreds of millions of dollars in aid has been flowing. As a result Ramallah’s economy has recovered strongly since the end of the second Intifada."[54]

In November 2009 the New York Times published 'Blair Hails Economic Steps in West Bank': as in Ramallah 'Mr. Tony Blair made the point that there is more hope for Palestinians than many realize...Mr. Blair acted as a kind of missionary for the idea that economic growth is a vital component of a sovereign state, but many here are skeptical of its value without political progress.'[55]

Reuters' article 'Ramallah building boom symbolizes West Bank growth': 'The Ramallah construction boom is one of the most obvious signs of West Bank economic growth estimated at an annual rate of 8 percent—which Palestinian policymakers attribute to relative stability and Western donor support to the Palestinian Authority..... Many Palestinians who worked here but lived elsewhere moved in to avoid the hassle created by Israeli checkpoints........Today, Ramallah's buoyant economy continues to draw Palestinians from other West Bank towns where jobs are fewer. ...Ramallah's built-up area has grown fivefold since the peak of Israeli-Palestinian violence in 2002, said Ahmad Odaly, head of the Palestinian Engineers Union.'[56]

International relations

Twin towns – Sister cities

Ramallah is twinned with:

See also




  1. ^ a b 2007 PCBS Census. Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics. p.114. (Arabic)
  2. ^ "Ramallah.ps". Ramallah.ps. http://www.ramallah.ps/etemplate.aspx?id=81. Retrieved November 13, 2011. 
  3. ^ "Projected Mid -Year Population for Ramallah & Al Bireh Governorate by Locality 2004 – 2006". Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics. http://www.pcbs.gov.ps/Portals/_pcbs/populati/pop07.aspx. Retrieved 2008-02-22. 
  4. ^ a b c American Federation of Ramallah Palestine
  5. ^ Wolf-Dieter Hütteroth and Kamal Abdulfattah (1977). Historical Geography of Palestine, Transjordan and Southern Syria in the Late 16th century. Erlanger Geographische Arbeiten, Sonderband 5. Erlangen, Germany: Vorstand der Fränkischen Geographischen Gesellschaft. p. 121. 
  6. ^ a b "Religion in Ramallah City". Ramallah Municipality. http://www.ramallah.ps/etemplate.aspx?id=3. Retrieved 2008-02-22.  Information in text is gathered by several links in the "Religion in Ramallah" page.
  7. ^ "Religious Society of Friends (Palestine)". Palfriends.org. http://www.palfriends.org/schoolhistory.php. Retrieved November 13, 2011. 
  8. ^ "History of Friends School". Palestine Friends Boys School. Visuals Active Media. Archived from the original on 2007-11-01. http://web.archive.org/web/20071101091350/http://www.palfriends.org/fbs/history.asp. Retrieved 2008-02-22.  palfriends.org]
  9. ^ "From a Village to a Town". http://www.koolpages.com/wael2003/history.htm. Retrieved 2008-02-22. 
  10. ^ "The History of Radio in Israel". Jewish Virtual Library. American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise. http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/History/radio.html. Retrieved 2008-02-22. 
  11. ^ Creation of the problem of family separation in the Occupied Territories Btselem
  12. ^ Israeli Military Orders in the Occupied Palestinian West Bank Jerusalem Media and Communications Centre (JMCC), 2nd edition, pp.241. 1995
  13. ^ Domino.un.org, A/38/257-S/15810 of June 2, 1983]
  14. ^ "Palestine-encyclopedia.com". Palestine-encyclopedia.com. http://www.palestine-encyclopedia.com/EPP/Chapter18_3of10.htm. Retrieved November 13, 2011. 
  15. ^ "Brightonpalestinecampaign.org" (PDF). http://www.brightonpalestinecampaign.org/pdfs/Articles/Land%20Grab.pdf. Retrieved November 13, 2011. 
  16. ^ Web.amnesty.org[dead link]
  17. ^ JMCC.org[dead link]
  18. ^ Wider.unu.edu
  19. ^ NYtimes.com
  20. ^ Ariga.com
  21. ^ "UN.org". United Nations. http://www.un.org/documents/ga/docs/50/plenary/a50-262.htm. Retrieved November 13, 2011. 
  22. ^ Badil.org Badil.org
  23. ^ "Zmag.org". Zmag.org. July 5, 2002. http://www.zmag.org/content/showarticle.cfm?SectionID=22&ItemID=2075. Retrieved November 13, 2011. 
  24. ^ "Miftah.org". Miftah.org. http://www.miftah.org/PrinterF.cfm?DocId=2294. Retrieved November 13, 2011. 
  25. ^ Machsomwatch.org[dead link]
  26. ^ "Jewishvirtuallibrary.org". Jewishvirtuallibrary.org. http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/History/lynchwit.html. Retrieved November 13, 2011. 
  27. ^ "Online". BBC News. October 13, 2000. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/middle_east/969778.stm. Retrieved November 13, 2011. 
  28. ^ ICPH.birzeit.edu
  29. ^ AJPME.org[dead link]
  30. ^ Palestinemonitor.org, damage and vandalism
  31. ^ Haaretzdaily.com
  32. ^ Palestinemonitor.org[dead link]
  33. ^ "Siteresources.worldbank.org" (PDF). http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTWESTBANKGAZA/Resources/wbgaza-4yrassessment.pdf. Retrieved November 13, 2011. 
  34. ^ Palestinercs.org[dead link]
  35. ^ "Btselem.org". Btselem.org. http://www.btselem.org/English/Freedom_of_Movement/Siege.asp. Retrieved November 13, 2011. 
  36. ^ "Online". BBC News. January 20, 2002. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/middle_east/1761785.stm. Retrieved November 13, 2011. 
  37. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "‘Palestine’s new bride’", Khaled Abu Toameh, August 20, 2010, Jerusalem Post.
  38. ^ "Ramallah Attracts a Cosmopolitan Crowd," Michael T. Luongo, June 3, 2010, New York Times.
  39. ^ Palestineremembered.com, "Welcome to Ramallah". British Mandate Survey cited in Palestine Remembered.
  40. ^ Harris, Chauncy Dennison. Research paper: Issues 217–218 of World Patterns of Modern Urban Change: Essays in Honor of Chauncy D. Harris pg. 154
  41. ^ Hadawi, 1970, p.65
  42. ^ Ramallah. Encyclopædia Britannica. 2008. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. December 27, 2008.
  43. ^ Palestinian Population by Locality, Sex and Age Groups in Years Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics (PCBS).
  44. ^ Palestinian Population by Locality, Sex and Age Groups in Years. Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics (PCBS).
  45. ^ Projected Mid -Year Population for Ramallah & Al Bireh Governorate by Locality 2004– 2006 Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics. (PCBS).
  46. ^ Hall, Andy. Quaker Meeting in Ramallah Ecumenical Accompaniment Programme in Palestine and Israel.
  47. ^ Keulemans, Chris. Imagination Behind the Wall: Cultural Life in Ramallah p.2. April 2005.
  48. ^ "Khaleejtimes.com". Khaleejtimes.com. January 2, 2006. http://www.khaleejtimes.com/Displayarticle.asp?section=middleeast&xfile=data/middleeast/2006/january/middleeast_january34.xml. Retrieved November 13, 2011. 
  49. ^ Karin Laub (January 1, 2006). "Ocala.com". Ocala.com. http://www.ocala.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20060101/NEWS/201010358/1004/news. Retrieved November 13, 2011. 
  50. ^ Emails from the edge The Observer, January 16, 2005
  51. ^ Hamas says it will use Islamic law as guide MSNBC, January 29, 2006
  52. ^ Jerusalemites.org, cultural dimenstions
  53. ^ "Heritage Newsletter of the Palestinian Heritage Foundation Volume 6". Palestineheritage.org. http://www.palestineheritage.org/Newsletter_July_2005.htm. Retrieved November 13, 2011. 
  54. ^ January 14, 2009 – (January 14, 2009). "West Bank and Gaza Economy: Before and After the Crisis – Brookings Institution". Brookings.edu. http://www.brookings.edu/interviews/2009/0114_west_bank_gaza_dhillon.aspx. Retrieved November 13, 2011. 
  55. ^ Bronner, Ethan (November 11, 2009). "Blair Hails Economic Steps in West Bank". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2009/11/11/world/middleeast/11westbank.html?_r=1. 
  56. ^ "Ramallah building boom symbolizes West Bank growth". Reuters. August 2, 2010. http://www.reuters.com/article/idUSTRE67129P20100802. 
  57. ^ "Trondheims offisielle nettsted – Vennskapsbyer" (in (Norwegian)). Trondheim.com. http://www.trondheim.com/content.ap?thisId=93081934. Retrieved November 13, 2011. 

External links

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Игры ⚽ Поможем написать курсовую

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Ramallah — رام الله Blick über Ramallah (2010) Verwaltung …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Ramallah — Vue de Ramallah Administration Pays …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Ramallah — Основная информация …   Википедия

  • RAMALLAH — (Rām Allāh; al Bīra), twin towns in the northern Judean Hills, 9 mi. (15 km.) N. of Jerusalem. While al Bīra is supposed to stand on the site of biblical beeroth , Ramallah is generally identified with ramah . The twin towns occupy a strategic… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Ramallah — ▪ town in the West Bank also spelled  Rām Allāh        town in the West Bank, adjacent to the town of Al Bīrah (Bīrah, Al ) (east) and north of Jerusalem. Administered as part of the British mandate of Palestine (1920–48), Ramallah was part of… …   Universalium

  • Ramallah — Original name in latin Ramallah Name in other language Gorad Ramala, Rahm Alla, Ram Allah, Ramala, Ramalla, Ramallae, Ramallag , Ramallah, Ramallakh, Ramallh, Ramal·lah, Rmallh, Rm Allh, Rmalla, ZDM, la mu an la, lamalla, ram allh, ramarra, rxma… …   Cities with a population over 1000 database

  • Ramallah Underground — Ramallah Underground, based in Ramallah, Palestine, was born from the immediacy of musical experimentation and the need to give voice to a generation of Palestinians and Arabs who face a turbulent and uncertain political landscape.The collective… …   Wikipedia

  • Ramallah (Band) — Ramallah Allgemeine Informationen Genre(s) Metalcore Gründung 2001 Auflösung 2007 Letzte B …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Ramallah Friends Schools — Friends Boy s School, in 2011 The Ramallah Friends Schools are two elite Private Schools founded by Quakers in the city of Ramallah, in the West Bank.[1] The Friends Girls School was inaugurated in 1869; the construction of the Friends Boy s… …   Wikipedia

  • Ramallah and al-Bireh Governorate — The Ramallah and al Bireh Governorate ( ar. محافظة رام الله و البيرة) is one of 16 Governorates of the West Bank and Gaza Strip. It covers a large part of the central West Bank, on the northern border of the Jerusalem Governorate. Its district… …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”