Trondheim kommune — Municipality —
Coat of arms
Coordinates: Coordinates: Country Norway County Sør-Trøndelag District Trondheim Region Administrative centre Trondheim Government – Mayor (2003) Rita Ottervik (Ap) Area – Total 342.30 km2 (132.2 sq mi) – Land 321.81 km2 (124.3 sq mi) – Water 20.49 km2 (7.9 sq mi) Area rank 258 in Norway Population (2011) – Total 173,486 – Rank 3 in Norway – Density 539.1/km2 (1,396.3/sq mi) – Change (10 years) 15.5 % Demonym
Time zone CET (UTC+1) – Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2) ISO 3166 code NO-1601 Official language form Neutral Website www.trondheim.kommune.no Data from Statistics Norway Historical populations Year Pop. ±% 1769 11,315 — 1951 56,582 +400.1% 1960 59,286 +4.8% 1970 126,190 +112.8% 1980 134,726 +6.8% 1990 137,346 +1.9% 2000 148,859 +8.4% 2010 171,540 +15.2% 2020 198,209 +15.5% 2030 220,735 +11.4% Source: Statistics Norway
Trondheim (Norwegian pronunciation: [ˈtrɔnhæjm]), historically, Nidaros and Trondhjem, is a city and municipality in Sør-Trøndelag county, Norway. With a population of 173,486, it is the third most populous municipality and city in the country, although the fourth largest metropolitan area. It is the administrative centre of Sør-Trøndelag county. Trondheim lies on the south shore of the Trondheimsfjord at the mouth of the river Nidelva. The city is dominated by the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), SINTEF, St. Olavs University Hospital and other technology-oriented institutions.
The settlement was founded in 997 as a trading post, and was the capital of Norway during the Viking Age until 1217. From 1152 to 1537, the city was the seat of the Archdiocese of Nidaros; since it has remained the seat of the Diocese of Nidaros and the Nidaros Cathedral. It was incorporated in 1838. The current municipality dates from 1964, when Trondheim merged with Byneset, Leinstrand, Strinda and Tiller.
- 1 History
- 2 Geography
- 3 Cityscape
- 4 Political structure
- 5 Education and research
- 6 Media
- 7 Transport
- 8 Culture
- 9 International relations
- 10 See also
- 11 References
- 12 External links
- For the ecclesiastical history, see Archiepiscopate of Nidaros
Trondheim was named Kaupangen (English: market place or trading place) by Viking King Olav Tryggvason in 997. Fairly soon, it came to be called Nidaros. In the beginning it was frequently used as a military retainer (Old Norse: "hird"-man) of King Olav. It was frequently used as the seat of the king, and was capital of Norway until 1217.
People have been living in the region for thousands of years as evidenced by the rock carvings in central Norway, the Nøstvet and Lihult cultures and the Corded Ware culture. In ancient times, the Kings of Norway were hailed at Øretinget in Trondheim, the place for the assembly of all free men by the mouth of the river Nidelva. Harald Fairhair (865–933) was hailed as the king here, as was his son, Haakon I – called 'the Good'. The battle of Kalvskinnet took place in Trondheim in 1179: King Sverre Sigurdsson and his Birkebeiner warriors were victorious against Erling Skakke (a rival to the throne). Some scholars believe that the famous Lewis chessmen, 12th century chess pieces carved from walrus ivory found in the Hebrides and now at the British Museum, may have been made in Trondheim.
Trondheim was the seat of the (Catholic) Archdiocese of Nidaros for Norway from 1152. Due to the introduction of Lutheran Protestantism in 1537, the last Archbishop, Olav Engelbrektsson, had to flee from the city to the Netherlands, where he died in present-day Lier, Belgium.
The city has experienced several major fires. Since it was a city of log buildings, out of wood, most fires caused severe damage. Great fires ravaged the city in 1598, 1651, 1681, 1708, twice in 1717, 1742, 1788, 1841 and 1842; these were only the worst cases. The 1651 fire destroyed 90% of all buildings within the city limits. The fire in 1681 (the "Horneman Fire") led to an almost total reconstruction of the city, overseen by General Johan Caspar von Cicignon, originally from Luxembourg. Broad avenues like Munkegaten were created, with no regard for property rights, in order to stop the next fire. At the time, the city had a population of roughly 8000 inhabitants. After the Treaty of Roskilde on 26 February 1658, Trondheim and the rest of Trøndelag, became Swedish territory for a brief period, but the area was reconquered after 10 months. The conflict was finally settled by the Treaty of Copenhagen on 27 May 1660.
During World War II, Trondheim was occupied by Nazi Germany from 9 April 1940, the first day of the invasion of Norway, until the end of the war in Europe, 8 May 1945. The home of the most notorious Norwegian Gestapo agent, Henry Rinnan, it was also subject to harsh treatment by the occupying powers, including imposition of martial law in October 1942. During this time the Germans turned the city and its environs into a major base for submarines (DORA 1), and also contemplated a scheme to build a new city for 300,000 inhabitants, Nordstern ("Northern Star"), centred 15 km (10 mi) southwest of Trondheim, near the wetlands of Øysand in the outskirts of Melhus municipality. This new metropolis was to be accompanied by a massively expanded version of the already existing naval base, which was intended to become the primary future stronghold of the German Kriegsmarine. Today there are few physical remains of this enormous construction project.
The city of Trondheim was established on 1 January 1838 (see formannskapsdistrikt). On 1 January 1864, part of Strinda (population: 1,229) was transferred to Trondheim. Then on 1 January 1893, another part of Strinda (population: 4,097) was transferred to Trondheim. On 1 January 1952, the Lade area of Strinda (population: 2,230) was transferred to Trondheim. On 1 January 1964, a major municipal merger took place: the neighbouring municipalities of Leinstrand (population: 4,193), Byneset (population: 2,049), Strinda (population: 44,600), and Tiller (population: 3,595) were all merged together with the city of Trondheim (population: 56,982), which just about doubled the population of the municipality.
Following the example set by the renaming of the capital Kristiania to Oslo, Nidaros was reintroduced as the official name of the city for a brief period from 1 January 1930 until 6 March 1931. The name was restored in order to reaffirm the city's link with its glorious past, despite the fact that a 1928 referendum on the name of the city had given this result: 17,163 votes in favour of Trondhjem and 1,508 votes in favour of Nidaros. Public outrage later in the same year, even taking the form of riots, forced the Storting to settle for the medieval city name Trondheim. The name of the diocese was, however, changed from Trondhjem stift to Nidaros bispedømme (English: Diocese of Nidaros) in 1918.
Historically, Trondheimen indicates the area around the Trondheimsfjord. The spelling Trondhjem was officially rejected, but many still prefer that spelling of the city's name. Today, most inhabitants still refer to their city as Trånnhjæm.
Coat-of-arms and seal
The coat-of-arms dates back to the 13th century. To the left, there is an archbishop with his staff and mitre in a church archway. On the right, a crowned king holding scales in a castle archway. These two pictures rest on a base which forms an arch. Underneath that arch, are three male heads which symbolize the city's rank as Norway's first capital and the archbishop's place of residence. The scales symbolize justice and the motif is based on the political philosophy of the 13th century, where the balance of power between king and church was an important issue. The three heads at the bottom may symbolize the city council. The motif is unique in Norwegian municipal heraldry, but similar motifs are found in bishopric cities on the continent. The design of the coat-of-arms that was adopted in 1897, and is still used today, was made by Håkon Thorsen.
Trondheim is situated where the river Nidelva meets Trondheimsfjorden with an excellent harbour and sheltered condition. The river used to be deep enough for most boats in the Middle Ages. An avalanche of mud and stones made it less navigable and partly ruined the harbour in the mid-17th century.
The municipality's top elevation is the Storheia hill, 565 metres (1,854 ft) above sea level. At summer solstice, the sun rises at 03:00 and sets at 23:40, but stays just below the horizon–there is no darkness from 20 May to 20 July. At winter solstice, the sun rises at 10:00, stays very low above the horizon, and sets at 14:30.
Trondheim city has a predominantly Oceanic climate, but borders on humid continental and subarctic climate. The part of the municipality further away from the fjord has colder winters and is subarctic (January mean at Klett 1961-90 is −5.5 °C (22 °F)). The part close to the fjord, such as the city center, has milder winters (January mean Trondheim city center 58 m amsl 1961-90 is −2.5 °C (27 °F). Trondheim is mostly sheltered from the strong winds which can occour along the outer seabord. The warmest temperature ever recorded is 35 °C (95 °F) on 22 July 1901, and the coldest is −26.1 °C (−15.0 °F) in February 1899. Trondheim experiences moderate snowfall from November to March, but mixed with mild weather and rainfall. There are on average 14 days each winter with at least 25 cm snow cover on the ground and 22 days with daily minimum temperature −10 °C (14 °F) or colder. There is often substantially more snow in suburban areas at somewhat higher elevation, such as Byåsen and Heimdal, with good skiing conditions in Bymarka. Spring often sees much sunshine, but nights can be chilly or cold. The daily high temperature can exceed 20 °C (68 °F) from late April to late September, but not reliably so; on average are 34 days each summer warmer than 20 °C (68 °F). October is the most typical autumn month with cool temperatures and fall foliage, while November is considerably darker and colder. Average annual precipitation is 892 millimetres (35.1 in) fairly evenly spread out over the year, although September and October typically sees twice as much precipitation as March, April and May. Temperatures have tended to be warmer in recent years. The Trøndelag area has seen average temperatures increase by almost 2 °C (3.60 °F) in the last 25 years.
Climate data for Trondheim (1961–90) Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Average high °C (°F) 0.1
9.0 Average low °C (°F) −6.5
1.8 Precipitation mm (inches) 63
Sunshine hours 23.4 65.2 118.8 158.5 215.1 197.4 178 176 111.5 61.6 31.7 9.3 1,346.5 Source: World Weather Information Service All data is for Trondheim – Værnes (12 m amsl), base period is 1961–1990. Sunhours data provided by met.no for Tyholt/Voll, Trondheim. Climate data for Trondheim (2009) Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Average high °C (°F) 1.9
9.7 Average low °C (°F) −3.5
3.1 Precipitation mm (inches) 92
Source: Meteorologisk institutt All data is for Trondheim – Voll (127 m amsl), 2009.
Several wetland habitats can be found within the city limits. The Gaulosen is one of these. Here you will find a newly built observation tower and information on the birdlife that can be found.
Despite Trondheim being Norway's third largest city, wild animals can be seen. Otters and beavers thrive in Nidelva and Bymarka. Badgers and foxes are not uncommon sights. Moose and deer are common in the hills surrounding the city, and might wander into the city, especially in May when the one year olds are chased away by their mothers, or in late winter when food grows scarce in the snow-covered higher regions. Since 2002, a wolverine has stayed in Bymarka.
Most of the downtown area is scattered with small specialty stores and shops, however a considerable part of the downtown shopping area is concentrated around the pedestrian street Nordre gate (English: Northern street) and the Olav Tryggvasons gate even though the rest of the city center also is riddled with everything from old, well established companies to new, hip and trendy shops.
In the mid- to late 1990s, the area surrounding the old drydock and ship construction buildings of the defunct Trondhjems mekaniske Værksted shipbuilding company at the Nedre Elvehavn were renovated and old industrial buildings were torn down to make way for condominiums. A shopping mall was also built, known as Solsiden (The Sunny Side). This is a popular residential and shopping area, especially for young people.
DORA 1 is a German submarine base that housed the 13th U-boat Flotilla during the World War II occupation of Norway. Today the bunker houses various archives, among them the city archives, the university and state archives. More recently, DORA has been used as a concert venue.
A statue of Olav Tryggvason, the founder of Trondheim, is located in the city's central plaza, mounted on top of an obelisk. The statue base is also a sun dial, but it is calibrated to UTC+1 so that the reading is inaccurate by one hour in the summer.
Stiftsgården is the royal residence in Trondheim, originally constructed in 1774 by Cecilie Christine Schøller. At 140 rooms constituting 4,000 square metres (43,056 sq ft), it is possibly the largest wooden building in Northern Europe, and has been used by royals and their guests since 1800.
A statue of Leif Ericson is located at the seaside, close to the old Customs Building, the cruise ship facilities and the new swimming Hall. The statue is a replica, the original being located at a Seattle marina.
The Nidaros Cathedral and the Archbishop's Palace are located side by side in the middle of the city centre. The cathedral, built from 1070 on, is the most important Gothic monument in Norway and was Northern Europe's most important Christian pilgrimage site during the Middle Ages, with pilgrimage routes from Oslo in southern Norway and from the Jämtland and Värmland regions of Sweden. Today, it is the northernmost medieval cathedral in the world, and the second largest in Scandinavia.
During the Middle Ages, and again after independence was restored in 1814, the Nidaros Cathedral was the coronation church of the Norwegian kings. King Haakon VII was the last monarch to be crowned there, in 1906. Starting with King Olav V in 1957, coronation was replaced by consecration. In 1991, the present King Harald V and Queen Sonja were consecrated in the cathedral. On 24 May 2002, their daughter Princess Märtha Louise married the writer Ari Behn in the cathedral.
The Pilgrim's Route (Pilegrimsleden) to the site of Saint Olufs's tomb at Nidaros Cathedral, has recently been re-instated. Also known as St. Olav's Way, (Sankt Olavs vei), the main route, which is approximately 640 kilometres (400 mi) long, starts in Oslo and heads North, along the Lake Mjøsa, up the valley Gudbrandsdalen, over the mountain range Dovrefjell and down the Oppdal valley to end at Nidaros Cathedral in Trondheim. There is a Pilgrim's Office in Oslo which gives advice to pilgrims, and a Pilgrim Centre in Trondheim, under the aegis of the cathedral, which awards certificates to successful pilgrims upon the completion of their journey.
Trondheim Museum of Arts has Norway's third largest public art collection, mainly Norwegian art from the last 150 years. The National Museum of Decorative Arts boasts a large collection of decorative arts and design, including a great number of tapestries from the Norwegian tapestry artist Hannah Ryggen, as well as Norway's only permanent exhibibition of Japanese arts and crafts. Sverresborg, also named Zion after King David's castle in Jerusalem, was a fortification built by Sverre Sigurdsson. It is now an open air museum, consisting of more than 60 buildings. The castle was originally built in 1182–1183, but did not last for long as it was burned down in 1188. However, the Sverresaga indicates it had been restored by 1197.
Trondheim Science Museum (Norwegian: Vitensenteret i Trondheim) is a scientific hands-on experience center. The Museum of Natural History and Archaeology is part of the Norwegian University of Science and Technology. There are also a variety of small history, science and natural history museums, such as the Trondheim Maritime Museum, the Armoury, adjacent to the Archbishops's Palace, the music and musical instrument museum Ringve National Museum, Ringve Botanical Garden, the Trondheim Tramway Museum, and the Jewish Museum, co-located with the city's synagogue, which is among the northernmost in the world.
Rockheim (National Center of Pop and Rock Culture) opened at the Pier in August 2010. It is located inside an old building, but characterized by an easily recognizable roof the shape of a box. "The box" is decorated by thousands of tiny lights that changes in a variety of coulours and patterns, and is a landmark in the cityscape - especially in dark winter evenings.
The Church of Norway has 21 churches within the municipality of Trondheim. They are all a part of the Diocese of Nidaros, which is based in Trondheim at the Nidaros Cathedral. Many of the churches are several hundred years old, with a couple that were built almost 1000 years ago.
Churches in Trondheim Deanery
Church Name Year Built Location
of the Church
Nidaros Nidaros Domkirke og Vår Frue Nidaros Cathedral 1070–1300 Midtbyen Vår Frue Church 1200 Midtbyen Bakklandet Bakke Church 1715 Bakklandet Lade Lade Church 1190 Lade Lademoen Lademoen Church 1905 Lademoen Byåsen Byåsen Byåsen Church 1974 Byåsen Ilen Ilen Church 1889 Ila Sverresborg Havstein Church 1857 Sverresborg Heimdal Byneset Byneset Church 1180 Byneset Heimdal Heimdal Church 1960 Heimdal Kolstad Kolstad Church 1986 Kolstad Leinstrand Leinstrand Church 1673 Leinstrand Tiller Tiller Church 1901 Tiller Strinda Berg Berg Church 1972 Berg Bratsberg Bratsberg Church 1850 Bratsberg Charlottenlund Charlottenlund Church 1973 Charlottenlund Hoeggen Hoeggen Church 1997 Lerkendal Ranheim Ranheim Church 1933 Ranheim Strinda Strinda Church 1900 Strinda Strindheim Strindheim Church 1979 Strindheim Tempe Tempe Church 1960 Lerkendal
On 1 January 2005, the city was reorganized from five boroughs into four, with each of these having separate social services offices. The current boroughs are Midtbyen (44,967 inhabitants), Østbyen (42,707 inhabitants), Lerkendal (46,603 inhabitants) and Heimdal (30,744) inhabitants. Population statistics are as of 1 January 2008.
Prior to 2005, Trondheim was divided into the boroughs Sentrum, Strinda, Nardo, Byåsen and Heimdal.
City council elections 2007 Party Percent Votes Seats in council Members of the
% ± total ± total ± Labour (AP) 44.0 13.3 33184 12539 37 11 5 Progress (FrP) 14.7 3.1 11113 3325 13 3 1 Conservative(H) 15.0 -5.3 11351 -2365 13 -5 2 Christian Democrat (KrF) 3.5 -0.1 2640 174 3 0 0 Centre (SP) 2.7 -0.4 2035 -61 2 -1 1 Socialist Left (SV) 8.2 -9.6 6170 -5763 7 -8 1 Liberal (V) 4.0 1.2 3033 1160 3 1 1 Pensioners (PP) 1.5 -3.2 1145 -2023 1 -3 Red Electoral Alliance (RV) 3.4 0.7 2542 736 3 1 Green Party (MDG) 2.0 0.4 1522 435 2 1 Democrats (D) 0.9 -0.1 662 -3 1 0 Turnover/Total 60% 75497 85 11 Mayor: Rita Ottervik (Ap) Deputy mayor: Knut Fagerbakke (SV) Comments: Source: Ministry of Local Government
Education and research
- See also the list of primary schools in Trondheim.
There are 11 high schools in the city. Trondheim katedralskole ("Trondheim Cathedral School") was founded in 1152 and is the oldest gymnasium-level school of Norway, while Brundalen videregående skole is the largest in Sør-Trøndelag with its 1100 students and 275 employees.
The Norwegian university of science and technology (NTNU) and the College of Sør-Trøndelag (HiST) are also situated here.
One regional hospital, the St. Olavs University Hospital, is located in Trondheim. The university hospital, cooperates closely with the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU). A new hospital is currently being built, with a projected cost of 12 billion NOK.
SINTEF, the largest independent research organisation in Scandinavia, has 1800 employees with 1300 of these located in Trondheim. The Air Force Academy of the Royal Norwegian Air Force is located at Kuhaugen in Trondheim.
Adresseavisen is the largest regional newspaper and the oldest active newspaper in Norway, having been established in 1767. The newspaper owns the regional television channel TVAdressa and the radio channel RadioAdressa. The two Headquarters of The Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation (NRK) are located at Tyholt in Trondheim and Oslo. The student milieu of Trondheim features three types of media. Under Dusken is the student paper, Radio Revolt is the student radio, and Student-TV broadcasts videos online.
The Coastal Express ships (Hurtigruten: Covering the Bergen–Kirkenes stretch of the coast) call at Trondheim, as do many cruise ships during the summer season. Since 1994 there is also a fast commuter boat service to Kristiansund, the closest coastal city to the southwest.
Trondheim also boasts the northernmost (since closure of Arkhangelsk tram in 2004) tramway line in the world: the Gråkallen Line, the last remaining segment of the Trondheim Tramway, is an 8.8 kilometres (5.5 mi) route (which is mostly single-track outside the inner most parts of the city; except the stretch between Breidablikk and Nordre Hoem stations) which runs from the city centre, through the Byåsen district, and up to Lian, in the large recreation area Bymarka. Trondheim boasts the world's only bicycle lift, Trampe.
The bus network, operated by AtB, runs throughout most of the city and its suburbs. In addition, the Nattbuss (Night Bus) service ensures cheap and effective transport for those enjoying nightlife in the city centre during the weekends. Note that the Nattbus has other prices than ordinary busses. The European route E6 highway passes through the city centre of Trondheim in addition to a motorway bypass along the eastern rim of the city.
The main regional theatre, Trøndelag Teater, is situated in Trondheim. The theatre is the oldest theatre in Scandinavia; still in use from 1816. The city also features an alternative theatre house, called Avant Garden.
Trondheim has a broad music scene, and is known for its strong communities committed to rock, jazz and classical music, the latter two spearheaded by the music conservatory at NTNU and the municipal music school, Trondheim Kommunale Musikk- og Kulturskole, with the Trondheim Symphony Orchestra and the Trondheim Soloists being the best-known arenas. Classical artists hailing from Trondheim include violinist Arve Tellefsen, Elise Båtnes and Marianne Thorsen. Also the Nidaros Cathedral Boys' Choir.
Pop/rock artists and bands associated with Trondheim include Åge Aleksandersen, Margaret Berger, DumDum Boys, Gåte, Keep Of Kalessin, Lumsk, Motorpsycho, Kari Rueslåtten, The 3rd and the Mortal, TNT, Tre Små Kinesere, The Kids, Casino Steel (of The Boys), Atrox, Bloodthorn, Manes, child prodigy Malin Reitan and Aleksander With. The most popular punk scene is UFFA.
Trondheim features a lively film scene, including three filmfests: Minimalen Short Film Fest and Kosmorama International Film Fest in March, and Trondheim Documentarfestival in November.
Sports and recreation
Granåsen, a Nordic skiing venue located in Byåsen, regularly hosts World Cup competitions in ski jumping, biathlon and cross-country skiing, as well as the 1997 FIS Nordic World Ski Championships. Trondheim attempted but failed to become the Norwegian candidate for the 2018 Winter Olympics. Hiking and recreational skiing is available around the city, particularly in Bymarka, which can be reached by the tramway. Trondheim Golfklubb has a nine-hole golf course in Byåsen. The World Allround Speed Skating Championships has been hosted at Øya Stadion in 1907, 1911, 1926, 1933 and 1937.
Rosenborg BK is the city's premier football club and plays their home matches at Lerkendal Stadion. They have won the Norwegian Premier League twentytwo times from 1967 to 2010, and had until 2007 played eleven times in UEFA Champions League. Byåsen IL plays in the Women's handball league, and is a regular in EHF Women's Champions League, playing their home games at Trondheim Spektrum. Rosenborg IHK plays in the premier ice hockey league, with their home games played at Leangen Ishall.
With students comprising almost a fifth of the population, the city of Trondheim is heavily influenced by student culture. Most noticeable is Studentersamfundet i Trondhjem, the city's student society. Its characteristic round, red building from 1929 sits at the head of the bridge crossing the river southwards from the city centre. As the second largest university in Norway, the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) is the host of some 24,000 students. Sør-Trøndelag University College has 6,000 students.
Student culture in Trondheim is characterized by a long-standing tradition of volunteer work. The student society is for example run by more than 1,200 volunteers. NTNUI, Norway's largest sports club, is among the other volunteer organizations that dominate student culture in Trondheim. Students of Trondheim are also behind two major Norwegian culture festivals, UKA and The International Student Festival in Trondheim (ISFiT). NTNU lists over 200 student organizations with registered web pages at its servers alone.
Twin towns – Sister cities
- ^ "Trondhjemmer" (in Norwegian). www.trondheim.com. http://www.trondheim.com/content.ap?thisId=92936487&language=0. Retrieved 9 January 2008.
- ^ "Personnemningar til stadnamn i Noreg" (in Norwegian). Språkrådet. http://www.sprakrad.no/nb-no/Sprakhjelp/Rettskrivning_Ordboeker/Innbyggjarnamn/.
- ^ Statistisk sentralbyrå (2001) (in Norwegian) (PDF). Folke- og boligtellingen 2001, kommune- og bydelshefter 1601 Trondheim. http://www.ssb.no/fob/kommunehefte/1601/fob_1601_tabeller.pdf.
- ^ "Tabell 6 Folkemengde per 1. januar, etter fylke og kommune. Registrert 2010. Framskrevet 2011–2030, alternativ MMMM" (in Norwegian). Statistics Norway. http://www.ssb.no/emner/02/03/folkfram/tab-2010-06-15-06.html. Retrieved 19 April 2011.
- ^ Hitlers drøm om Trondheim (Norwegian)
- ^ Jukvam, Dag (1999). "Historisk oversikt over endringer i kommune- og fylkesinndelingen" (in Norwegian). Statistisk sentralbyrå. http://www.ssb.no/emner/00/90/rapp_9913/rapp_9913.pdf.
- ^ Bratberg, Terje T. V. (10 January 2008). "Striden om bynavnet". Arbeideravisa (Trondheim): p. 27. (Norwegian)
- ^ "Trondheim's coat of arms and seal". Trondheim kommune. http://www.trondheim.no/content.ap?thisId=519505. Retrieved 29 October 2008.
- ^ Trondheim, Norway – Sunrise, sunset, dawn and dusk times for the whole year – Gaisma
- ^ World Weather Information Service – Trondheim
- ^ http://retro.met.no/Trondheim climate statistic
- ^ "See Norway's snow, weather, water and climate anytime anywhere". http://senorge.no/mapPage.aspx. Retrieved 29 December 2007.
- ^ "Nyhet fra Meteorologisk institutt" (in Norwegian). met.no. 27 November 2007. http://met.no/aktuelt/nyhetsarkiv/2007/11november/speilsalen.html.
- ^ "Bymarkbeveren skal holdes i sjakk". http://www.adressa.no/nyheter/trondheim/article347991.ece. Retrieved 3 August 2007. (Norwegian)
- ^ "Jerven som flyktet til byen". http://www.adressa.no/nyheter/dokument/article1077747.ece. Retrieved 9 May 2008. (Norwegian)
- ^ "Pilgrim ways in Norway, background". Trondheim kommune. http://www.trondheim.com/content.ap?thisId=5510350. Retrieved 4 August 2007.
- ^ "The consecration of King Harald and Queen Sonja". The Norwegian Royal Family. http://www.kongehuset.no/c27283/artikkel/vis.html?tid=28740. Retrieved 3 August 2007.
- ^ "The wedding of Princess Märtha Louise". The Norwegian Royal Family. http://www.kongehuset.no/c28617/artikkel/vis.html?tid=28747. Retrieved 3 August 2007.
- ^ "Pilegrimsleden (Miljøstatus i Norge)" (in Norwegian). http://www.miljostatus.no/Tema/Kulturminner/Kulturmiljoer/Pilegrimsleden/.
- ^ Raju, Alison (2010). The Pilgrim Road to Nidaros: St Olav's Way - Oslo to Trondheim. Cicerone Press Limited. ISBN 9781852843144.
- ^ [dead link]
- ^ http://www.nkim.museum.no/
- ^ The Hospital Development Project for Central Norway
- ^ About us – SINTEF
- ^ Haugan, Trond E (2008). Byens magiske rom: Historien om Trondheim kino. Tapir Akademisk Forlag. ISBN 9788251922425.
- ^ "About Studentersamfundet" (in Norwegian). Archived from the original on 9 November 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20071109182411/http://www.samfundet.no/informasjon/omsamfundet.php. Retrieved 18 February 2008.
- ^ "NTNU Student Organizations (in Norwegian". http://org.ntnu.no/. Retrieved 18 February 2008.
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Trondheims offisielle nettsted – Vennskapsbyer
- ^ Town Twinnings and international relations (from the official city website. Retrieved 11 August 2008.
- ^ "Twin Towns – Graz Online – English Version". www.graz.at. http://www.graz.at/cms/beitrag/10045157/606819/. Retrieved 5 January 2010.
- ^ ( part of de facto independent Transnistria)
- Municipal fact sheet from Statistics Norway
- Municipality website (Norwegian)
- Trondheim.no, Trondheim's official website in Norwegian and English
- Trondheim travel guide from Wikitravel
Articles and topics related to Trondheim Municipalities of Sør-Trøndelag 40 most populous urban settlements (cities) of Norway1 Sarpsborg. 50 most populous urban areas in the Nordic countries
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.