Ski jumping

Ski jumping
Ski jumping
Letalnica brothers Gorisek Planica.jpg
Letalnica Bratov Gorišek in Planica, Slovenia
Highest governing body International Ski Federation
First played 1808
Eidsberg, Norway
Team members Individual or groups
Olympic 2010
Ski jumping facility in Einsiedeln, Switzerland
The Ski Jumping Complex in Pragelato during the 2006 Winter Olympics of Turin.

Ski jumping is a sport in which skiers go down a take-off ramp, jump and attempt to land as far as possible down the hill below. In addition to the length of the jump, judges give points for style. The skis used for ski jumping are wide and long (260 to 275 centimetres (100 to 108 in)). Ski jumping is predominantly a winter sport, performed on snow, and is part of the Winter Olympic Games, but can also be performed in summer on artificial surfaces – porcelain or frost rail track on the inrun, plastic on the landing hill.



True ski jumping originates in Morgedal, Norway. Olaf Rye, a Norwegian lieutenant, was the first known ski jumper. In 1809, he launched himself 9.5 metres in the air in front of an audience of other soldiers. By 1862, ski jumpers were tackling much larger jumps and traveling longer. Norway's Sondre Norheim jumped 30 metres over a rock without the benefit of poles. His record stood for three decades. The first proper competition was held in Trysil. The first widely known ski jumping competition was the Husebyrennene, held in Oslo in 1879, with Olaf Haugann of Norway setting the first world record for the longest ski jump at 20 metres.[1] The annual event was moved to Holmenkollen from 1892, and Holmenkollen has remained the pinnacle of ski jumping venues.

According to the International Olympic Committee's site[2]:

Ski jumping has been part of the Olympic Winter Games since the first Games in Chamonix Mont-Blanc in 1924. The Large Hill competition was included on the Olympic programme for the 1964 Olympic Games in Innsbruck.


Today, FIS Ski Jumping World Cup are held on three types of hills:

Normal hill competitions
for which the calculation line is found at approximately 80–100 metres (260–330 ft). Distances of up to and over 110 metres (360 ft) can be reached.
Large hill competitions
for which the calculation line is found at approximately 120–130 metres (390–430 ft). Distances of over 145 metres (476 ft) can be obtained on the larger hills. Both individual and team competitions are run on these hills.
Ski-flying competitions
for which the calculation line is found at 185 metres (607 ft). The Ski Flying World Record of 246.5 metres (809 ft) is held by Johan Remen Evensen, and was set in Vikersundbakken, Norway in February 2011.

Amateur and junior competitions are held on smaller hills.

Individual Olympic competition consists of a training jump and two scored jumps. The team event consists of four members of the same nation, who each jump twice.

Ski jumping is one of the two elements of the Nordic combined sport.

Summer jumping

Ski jumping can also be performed in the summer on a porcelain track and plastic grass combined with water. There are also many competitions during the summer. The World Cup (Summer Grand Prix) often includes those hills:

Ski jumping Fis-Cup and Continental Cup also have summer competitions and even more than the World Cup.

Women's ski jumping

On 26 May 2006, the International Ski Federation decided to allow women to ski jump at the 2009 Nordic World Ski Championships in Liberec, Czech Republic and then to have a team event for women at the 2011 world championships. FIS also decided to submit a proposal to the International Olympic Committee (IOC) to allow women to compete at the 2010 Winter Olympics in Vancouver.[3]

On 28 November 2006, the proposal for a women's ski jumping event was rejected by the Executive Board of the IOC. The reason for the rejection cited the low number of athletes as well as few participating countries in the sport. The Executive Board noted that women's ski jumping has yet to be fully established internationally.[4] Jacques Rogge, president of the International Olympic Committee stated that women's ski jumping will not be an Olympic event because "we do not want the medals to be diluted and watered down," referring to the relatively small number of potential competitors in women's ski jumping.[5]

It has been noted that while the number of women in ski jumping is not insignificant, the field has a much wider spread in terms of talent, in that the top men are all of a similar level of strength competitively, while the women are more varied, even in the top tiers.[6]

A group of 15 competitive female ski jumpers filed a suit against the Vancouver Organizing Committee (VANOC) claiming that conducting a men's ski jumping event without a women's event in the Vancouver Winter Olympics in 2010 would be in direct violation of Section 15 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms.[7] The arguments associated with this suit were argued 20 to 24 April 2009 and a judgment came down on June 10, 2009 against the ski jumpers. The judge ruled that although the women were being discriminated against,[8] the issue is a International Olympic Committee responsibility and thus not governed by the charter. It further ruled that the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms does not apply to VANOC.[9] Three British Columbia judges unanimously denied an appeal on November 13, 2009. The American actress and documentary film producer Virginia Madsen has chronicled the Canadian team's efforts in a film called Fighting Gravity (2009).[10]

On April 6, 2011 the International Olympic Committee officially accepted women ski jumping into the official Olympic program for the 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi, Russia.[11]


All Pre-World Cup, Olympic Games, World Championships & World Cup events are included. (As of 20 March 2011)

Category Ski Jumper Record Date/Year
Olympic Games (1924-2010)
most individual victories Switzerland Simon Ammann 4 2002–2010
all medals Finland Matti Nykänen 5 1984–1988
most team victories Finland Finland Team 2 1988–1992
Germany Germany Team 2 1994–2002
Austria Austria Team 2 2006–2010
most team medals Austria Austria Team 5 1992–2010
youngest winner individual (Albertville) Finland Toni Nieminen 16 y, 261 d 1992
oldest winner individual (Lillehammer) Germany Jens Weißflog 29 y, 214 d 1994
by No. of Olympic appearances Japan Noriaki Kasai 6 1992–2010
FIS Nordic World Ski Championships (1925-2011)
most individual victories Poland Adam Małysz 4 2001–2007
most individual medals Poland Adam Małysz 6 2001–2011
all medals Finland Janne Ahonen 10 1995–2005
Germany Martin Schmitt 10 1997–2011
most team victories Austria Austria Team 8 1984–2011
most team medals Austria Austria Team 14 1984–2011
youngest winner individual (Thunder Bay) Norway Tommy Ingebrigtsen 17 y, 222 d 1995
oldest winner individual (Liberec) Switzerland Andreas Küttel 29 y, 308 d 2009
by No. of Championships appearances Japan Noriaki Kasai 10 1989–2009
FIS Ski-Flying World Championships (1972-2010)
most individual victories Switzerland Walter Steiner 2 1972–1977
Germany Sven Hannawald 2 2000–2002
Norway Roar Ljøkelsøy 2 2004–2006
most individual medals Finland Matti Nykänen 5 1983–1990
all medals Finland Janne Ahonen 7 1996–2008
most team victories Norway Norway Team 2 2004–2006
Austria Austria Team 2 2008–2010
most team medals Norway Norway Team 4 2004–2010
Finland Finland Team 4 2004–2010
youngest winner individual (Oberstdorf) Austria Gregor Schlierenzauer 18 y, 47 d 2008
oldest winner individual (Bad Mitterndorf) Norway Roar Ljøkelsøy 29 y, 228 d 2006
by No. of Championships appearances Finland Janne Ahonen 9 1994–2010
Four Hills Tournament (1952-2011)
most overall victories Finland Janne Ahonen 5 1999–2008
most individual victories Germany Jens Weißflog 10 1983–1996
youngest winner individual (Oberstdorf) Finland Toni Nieminen 16 y, 212 d 29 December 1991
oldest winner individual (Bischofshofen) Germany Jens Weißflog 31 y, 169 d 6 January 1996
youngest winner overall Finland Toni Nieminen 16 y, 220 d 1991–92
oldest winner overall Germany Jens Weißflog 31 y, 169 d 1995–96
World Cup (1979-2011)
most overall wins Finland Matti Nykänen 4 1983–1988
Poland Adam Małysz 4 2001–2007
most individual victories Finland Matti Nykänen 46 1981–1989
most individual podiums Finland Janne Ahonen 108 1993–2010
most individual Top 10 results Finland Janne Ahonen 245 1993–2011
most team victories Austria Austria team 23 1990–2011
most team medals Austria Austria team 45 1990–2011
most individual performances Japan Noriaki Kasai 396 1989-active
most team performances Japan Noriaki Kasai 39 1990-active
all performances Japan Noriaki Kasai 435 1989-active
most seasons Japan Noriaki Kasai 22 1989-active
most ski-flying individual victories Austria Gregor Schlierenzauer 10 2006-active
youngest winner individual (Lahti) Canada Steve Collins 15 y, 362 d 9 March 1980
oldest winner individual (Kuopio) Japan Takanobu Okabe 38 y, 135 d 10 March 2009
youngest winner overall Finland Toni Nieminen 16 y, 303 d 1991-92
oldest winner overall Poland Adam Małysz 29 y, 112 d 2006-07
most wins in one season individual Austria Gregor Schlierenzauer 13 2008-09
most points in one season individual Austria Gregor Schlierenzauer 2083 (points) 2008-09
Other records (all times)
first jump over 100m (Planica) Austria Sepp Bradl 101m 1936
first jump over 200m (Planica) Austria Andreas Goldberger (fall, invalid) 202m* 1994
Finland Toni Nieminen (official) 203m 1994
most jumps over 200m Poland Adam Małysz 114 1995-2011
world record (Vikersund) Norway Johan Remen Evensen 246.5m 2011
first World Cup individual event Italy Cortina d'Ampezzo December 1979
first World Cup team event Finland Lahti March 1990


The winner is decided on a scoring system based on distance, style, inrun length and wind conditions.

Each hill has a target called the calculation point (or K point or "critical point") which is a par distance to aim for. It is also the place where many jumpers land, in the middle of the landing area. This point is marked by the K line on the landing strip. For K-90 and K-120 competitions, the K line is at 90 metres (300 ft) and 120 metres (390 ft) respectively. Skiers are awarded 60 points if they land on the K Line. Skiers not landing on the K Line receive or lose points for every metre (3 ft) they miss the mark by, depending on if they surpass it or fall short, respectively. Thus, it is possible for a jumper to get a negative score if the jump is way short of the K line with poor style marks (typically a fall). The value of a metre is determined from the size of the hill. The K point is the point on the hill where the slope begins to flatten as measured from the take off.

In addition, five judges are based in a tower to the side of the expected landing point. They can award up to 20 points each for style based on keeping the skis steady during flight, balance, good body position, and landing. The highest and lowest style scores are disregarded, with the remaining three scores added to the distance score. Thus, a perfectly scored K-120 jump - with at least four of the judges awarding 20 points each - and the jumper landing on the K-point, is awarded a total of 120 points.

In January 2010, a new scoring system was introduced to compensate for variable outdoor conditions. Aerodynamics and take-off speed are important variables that determine the value of a jump, and if weather conditions change during a competition, the conditions will not be equal for everyone and thus unfair. The jumper will now receive or lose points if the inrun length is adjusted. An advanced calculation also determines plus/minus points for the actual wind conditions at the time of the jump. These points are added or withdrawn from the original scores from the jump itself.

In the individual event, the scores from each skier's two competition jumps are combined to determine the winner.


Ski jumpers below the minimum safe body mass index are penalized with a shorter maximum ski length, reducing the aerodynamic lift they can achieve. These rules have been credited with stopping the most severe cases of underweight athletes, but some competitors still lose weight to maximize the distance they can jump.[12]


The ski jump is divided into four separate sections; 1) In-run, 2) Take-off (jump), 3) Flight and 4) Landing. In each part the athlete is required to pay attention to and practice a particular technique in order to maximise the outcome of ultimate length and style marks.

Using the modern V-technique, pioneered by Jan Boklöv of Sweden in 1985, world-class skiers are able to exceed the distance of the take-off hill by about 10% compared to the previous technique with parallel skis. Aerodynamics has become a factor of increasing importance in modern ski jumping, with recent rules addressing the regulation of ski jumping suits. This follows a period when loopholes in the rules seemed to favour skinny jumpers in stiff, air foil-like suits.

Previous techniques first included the Kongsberger technique, developed in Kongsberg, Norway by two ski jumpers, Jacob Tullin Thams and Sigmund Ruud following World War I. This technique had the upper body bent at the hip, a wide forward lean, and arms extended to the front with the skis parallel to each other. It would lead to jumping length going from 45 meters to over 100 meters. In the 1950s Andreas Daescher of Switzerland and Erich Windisch of Germany modified the Kongsberger technique by placing his arms backward toward his hips for a closer lean. The Daescher technique and Windisch technique were the standard for ski jumping from the 1950s.

Until the mid 1970s, the Ski jumper would come down the in-run of the hill with both arms pointing forwards. This changed when the former East German Ski jumper Jochen Danneberg introduced the new in-run technique of directing the arms backwards in a more aerodynamic position.

The landing requires the skiers to touch the ground in the Telemark landing style. This involves the jumper landing with one foot in front of the other, mimicking the style of the Norwegian inventors of Telemark skiing. Failure to comply with this regulation will lead to the deduction of style marks (points).


Ski jumping is popular among spectators and TV audiences in Scandinavia and Central Europe. Almost all world-class ski jumpers come from those regions or from Japan. Traditionally, the strongest countries are Finland, Norway, Germany, Austria, Poland, Switzerland, Slovenia, and Japan. However, there have always been successful ski jumpers from other countries as well (see list below). The Four Hills Tournament, held annually at four sites in Bavaria, Germany and Austria around New Year's, is very popular.

There have been attempts to spread the popularity of the sport by finding ways by which the construction and upkeep of practicing and competition venues can be made easier. These include plastic fake snow to provide a slippery surface even during the summer time and in locations where snow is a rare occurrence.

Ski flying

List of ski flying hills

Hill name Location Opened K-point Hill size Hill record
Norway Vikersundbakken Vikersund, Norway 1936 K-195 HS 225 246.5 metres (809 ft)
Slovenia Letalnica Bratov Gorišek Planica, Slovenia 1969 K-185 HS 215 239.0 metres (784.1 ft)
Germany Heini-Klopfer-Skiflugschanze Oberstdorf, Germany 1950 K-185 HS 213 225.5 metres (740 ft)
Czech Republic Čerťák Harrachov, Czech Republic 1979 K-185 HS 205 215.5 metres (707 ft)
Austria Kulm Bad Mitterndorf, Austria 1950 K-185 HS 200 215.5 metres (707 ft)
United States Copper Peak Ironwood, Michigan, United States 1969 K-145 - 158.0 metres (518.4 ft)

Ski flying is an extreme version of ski jumping. The events take place in big hills with a K-spot of at least 185 metres (607 ft). The difference between ski flying and "regular" ski jumping is subtle, but ski flying puts more focus on the ability to float through the air and less on pure jumping ability. Nonetheless, most of the top competitors in "regular" ski jumping tend to be among the best in ski flying competitions as well. However, some jumpers, such as Martin Koch of Austria, Johan Remen Evensen from Norway and Slovenia's Robert Kranjec are regarded as ski flying specialists.

The "father" of ski flying is Janez Gorišek, an engineer, sportsman and enthusiastic sport-promoter who designed the Planica ski-jump. There are five ski flying hills in the world today: Vikersundbakken in Vikersund, Norway; Oberstdorf, Germany; Kulm Austria; Letalnica, Planica, Slovenia; and Harrachov, Czech Republic. A sixth hill, Copper Peak in the western Upper Peninsula of Michigan, is currently disused, although there are plans to rebuild it to FIS standards.[13] There are plans for more ski flying hills, even for an indoor ski flying hill in Ylitornio, Finland. The biggest hill is Vikersundbakken in Vikersund.

It is possible to fly more than 200 metres (660 ft) in all the ski flying hills, and the current World Record is 246.5 metres (809 ft), set by Norwegian Johan Remen Evensen at Vikersund in 2011.

The Fédération Internationale de Ski (FIS) Ski flying World Championships started in 1972 and have been held on a mainly biennial basis, although there have been several occasions where events were held annually. The 2010 FIS World Championships in skiflying were organised in Planica, and in 2012 the FIS World Championships will take place in Vikersund, Norway.

Record number of official jumps over 200m

Rank Ski Jumper #
1.  Adam Małysz (POL) 114
2.  Robert Kranjec (SLO) 108
3.  Matti Hautamäki (FIN) 104
4.  Martin Koch (AUT) 103
5.  Bjørn Einar Romøren (NOR) 101
...  Thomas Morgenstern (AUT) 97
...  Simon Ammann (SUI) 86
...  Gregor Schlierenzauer (AUT) 64
  • As of 20 March 2011.

Notable ski jumpers

The most notable ski jumpers may be considered those who have managed to show a perfect jump, which means that all five judges attributed the maximum style score of 20 points for their jumps.

So far only 5 jumpers are recorded to have achieved this:

Name Date Location Competition Rank
Austria Anton Innauer 7 March 1976[14] Germany Oberstdorf Ski flying (International ski flying weeks) 1
Japan Kazuyoshi Funaki 15 February 1998[15] Japan Nagano Olympic Winter Games, large hill, second jump 1
Germany Sven Hannawald 8 February 2003[16] Germany Willingen Worldcup competition, large hill, first jump 1
Japan Hideharu Miyahira 8 February 2003[16] Germany Willingen Worldcup competition, large hill, second jump 6
Austria Wolfgang Loitzl 6 January 2009[17] Austria Bischofshofen Four Hills Jumping, large hill, first jump 1

Sven Hannawald and Wolfgang Loitzl were attributed four times 20 (plus another 19,5) style score points for their second jump, thus receiving nine times the maximum score of 20 points within one competition.

Other notable ski jumpers can be found in the following lists:


The view from the top of the ski jump in Salt Lake City, Utah for the 2002 Winter Olympics
The Lake Placid Olympic Ski Jumping Complex
Ski jumping facility in Nizhny Novgorod, Russia
Letalnica Bratov Gorišek (outrun)
Letalnica Bratov Gorišek (inrun)
Currently active
Country Flag Name
Austria Austria Martin Koch
Andreas Kofler
Gregor Schlierenzauer
Thomas Morgenstern
Wolfgang Loitzl
Czech Republic Czech Republic Jakub Janda
Roman Koudelka
Borek Sedlák
Antonín Hájek
Lukáš Hlava
Finland Finland Janne Happonen
Matti Hautamäki
Ville Larinto
Veli-Matti Lindström
Germany Germany Michael Neumayer
Martin Schmitt
Georg Späth
Andreas Wank
Pascal Bodmer
Italy Italy Sebastian Colloredo
Andrea Morassi
Roberto Dellasega
Japan Japan Noriaki Kasai
Takanobu Okabe
Kazuyoshi Funaki
Daiki Ito
Shōhei Tochimoto
Korea South Korea Choi Heung-Chul
Choi Yong-Jik
Kim Hyun-Ki
Kang Chil-Gu
Norway Norway Tom Hilde
Anders Jacobsen
Bjørn Einar Romøren
Anders Bardal
Johan Remen Evensen
Poland Poland Kamil Stoch
Stefan Hula
Krzysztof Miętus
Marcin Bachleda
Maciej Kot
Dawid Kubacki
Łukasz Rutkowski
Rafał Śliż
Slovenia Slovenia Robert Kranjec
Jernej Damjan
Peter Prevc
Rok Urbanc
Juri Tepes
Switzerland Switzerland Simon Ammann
Marco Grigoli
Russia Russia Denis Kornilov
Dimitry Vassiliev
France France Emmanuel Chedal
USA United States Nicholas Alexander
Peter Frenette
Bulgaria Bulgaria Vladimir Zografski



  • Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia/Slovenia Vinko Bogataj - Best known as "The Agony of Defeat man" because of the constant use of footage of his spectacular tumble in the title sequence of ABC's Wide World of Sports
  • United Kingdom Eddie "The Eagle" Edwards - Popular favourite at the 1988 Winter Olympics

Important venues

The second largest jump in the world, Letalnica Bratov Gorišek, in Planica, Slovenia
Ski jumping World Cup
Four Hills Tournament
Nordic Tournament

National records

GDR stamp - Memorial for the Skijumper
Rank Nation Record holder Length Venue Year Skis
1.  Norway Johan Remen Evensen 246.5 metres (809 ft) Vikersund 2011 Elan
2.  Austria Gregor Schlierenzauer 243.5 metres (799 ft) Vikersund 2011 Fischer
3.  Finland Janne Happonen 240 metres (790 ft) Vikersund 2011 Fischer
4.  Switzerland Simon Ammann 238.5 metres (782 ft) Vikersund 2011 Fischer
5.  Czech Republic Antonin Hajek 236 metres (774 ft) Planica 2010 Fischer
6.  Slovenia Robert Kranjec 232 metres (761 ft) Vikersund 2011 Fischer
7.  Poland Adam Małysz 230.5 metres (756 ft) Vikersund 2011 Fischer
8.  Russia Dimitri Vassiliev 228 metres (748 ft) Planica 2005 Fischer
9.  Germany Michael Neumayer 227.5 metres (746 ft) Planica 2005 Atomic
10.  Japan Noriaki Kasai 224 metres (735 ft) Planica 2010 Fischer
11.  United States Alan Alborn 221.5 metres (727 ft) Planica 2002 Fischer
12.  France Emmanuel Chedal 215.5 metres (707 ft) Planica 2009 Fischer
13.  Italy Andrea Morassi 215.5 metres (707 ft) Planica 2011 Elan
14.  Sweden Isak Grimholm 207.5 metres (681 ft) Planica 2007 Elan
15.  Belarus Petr Chaadaev 206.5 metres (677 ft) - - -
16.  Kazakhstan Radik Zhaparov 196.5 metres (645 ft) Planica 2007 -
17.  Slovakia Martin Mesik 195.5 metres (641 ft) Kulm 2006 -
18.  Estonia Jens Salumäe 195 metres (640 ft) Planica 2004 -
19.  Canada Stefan Read 191.5 metres (628 ft) Planica 2007 Elan
20.  South Korea Choi Heung-Chul 191 metres (627 ft) - - Fischer
21.  Ukraine Vitaliy Shumbarets 189.5 metres (622 ft) Planica 2009 Elan
22.  Bulgaria Petar Fartunov 175 metres (574 ft) Planica 2009 -
23.  Netherlands Christoph Kreuzer 162 metres (531 ft) - - -
24.  Hungary Gabor Geller 139 metres (456 ft) - - -
25.  Turkey Baris Demirci 123 metres (404 ft) - - -
26.  Kyrgyzstan Dmitry Chvykov 122 metres (400 ft) - - -
27.  Romania Florin Spulber 118 metres (387 ft) - - -
28.  China Tian Zhandong 118 metres (387 ft) - - -
29.  United Kingdom Glynn Pedersen 113.5 metres (372 ft) - - -
30.  Georgia Kakhaber Tsakadze 105 metres (344 ft) - - -
31.  Moldova Filipciuc Ivan 95 metres (312 ft) - - -
32.  Wales Mark Wayne Evans 85.5 metres (281 ft) - - -
33.  Argentina Ferdinand Gomez 78 metres (256 ft) - - -
34.  Armenia Sarahn Czizkabika 49.5 metres (162 ft) Gibswil 2011 -
35.  Montenegro Bozo Cvorovic 46 metres (151 ft) Zabijak - -
35.  Tuvalu Toaripi Tuilimu 11 metres (36 ft) Gibswil 2012 -

Water ski jumping

The ski jump is performed on two long skis similar to those a beginner uses, with a specialized tailfin that is somewhat shorter and much wider (so it will support the weight of the skier when he is on the jump ramp). Skiers towed behind a boat at fixed speed, maneuver to achieve the maximum speed when hitting a ramp floating in the water, launching themselves into the air with the goal of traveling as far as possible before touching the water. Professional ski jumpers can travel up to 70 metres (230 ft). The skier must successfully land and retain control of the ski rope to be awarded the distance.

An extreme version of this sport named Ski Flying was promoted by Scot Ellis and Jim Cara, in which boat speeds and ramp heights are boosted because physics have proved that the standard 75 feet (23 m) line and traditional 35 miles per hour (56 km/h) boat speed is outrun by the skier and the pro skier was ahead of the boat, being held back by the line.

See also


  1. ^ Oslo – Huseby (Ski Jumping Hill Archive)
  2. ^ "Ski Jumping". International Olympic Committee. 
  3. ^ "FIS MEDIA INFO: Decisions of the 45th International Ski Congress in Vilamoura/Algarve (POR)". Fédération Internationale de Ski. 2006-05-26. Retrieved 2009-11-14. 
  4. ^ IOC approves skicross; rejects women's ski jumping
  5. ^ "Rogge: Women jumpers would dilute Olympics medals". CTV News. 2008-02-28. Retrieved 2009-11-14. 
  6. ^ Christa Case Bryant (2009-11-08). "Why women can't ski jump in the Winter Olympics". Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 2009-11-14. 
  7. ^ Cindy Chan (2009-04-29). "Female Ski Jumpers Seem Olympic Inclusion". Epoch Times. Retrieved 2009-11-14. 
  8. ^ Rod Mickelburgh (2009-07-10). "No female flight in 2010: B.C. court rejects ski jump bid". CTV Olympics. Retrieved 2009-11-14. 
  9. ^ CBC News (2009-07-10). "Female ski jumpers lose Olympic battle". CBC News. Retrieved 2009-11-14. 
  10. ^ Tatianan Siegel, "Virginia Madsen to defy 'Gravity'", Variety, Apr. 8, 2009
  11. ^
  12. ^ For Ski Jumpers, a Sliding Scale of Weight, Distance and Health
  13. ^ [1][dead link]
  14. ^ Vom Olymp zu den Fischen auf
  15. ^ Australian Olympic Committee commenting the Olympic Winter Games of Nagano 1998
  16. ^ a b FIS result list 8 February 2003, Rank 1 Hannawald, Rank 6 Miyahira (PDF-File, 379 kB)
  17. ^ FIS result list 6 January 2009, Rank 1 Loitzl (PDF-File, 273 kB)

External links

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