- Salt Lake City, Utah
official_name = City of Salt Lake City
nickname = Crossroads of the West, Salt Lake, SLC
DowntownSalt Lake City in April 2008
mapsize = 250px
map_caption = Location of Salt Lake City in Salt Lake County, Utah
subdivision_type = Country
subdivision_type1 = State
subdivision_type2 = County
subdivision_name = United States of America
subdivision_name2 = Salt Lake County
leader_name = Ralph Becker
area_magnitude = 1 E8
area_total_km2 = 285.9
area_land_km2 = 282.5
area_water_km2 = 3.3
population_as_of = 2007
population_total = 180651
population_urban = 887650
population_metro = 1099973
population_density_km2 = 643.3
area_code = 385/801
timezone = Mountain
utc_offset = -7
timezone_DST = Mountain
utc_offset_DST = -6
latd = 40 |latm = 45 |lats = 0 |latNS = N
longd = 111 |longm = 53 |longs = 0 |longEW = W
area_total_sq_mi = 110.4
area_land_sq_mi = 109.1
area_water_sq_mi = 1.3
elevation_m = 1288
elevation_ft = 4226
website = http://www.slcgov.com
blank_name = FIPS code
blank_info = 49-67000GR|2
blank1_name = GNIS feature ID
blank1_info = 1454997GR|3
Salt Lake City is the
capitaland the most populous city of the U.S. stateof Utah. The name of the city is often shortened to Salt Lake, or its initials, S.L.C. It was originally known as Great Salt Lake City or, colloquially, Salt Town U.S.A.. Salt Lake City has a population of 180,651 as of 2007. [ [http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/SAFFPopulation?_event=ChangeGeoContext&geo_id=16000US4967000&_geoContext=01000US%7C04000US49%7C16000US4962470&_street=&_county=salt+lake+city&_cityTown=salt+lake+city&_state=04000US49&_zip=&_lang=en&_sse=on&ActiveGeoDiv=geoSelect&_useEV=&pctxt=fph&pgsl=010&_submenuId=population_0&ds_name=null&_ci_nbr=null&qr_name=null®=null%3Anull&_keyword=&_industry=] . "U.S. Census Bureau". Retrieved on 2007-03-06.] The Salt Lake City metropolitan areaspans Salt Lake, Summit and Tooele counties, and has a total estimated population of 1,099,973. Salt Lake City is further situated in a larger urban areaknown as the Wasatch Frontand is part of the Salt Lake City-Ogden-Clearfield CSA that has an estimated population of 1,686,703. The total estimated population of the Wasatch Front is approximately 2,150,000.
The city was founded in 1847 by a group of
Mormon pioneersled by their prophet, Brigham Young, who fled hostility and violence in the Midwestern United States. They extensively irrigated and cultivated the arid valley and faced persecution from the U.S. government for their practice of polygamy, which was abandoned in 1890. Today, Salt Lake City is still home to the headquarters of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints(also known as the Mormon Church). Mining booms and the construction of the first transcontinental railroad initially brought economic growth, and the city was nicknamed the Crossroads of the West. Salt Lake City has since developed a strong outdoor recreation tourist industry based primarily on skiing. Salt Lake City was host to the 2002 Winter Olympicsand is the industrial banking center of the United States. [ [http://www.fdic.gov/regulations/examinations/supervisory/insights/sisum04/industrial_loans.html FDIC Industrial Banks] . Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation( 2004-06-25). Retrieved on 2007-03-06.]
Before Mormon settlement, the
Shoshone, Ute, and Paiutehad dwelt in the Salt Lake Valley for thousands of years. However, occupation was seasonal, near streams emptying from Canyons into the Salt Lake Valley. The first US explorer in the Salt Lake area is believed to be Jim Bridgerin 1825, although others had been in Utah earlier, some as far north as the nearby Utah Valley. U.S. Army officer John C. Frémontsurveyed the Great Salt Lakeand the Salt Lake Valley in 1843 and 1845. [cite web | last=Alexander | first=Thomas G. | title=Utah History to Go - Fremont's Exploration | publisher=Utah State Historical Society | url=http://historytogo.utah.gov/utah_chapters/trappers,_traders,_and_explorers/fremontsexploration.html | accessdate=2006-12-15 ] The Donner party, a group of ill-fated pioneers, had traveled through the Great Salt Lake Valley in August 1846.
The first permanent settlements in the valley date to the arrival of the Latter-day Saints on July 24, 1847. They had traveled beyond the boundaries of the United States seeking an isolated area to practice their religion, away from the hostility they had faced in the East. Upon arrival, President of the Church
Brigham Youngis recorded as stating, "this is the right place", after seeing the area in a vision. They found the broad valley empty of any human settlement.
Only four days after arriving in the Salt Lake Valley, Brigham Young designated the site for the
Salt Lake Temple, intended to be the third temple of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, to replace the abandoned Kirtland Templein Ohio and Nauvoo Templein Illinois.
Temple Square, in the center of the city, the temple took 40 years to complete, being started in 1853 and dedicated on April 6, 1893. These delays meant that temples in St. George, Logan and Manti were completed before the Salt Lake Temple [ [http://www.ldschurchtemples.com/cgi-bin/pages.cgi?salt_lake Salt Lake Temple] . "LDSChurchTemples.com." Retrieved on 2007-03-06.] The temple has become iconic of the city and is its centerpiece. In fact, the southeast corner of Temple Square is the initial point of reference for the Salt Lake Meridian, and for all addresses in the Salt Lake Valley.
Mormon pioneers organized a new state called Deseret and petitioned for its recognition in 1849. The United States Congressrebuffed the settlers in 1850 and established the Utah Territory, vastly reducing its size. Great Salt Lake City replaced Fillmore as the territorial capital in 1858, and the name was subsequently abbreviated to Salt Lake City. The city's population swelled with an influx of religious converts, making it one of the most populous cities in the American Old West.
Disputes with the federal government ensued over the widespread Mormon practice of
polygamy. A climax occurred in 1857 when President James Buchanandeclared the area in rebellion after Brigham Youngrefused to step down as governor, beginning the Utah War. A division of the United States Army, commanded by Albert Sidney Johnston, later a general in the army of the Confederate States of America, marched through the city and found that it had been evacuated. This division set up Camp Floydapproximately 40 miles (65 km) southwest of the city. Another military installation, Fort Douglas, was established in 1862 to maintain Union allegiance during the American Civil War. Many area leaders were incarcerated at the territorial prison in Sugar House in the 1880s for violation of anti-polygamy laws. The LDS Church began their eventual abandonment of polygamy in 1890, releasing "The Manifesto," which officially suggested that members obey the law of the land (which was equivalent to forbidding new polygamous marriages inside the U.S. and its territories, but not in Mormon settlements in Canada and Mexico). This paved the way for statehood in 1896, when Salt Lake City became the state capital.
First Transcontinental Railroadwas completed in 1869 at Promontory Summiton the north side of the Great Salt Lake. A railroad was connected to the city from the Transcontinental Railroad in 1870, making travel less burdensome. Mass migration of different groups followed. They found economic opportunities in the booming mining industries. These groups constructed St. Mark's EpiscopalCathedral in 1874, the Greek Orthodox Holy Trinity Cathedral in 1905 and the Roman Catholic Cathedral of the Madeleinein 1909. This time period also saw the creation of Salt Lake City's now defunct red-light districtthat employed 300 courtesans at its height before being closed down in 1911. [Sillitoe, Linda. "A History of Salt Lake County", p. 138.] During the late 19th and early 20th centuries, an extensive streetcar system was constructed throughout the city with the first streetcar running in 1872 and electrification of the system in 1889. As in the rest of the country, the automobile usurped the streetcar and the last trolley ran in 1945. Rail transit was re-introduced when TRAX, a light railsystem, opened in 1999. [Money, Marti. [http://www.sugarhousetrolley.org/utahstreet.html Utah Street Tramways - History of trams in Salt Lake City] . Retrieved on 2007-03-06.]
The city's population began to stagnate during the 20th century as population growth shifted to suburban areas north and south of the city. Few of these areas were annexed to the city, while nearby towns incorporated and expanded themselves. As a result, the population of the surrounding metropolitan area greatly outnumbers that of Salt Lake City. A major concern of recent government officials has been combating inner-city commercial decay. The city lost population from the 1960s through the 1980s, but experienced some recovery in the 1990s. Presently, the city is losing population again (though that of the metro area continues to grow), having lost an estimated 2 percent of its population since the year 2000. [ [http://www.census.gov/popest/cities/SUB-EST2005.html Population Estimates for Places over 100,000: 2000 to 2005] . U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved on
The city has experienced significant demographic shifts in recent years. [cite news | url=http://www.usatoday.com/news/nation/2006-09-14-utah-cover_x.htm | title=Immigrants turn Utah into mini-melting pot | author=Haya El Nasser | date=
2006-09-15| publisher= USA Today] Hispanics now account for approximately 19% of residents and the city has a large gay community." [http://kutv.com/topstories/local_story_161181301.html Salt Lake City Has High Gay Population] ", "KUTV.com". Retrieved on 2007-03-06.] There is also a large Pacific Islander population, mainly made up of Samoans and Tongans; they compose roughly 1% of the population of the Salt Lake Valleyarea. [cite news|url=http://www.slweekly.com/editorial/2005/feat_2005-09-08.cfm|title=The Gangs of Zion|last=Sullivan|first=Tim|date= 2005-09-08|accessdate=2007-01-13]
Salt Lake City was selected to host the
2002 Winter Olympicsin 1995. The games were plagued with controversy. A bid scandal surfaced in 1998 alleging that bribes had been offered to secure the city for the 2000 games location. During the games, other scandals erupted over contested judging scores and illegal drug use. Despite the controversies, the games were heralded as a financial success, being one of the few in recent history to profit. In preparation major construction projects were initiated. Local freeways were expanded and repaired, and a light railsystem was constructed. Olympic venues are now used for local, national, and international sporting events and Olympic athlete training. [cite news | url=http://deseretnews.com/dn/view/0,1249,650196322,00.html | title=Big incentive helps lure speed skating group | author=Lisa Riley Roche | date= 2006-10-05| publisher= Deseret Morning News] Tourism has increased since the Olympic games,cite news | title=Convention numbers best since Olympics; S.L. County conventions post big year | last=Gorrell | first=Mike | publisher= The Salt Lake Tribune| date= 2006-03-30] Failed verification|date=December 2007 but business did not pick up immediately following them. [cite news | title=Olympic windfall unseen | author=Mike Gorrell | publisher= The Salt Lake Tribune| date= 2004-02-15]
Salt Lake City hosted the 16th Winter Deaflympic games in 2007, taking place in the venues in Salt Lake City and Park City, [ [http://www.2007deaflympics.com/?ID=656 2007 Winter Deaflympics - Official Website: About Us] . Winter Deaflympics (2007). Retrieved on
2007-03-06.] and Rotary Internationalhas designated the city as the site of their 2007 convention, which will be the largest single gathering since the 2002 Winter Olympics. ["SLC to land Rotarians in '07", "The Salt Lake Tribune".] The U.S. Volleyball Association convention in 2005 drew 39,500 attendees.
Salt Lake City is located at coord|40|45|N|111|53|W|. The total area is 110.4 square miles (285.9 km²) and has an average elevation of 4,327 feet (1,320 m) above sea level. The lowest point within the boundaries of the city is convert|4210|ft|m near the Jordan River and the Great Salt Lake, and the highest is Grandview Peak, at convert|9410|foot|0. [cite web | title=Area Information - Frequently Asked Questions | publisher=Salt Lake City Corporation | url=http://www.slcgov.com/info/area_info/faq_new.htm | accessdate=2006-12-11 ]
The city is located in the northeast corner of the
Salt Lake Valleysurrounded by the Great Salt Lake to the northwest and the steep Wasatch and Oquirrh mountain ranges on the eastern and western borders, respectively. Its encircling mountains contain many narrow glacially and volcanically carved canyons. Among them, City Creek, Emigration, Millcreek, and Parley's border Salt Lake City proper.
Great Salt Lakeis separated from Salt Lake City by extensive marshlands and mudflats. The metabolic activities of bacteria in Willard Bay(the freshwater portion of the lake) results in a phenomenon known as "lake stink", a scent reminiscent of foul poultry eggs, two to three times per year for a few hours. [ [http://www.deq.utah.gov/references/FactSheets/Lake_Stink.htm Utah’s Infamous “Lake Stink”] . "Utah Department of Environmental Quality." Retrieved on 2007-03-11.] The Jordan River flows through the city and is a drainage of Utah Lakethat empties into the Great Salt Lake.
The highest mountaintop visible from Salt Lake City is Twin Peaks, which reaches 11,489 feet (3502 m).Arave, Lynn. " [http://deseretnews.com/dn/view/0,1249,600122409,00.html Mountains High: Utah abounds with high peaks in all counties] ", "Deseret Morning News",
2005-03-31. Retrieved on 2007-03-11.] Twin Peaks is located southeast of Salt Lake in the Wasatch Range. The Wasatch Faultis found along the western base of the Wasatch and is considered overdue for an earthquake as large as 7.5. Catastrophic damage is predicted in the event of an earthquake with major damage resulting from the liquefactionof the clay- and sand-based soil and the possible permanent flooding of portions of the city by the Great Salt Lake. [Davidson, Lee. " [http://deseretnews.com/dn/view/0,1249,635199749,00.html It's 2008 — and 'the big one' slams Utah] ", "Deseret Morning News", 2006-04-16. Retrieved on 2007-03-11.]
The second-highest mountain range is the Oquirrhs, reaching a maximum height of 10,620 feet (3,237 m) at Flat Top. The Traverse Mountains to the south extend to 6,000 feet (1,830 m), nearly connecting the Wasatch and Oquirrh Mountains. The mountains near Salt Lake City are easily visible from the city and have sharp vertical relief caused by massive ancient earthquakes, with a maximum difference of 7,099 feet (2164 m) being achieved with the rise of Twin Peaks from the Salt Lake Valley floor.
The Salt Lake Valley floor is the ancient lakebed of
Lake Bonnevillewhich existed at the end of the last Ice Age. Several Lake Bonneville shorelines can be distinctly seen on the foothills or benches of nearby mountains .
The city, as well as the county, is laid out on a
grid plan; [Husarik, Theresa. [http://saltlakecity.about.com/library/weekly/98art/aa031698.htm Navigating Utah's Streets] . "About.com." Retrieved on 2007-03-11.] Most major streets run very nearly north-south and east-west. There is about a fourteen to fifteen minute of arcvariation of the grid from true north.Fact|date=February 2007 The grid's origin is the southeast corner of Temple Square, the block containing the Salt Lake Templeof the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Addresses are coordinates within the system (similarly to latitudeand longitude). One hundred units are equal to 1/8th of a mile (200 m), the length of blocks in downtown Salt Lake City.Fact|date=February 2007 The streets are relatively wide, at the direction of Brigham Young, who wanted them wide enough that a wagonteam could turn around without "resorting to profanity." [William E. Hill (1996). "The Mormon Trail: yesterday and today". Logan, Utah: Utah State University Press. ISBN 0-87421-202-2 p. 26] These wide streets and grid pattern are typical of other Mormon towns of the pioneer era throughout the West.
Though the nomenclature may initially confuse new arrivals and visitors, many consider the grid system an aid to navigation. Some streets have names, such as State Street, which would otherwise be known as 100 East. Other streets have honorary names, such as the western portion of 300 South, named "Adam Galvez Street" (in honor of a local Marine corporal killed in action) or others honoring
Rosa Parks, Martin Luther King, Jr., and César Chávez. These honorary names appear only on street signs and cannot be used in postal addresses.
In The Avenues neighborhood, north-south streets are given letters of the alphabet, and east-west streets are numbered in 2.5 acre (10,100 m²) blocks, smaller than those in the rest of the city.
Joseph Smith, founder of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, planned the layout in the "Plat of the City of Zion" (intended as a template for Mormon towns wherever they might be built). In his plan the city was to be developed into 135 10 acre lots. However, the blocks in Salt Lake City became irregular during the late 19th century when the LDS Church lost authority over growth and before the adoption of zoning ordinances in the 1920s. The original 10 acre blocks allowed for large garden plots, and many were supplied with irrigation water from ditches that ran approximately where modern curbs and gutters would be laid. The original water supply was from City Creek. Subsequent development of water resources was from successively more southern streams flowing from the mountains to the east of the city. Some of the old irrigation ditches are still visible in the eastern suburbs, or are still marked on maps, years after they were gone.
:"See also: Buildings and sites of Salt Lake City, Utah - Neighborhoods and areas"Salt Lake City has many informal neighborhoods. The eastern portion of the city has higher property values than its western counterpart. This is a result of the railroad being built in the western half as well as scenic views from inclined grounds in the eastern portion. Housing is more affordable on the west side, which results in demographic differences. Interstate 15 was also built in a north-south line, further dividing east and west sides of the city.
The west side of the city has historically been a working-class neighborhood, but recently the more affordable nature of the area has enticed many professionals to the neighborhood. For example, the small, increasingly trendy Marmalade District on the west side of Capitol Hill, once considered seedy as few as 5–10 years ago, was heavily gentrified and is now thought of as an eclectic and desirable location. During the 1970s and 1980s, gang activity was also centered in the western neighborhoods of Rose Park, Poplar Grove, and Glendale.
Sugar House, in southeastern Salt Lake City, has a reputation as a liberal neighborhood and until recently possessed a district of locally-owned specialty and niche shops on the corner of 2100 South and 1100 East. [Jeniffer K. Nii. [http://email@example.com?CQ_SESSION_KEY=RQIZCHZAUEBM&CQ_CUR_DOCUMENT=163&CQ_TEXT_MAIN=YES Sugar House shops forced out] . "
Deseret Morning News", March 7, 2007.] The stores that once occupied the street have recently moved to new locations to make way for a condominium and office complex, although the developers have stated that they wish to maintain the character of the area, and retail shops will be allowed at street-level once the complex is completed. [Jeniffer K. Nii. [http://firstname.lastname@example.org?CQ_SESSION_KEY=RQIZCHZAUEBM&CQ_CUR_DOCUMENT=155&CQ_TEXT_MAIN=YES 'Granite Block' plan touted] . " Deseret Morning News", March 13, 2007.] [Josh Loftin. [http://email@example.com?CQ_SESSION_KEY=RQIZCHZAUEBM&CQ_CUR_DOCUMENT=70&CQ_TEXT_MAIN=YES Developer aims to keep Sugar House character] . " Deseret Morning News", September 7, 2007.] Despite these assurances, residents have been very vocal in their concerns that the neighborhood will lose its unique eclectic appeal and have panned what they call the destruction of one of the few locally-owned business districts in the valley. [Doug Smeath. [http://firstname.lastname@example.org?CQ_SESSION_KEY=RQIZCHZAUEBM&CQ_CUR_DOCUMENT=145&CQ_TEXT_MAIN=YES Redevelopment worries Sugar House] . " Deseret Morning News". March 29, 2007.]
Just northeast of Downtown is The Avenues, a neighborhood outside of the regular grid system on much smaller blocks. This area is a Historical District that is nearly entirely residential, and contains many historical Victorian era homes. The Avenues are situated on the upward-sloping bench in the foothills of the
Wasatch Range, with the earlier built homes in the lower elevation. The Avenues, along with Federal Heights, just to the east and north of the University of Utah, and the Foothill area, south of the University, contain gated communities, large, multi-million dollar houses, and fantastic views of the valley. Many consider this some of the most desirable real estate in the valley.
In addition to larger centers like Sugar House and Downtown, Salt Lake City contains several smaller neighborhoods, each named after the closest major intersection. Two examples are the
9th and 9th(located at the intersection of 900 East and 900 South Streets) and 15th & 15th (located at the intersection of 1500 East and 1500 South Streets) neighborhoods. These areas are home to foot-traffic friendly, amenities-based businesses such as art galleries, clothing retail, salons, restaurants and coffee shops. During the summer of 2007, 9th and 9th saw sidewalk and street improvements as well as an art installation inspired by the 9 Muses of Greek myth, thanks in part to the 9th and 9th Merchants Association.
Many of the homes in the valley date from pre-World War II times, and only a select few areas, such as Federal Heights and the East Bench, as well as the far west side, including parts of Rose Park and Glendale, have seen new home construction since the 1970s.
thumb|right|A_rare_F2 tornado forms in downtown Salt Lake City on August 11, 1999 (orange fireball is substation exploding). [ [http://www.disastercenter.com/tornado/rank.htm The Disaster Center Ranking of Tornado Risk by State] . "The Disaster Center". Retrieved on
2007-03-11.] ] The climateof Salt Lake City is characterized as a semi-aridsteppe climate (Köppen Bsk), with four distinct seasons. Both summer and winter are long, with hot, dry summers and cold, snowy winters, and with spring and fall serving as brief but comfortable transition periods. The city receives 16.50 in (419 mm) of precipitation annually. [ [http://www.wrh.noaa.gov/slc/climate/slcclimate/SLC/table29.php NWS Salt Lake City - Average precipitation] . " National Weather Service". Retrieved on 2007-03-11.] Spring is the wettest season, and another "rainy season" occurs in fall. Snow occurs on average from November 6 to April 18, producing a total average of 62.7 in (159 cm), [ [http://www.wrh.noaa.gov/slc/climate/slcclimate/SLC/table44.php NWS Salt Lake City - Average snowfall] . "National Weather Service". Retrieved on 2007-03-11.] while the city's watersheds in nearby mountains accumulate averages as high as 500 in (1,270 cm). The period without freezingtemperatures usually lasts an average of 167 days, from April 30 to October 15. [ [http://www.wrh.noaa.gov/slc/climate/slcclimate/SLC/table27.php NWS Salt Lake eCity - Freeze data] . "National Weather Service". Retrieved on 2007-03-11.]
During the winter months cold fronts typically originate in the
Gulf of Alaskaand move southeastward into the area. The nearby Great Salt Lake produces lake-effect snowapproximately 6 to 8 times per year, some of which can drop excessive snowfalls. The lake-effect also contributes to some rain storms, and it is estimated that about 10% of the annual precipitation in the city can be attributed to the lake effect. [Bauman, Joe. " [http://deseretnews.com/misc/gsl/105002200.htm Lake has great impact on storms, weather] ", "Deseret Morning News", 1999-08-05. Retrieved on 2007-03-11.] During mid-winter, strong areas of high pressure often situate themselves over the Great Basin, leading to strong temperature inversions. This causes air stagnationand thick smogin the valley for several days to weeks at a time and can result in the worst air-pollution levels in the U.S. reducing air quality to unhealthy levels. [Fahys, Judy. " [http://www.sltrib.com/ci_5372365 Winter's bad air still choking Utah] ", "The Salt Lake Tribune", 2007-03-07. Retrieved on 2007-03-11.] [ [http://www.acfnewsource.org/science/olympic_air.html Olympic Air] . "ACFnewsource" ( 2002-01-28). Retrieved on 2007-03-11.] The city has an average of three days annually with low temperatures below convert|0|°F|°C|abbr=on, with an all-time record low temperature of -30 °F (-34 °C), which occurred on February 9, 1933. [ [http://www.wrh.noaa.gov/slc/climate/slcclimate/SLC/table5b.php NWS Salt Lake City - Extreme low temperatures] . "National Weather Service". Retrieved on 2007-03-11.]
In the spring, most of the storms originate in the Pacific Ocean from the
Pineapple Express, bringing in the most moisture of the entire year. Larger and cooler storms in the spring can lead to heavy overnight snowfall. Measurable snow has occurred as late as May 18. [ [http://www.wrh.noaa.gov/slc/climate/slcclimate/SLC/table47.php NWS Salt Lake City - Earliest and latest measurable snowfall] . "National Weather Service". Retrieved on 2007-03-11.]
The summers of the city are marked by hot weather and are mostly dry. The
monsoonrises from the Gulf of Californiafrom approximately mid-July into September, producing localized severe afternoon thunderstorms. Due to the low daytime humidity, virga, lightning, and microbursts can lead to wildfire problems. During active monsoon periods, widespread thunderstorms carrying excessive precipitation are common. High temperatures of at least 100 °F (38 °C) occur on average five times a year, but always on days with low humidity. The record high temperature is 107 °F (42 °C), which occurred first on July 26, 1960 and again on July 13, 2002. [ [http://www.wrh.noaa.gov/slc/climate/slcclimate/SLC/table5a.php NWS Salt Lake City - Extreme maximum temperatures] . "National Weather Service". Retrieved on 2007-03-11.]
During October, the Pacific Ocean once again becomes active, bringing in more precipitation, occasionally in the form of the remnants of
tropical cyclones. The remnants of Hurricane Olivia helped bring the record monthly precipitation of 7.04 in (179 mm) in September 1982. [ [http://www.hpc.ncep.noaa.gov/tropical/rain/olivia1982.html Remnants of Hurricane Olivia - September 23-28, 1982] . " Hydrometeorological Prediction Center". Retrieved on 2007-03-11.] [ [http://www.wrh.noaa.gov/slc/climate/slcclimate/SLC/table32.php NWS Salt Lake City - Record high and low precipitation for each month] . "National Weather Service". Retrieved on 2007-03-11.] The first measurable snowfall has occurred as early as September 17.
location=Salt Lake City
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source=Data is for Salt Lake International Airport
The city is home to several non-governmental think-tanks and advocacy groups such as the conservative Sutherland Institute, the gay-rights group Equality Utah, and the quality-growth advocates Envision Utah. Salt Lake hosted many foreign dignitaries during the
2002 Winter Olympics, and in 2006 the President of Mexicobegan his U.S. tour in the city and Israel's ambassador to the United States opened a cultural center. [cite news | url=http://www.aifl.org/html/web/Lets_be_partners-May_2006_Utah.pdf | title=Let's be partners, Israel's ambassador urges governor | author=Matt Canham | date= 2006-05-19| publisher= The Salt Lake Tribune|format=PDF] President George W. Bushvisited in 2005 and again in 2006 for national veterans' conventions, both visits of which were protested by then-Mayor Rocky Anderson. Other political leaders such as Howard Deanand Harry Reidgave speeches in the city in 2005.
In 1847 pioneer Jane Dillworth held the first classes in her tent for the children of the first LDS families. In the last part of the 1800s, there was much controversy over how children in the area should be educated. LDS and non-LDS could not agree on the level of religious influence in schools. Today, many LDS youths in grades 9 through 12 attend some form of religious instruction, referred to as
Because of high birth rates and large classrooms, Utah spends less per student than any other state yet simultaneously spends more per capita than any state with the exception of
Alaska. Money is always a challenge, and many businesses donate to support schools. Several districts have set up foundations to raise money. Recently, money was approved for the reconstruction of more than half of the elementary schools and one of the middle schools in the Salt Lake City School District, which serves most of Salt Lake City proper. There are twenty-three elementary schools, five middle schools, three high schools (Highland, East, and West, with the former South High being converted to the South City campus of the Salt Lake Community College), and an alternative high school (Horizonte) located within the school district. In addition, Highland has recently been selected as the site for the charter school Salt Lake School for the Performing Arts (SPA), while Salt Lake City proper also holds many Catholic schools, including Judge Memorial High School. Rowland Hall-St. Mark's School, established in 1867 by EpiscopalBishop Daniel Tuttle, [Quinn, Frederick "Building the "Goodly Fellowship of Faith" - A History of the Episcopal Church in Utah - 1867-1996" Utah State University Press, Logan, Utah, 2004, chapter 1.] is the area's premier independent school.
Salt Lake City Public Librarysystem consists of the main library downtown, and five branches in various neighborhoods. The main library, designed by renowned architect Moshe Safdie, opened in 2003. In 2006, the Salt Lake City Public Library was named "Library of the Year" by the American Library Association. [http://www.libraryjournal.com/article/CA6341871.html Library Journal article: Library of the Year]
Postsecondary educational options in Salt Lake City include the
University of Utah, Westminster College, Salt Lake Community College, BYU Salt Lake Center, Eagle Gate College, and LDS Business College. There are also many trade and technical schools such as Healing Mountain Massage School and the Utah College of Massage Therapy.
:"See also: Salt Lake County - Education"
Museums and the Arts
Salt Lake is home to several
museums. Near Temple Squareis the Museum of Church History and Art. Operated by the The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, the museum contains collections of artifacts, documents, art, photographs, tools, clothing and furniture from the history of the LDS Church, which spans nearly two centuries.
University of Utahcampus is home to the Utah Museum of Fine Artsas well as the Utah Museum of Natural History. West of the university, located at the Gateway Districtnear downtown, is the Clark Planetarium, which also houses an IMAXtheater. Also in the Gateway District is the Discovery Gateway, a children's museum.
Other museums include the Utah State Historical Society, Daughters of Utah Pioneer Memorial Museum, Fort Douglas Military Museum, and the Social Hall Heritage Museum.
On December 5, 2007, the Salt Lake Chamber and Downtown Alliance announced that a two-block section of downtown south of the planned
City Creek Centeris planned to become a new arts hub. This will include renovations to two theaters already located in the area, as well as a new theater with a seating capacity of 2,400 and increased space for galleries and artists. The opening of the new facilities are anticipated to coincide with the opening of the City Creek Center in 2011. [Page, Jared. [http://www.deseretnews.com/article/1,5143,695233735,00.html 2 Salt Lake City blocks may become arts hub] . "Deseret Morning News", December 6, 2007.]
Salt Lake City provides many venues for both professional and amateur theatre. The city attracts many traveling Broadway and
off-Broadwayperformances. Local professional acting companies include the Pioneer Theatre Company, Salt Lake Acting Company, and Plan-B Theatre Company. The Off Broadway Theatre, located in Salt Lake's historic Clift Building, features comedy plays and Utah's longest running improv comedy troupe, Laughing Stock.
Salt Lake City is the home of the
Mormon Tabernacle Choir, founded in 1847. The Choir's weekly program, called " Music and the Spoken Word", is the longest-running continuous network broadcast in the world. [ [http://www.musicandthespokenword.com/history.php Music & the Spoken Word — Choir History] ] Salt Lake City is also the home to the Utah Symphony Orchestra, which was founded in 1940 by Maurice Abravaneland has become widely renowned. Its current director is Keith Lockhart. The orchestra's original home was the Salt Lake Tabernacle, but since the 1990s has performed at Abravanel Hallin the western downtown area. Salt Lake City area is also home to the award winning children's choir, The Salt Lake Children's Choir. The Choir was established in 1979 and is directed by Ralph B. Woodward.
The University of Utah is home to two highly-ranked dance departments, the Ballet Department and the Department of Modern Dance. Professional dance companies in Salt Lake City include
Ballet West, Rire Woodbury, and Repertory Dance Theatre.
The city has a local music scene dominated by
blues, rock and roll, punk, and emogroups. There are also many clubs which offer musical venues. Popular groups or persons who started in the Wasatch Front area or were raised and influenced by it include The Almost, The Brobecks, Meg and Dia, Royal Bliss, Shedaisy, The Summer Obsession, and The Used. In 2004 over 200 bands submitted tracks for a compilation by a local music zine, "SLUG" ("Salt Lake Underground"). The 18-year-old free monthly zine trimmed the submissions to 59 selections featuring diverse music types such as hip-hop, jazz, jazz-rock, punk, and a variety of rock and roll.
Movies and Television
films, music videos, commercials, and TV shows have been recorded in the Salt Lake metropolitan area. They include: "Big Love"," SLC Punk!", " Touched By An Angel", " Everwood", " Big Love", " Bonneville", " Dawn of the Dead", " Drive Me Crazy", " Forever Strong", " High School Musical", " High School Musical 2", " High School Musical 3", " Unaccompanied Minors", " Dumb and Dumber", " Halloween 4", " Halloween 5", " Halloween 6", " Independence Day %28film%29", " Poolhall Junkies", " The Brown Bunny", " The World's Fastest Indian", " The Way of the Gun", " Carnival of Souls", " The Amazing Race 8", and The Postal Service's " Such Great Heights". In 2006 it was revealed that Dan Brown, the author of " The DaVinci Code", was in the city studying the symbols on the Salt Lake LDS Templeand the Salt Lake Masonic Temple, among other historical buildings, for inclusion in an upcoming book.
Although the city is often stereotyped as a predominantly LDS city, it is culturally and religiously diverse. The city is the location of many cultural activities. [ [http://salt.lake.city.eventguide.com/ Greater Salt Lake City Annual Events (2005)] . "EventGuide.network".] A major state holiday is Pioneer Day, July 24, the anniversary of the
Mormon pioneers' entry into the Salt Lake Valley. It is celebrated each year with a week's worth of activities, including a children's parade, a horse parade, the featured Days of '47 Parade(one of the largest parades in the United States), a rodeo, and a large fireworks show at Liberty Park.
First Night on New Year's Eve, a celebration emphasizing family-friendly entertainment and activities held at
Rice-Eccles Stadiumat the University of Utah, culminates with a fireworks display at midnight.
The Greek Festival, held the weekend after Labor Day, celebrates Utah's Greek heritage and is located at the downtown Greek Orthodox Church. The 3-day event includes Greek music, dance groups, Cathedral tours, booths and a large buffet. Attendance ranges from 35,000 - 50,000.
The Utah Arts Festival has been held annually since 1977 with an average attendance of 80,000. About 130 booths are available for visual artists and there are five performance venues for musicians. [ [http://www.uaf.org/ Utah Arts Festival] ]
Salt Lake City also hosts portions of the
Sundance Film Festival. The festival, which is held each year, brings many cultural icons, movie stars, celebrities, and thousands of film buffs to see the largest independent film festival in the United States. The headquarters of the event is in nearby Park City.
Beginning in 2004, Salt Lake City has been the host of the international
Salt Lake City Marathon. In 2006 Real Madridand many of the nation's best cyclist had engagements. [cite news | url=http://deseretnews.com/dn/view/0,1249,650196508,00.html | title=Tour of Utah takes step forward | author=Jared Eborn | date=2006-10-06 | publisher= Deseret Morning News]
Salt Lake City has begun to host its own events in the last few years, most notably the [http://www.slcityevents.com Friday Night Flicks] , free movies in the City's parks, as well as the Mayor's health and fitness awareness program, [http://www.slcgetsfit.com Salt Lake City Gets Fit] .
Salt Lake City was host to the
2002 Winter Olympics. At the time of the 2002 Olympics, Salt Lake City was the most populated area to hold a Winter Olympic games. The event put Salt Lake City in the international spotlight and is regarded by many as being one of the most successful winter olympics ever. ["The Salt Lake City Games were by all accounts the most successful Winter Olympics ever." — cite news | title=Games Helped to Heal a Nation | author=Linda Fantin | date=2002-09-11 | publisher= Salt Lake Tribune; " Controversies aside, the 2002 Salt Lake games may prove to be the most successful Winter Olympics in recent history." — cite news | title= Hey, baby, it's gold outside | author=Betsy Streisand | date=2002-02-25 | publisher= U.S. News & World Report.]
To add variety and an international taste to the music fans, events such as the annual [http://www.thyagarajafestival.com Thyagaraja Music Festival of Utah] are held in Salt Lake City.
Dream Theater's Salt Lake City show, Governor Jon Huntsman, Jr.signed a proclamation making July 30, 2007 "Dream Theater Day" in the state of Utah.
Beginning in 2005, annual
Nihon Matsuri(Japan Festival) [http://www.nihonmatsuri.org] is opened at Salt Lake City.
Salt Lake City has many diverse media outlets. Most of the major television and
radio stations are based in or near the city. The Salt Lake City metropolitan area is ranked as the 31st largest radio [ [http://www.arbitron.com/radio_stations/mm001050.asp Radio Stations - Arbitron Radio Market Rankings (2005)] . "Arbitron". Retrieved January 1, 2005] and 36th largest television [ [http://www.nielsenmedia.com/DMAs.html Nielsen Media Research Local Universe Estimates (US)] . "Nielsen Media Research". Retrieved December 29, 2004.] market in the United States.
Print media include two major daily newspapers, "
The Salt Lake Tribune" and the " Deseret Morning News". Other more specialized publications include " In Utah This Week", " Salt Lake City Weekly", "Nuestro Mundo" of the Spanish-speaking community," QSaltLake" and " The Pillar" for the LBGT community. There are many local magazines, such as " Wasatch Journal" (a quarterly magazine covering Utah's arts, culture, and outdoors) [http://www.thewasatchjournal.com] , "Utah Homes & Garden" (quarterly), "Salt Lake Magazine" (a bimonthly lifestyle magazine), " [http://www.wasatchwoman.com] Wasatch Woman Magazine" (a bimonthly magazine spotlighting the successes of local women), and " [http://www.slugmag.com] Salt Lake Underground (SLUG)] ", an alternative underground music magazine. KTVXsigned on the air as Utah's first TV station in 1947 under the experimental callsign W6SIX. KTVX is the oldest TV station in the Mountain Time Zone and the third oldest west of the Mississippi. It is the current ABC affiliate. KSL-TV, the NBC affiliate, has downtown studios at "Broadcast House" in the Triad Center office complex. KSL is operated by a company owned by the LDS Church. KUTV, the CBS affiliate, was recently given a Redevelopment Agency (RDA) grant, and moved its studios to Main Street. Its news desk overlooks the street, with a large window behind the anchor desk. KSTUis the area's Fox affiliate. KUCWis the CW affiliate and part of a duopoly with KTVX. KJZZ-TVis an independent station owned by Utah Jazz owner, Larry Miller and broadcasts Jazz games. KJZZ-TV also carries newscasts produced by KUTV.
Because television and radio stations serve a larger area (usually the entire state of Utah, as well as parts of western
Wyoming, southern Idaho, parts of Montana, and eastern Nevada), ratings returns tend to be higher than those in similar-sized cities. Some Salt Lake radio stations are carried on broadcast translatornetworks throughout the state.
Salt Lake City has become a case of
market saturationon the FM dial; one cannot go through more than about two frequencies on an FM radio tunerbefore encountering another broadcasting station. A variety of companies, most notably Millcreek Broadcasting and Simmons Media, have constructed broadcast towers on Humpy Peak in the Uinta Mountainsto the east. These towers allow frequencies allocated to nearby mountain communities to be boosted by smaller, low-powered FM transmitters along the Wasatch Front.
ites of interest and city architecture
Salt Lake City is the headquarters for
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints(LDS Church) and has many LDS-related sites open to visitors. The most popular is Temple Square, which includes the Salt Lake Templeand visitors’ centers that are open to the public, free of charge. Temple Square also includes the historic Tabernacle, home of the world-famous Mormon Tabernacle Choir. The modern LDS Conference Centeris across the street to the north. The Family History Library, the largest genealogical library in the world, is located just west of Temple Square. It is run by the LDS Church and is open to the public and free of charge.
In 2004, the Salt Lake City main library received an Institute Honor Award for Architecture by the
American Institute of Architects. [http://www.aia.org/gallery_template.cfm?pagename=art%5Fsaltlakecitypubliclibrary American Institute of Architects Institute Honor Award] and features a distinctive architectural style. The roof of the building serves as a viewpoint for the Salt Lake Valley. The Utah State CapitolBuilding offers marble floors and a dome similar to that of the building that houses the U.S. Congress. Other notable historical buildings include the Thomas KearnsMansion (now the Governor's Mansion), City and County Building, built in 1894, the Kearns Building on Main Street, St. Mark's Episcopal Cathedral, built in 1874, and the Roman Catholic Cathedral of the Madeleine, built in 1909.
Near the mouth of Emigration Canyon lies
This Is The Place Heritage Park, which re-creates typical 19th century LDS pioneer life. Hogle Zoois located across the street from the park. The city's largest public park, at over convert|100|acre|km2, Liberty Parkfeatures a lake with an island in the middle and the Tracy Aviary. The park is home to a large number of birds, both wild and in the aviary. Red Butte Garden and Arboretum, located in the foothillsof Salt Lake features many different exhibits and also hosts many musical concerts. The Bonneville Shoreline Trailis a popular hiking and biking nature trail which spans ninety miles through the foothills of the Wasatch Front.
The Olympic Cauldron Park, located at
Rice-Eccles Stadium, features the Olympic Cauldron from the games, a visitor's center, and the Hoberman Arch. The Olympic Legacy Plaza, located at the Gateway District, features a dancing fountain set to music and the names of 30,000 Olympic volunteers carved in stone. The Utah Olympic Park, located near Park City, features the Olympic ski jumps, as well as bobsleigh, luge, and skeleton runs. Today, the Olympic Park is used for year-round training and competitions. Visitors to the park can watch the various events that occur and even ride a bobsled. The Utah Olympic Oval, located in nearby Kearns, was home to the speed skatingevents and is now open to the public. Other popular Olympic venues include Soldier Hollow, the site of cross-country skiing events, located southeast of Salt Lake near Heber City.
Salt Lake City is in close proximity to several world-class ski and summer resorts, including
Park City Mountain Resort, Deer Valley, and Snowbird. The resorts cater to millions of visitors each year and offer year-round activities.
Salt Lake City is also home to a few major shopping centers.
Trolley Squareis an indoor and outdoor mall with many independent art boutiques, restaurants, and national retailers. The buildings housing the shops are renovated trolley barns with cobblestone streets. The Gateway District, an outdoor shopping mall, is the city's newest major shopping center and has many national restaurants, clothing retailers, a movie theater, the Clark Planetarium, the Discovery Gateway, a music venue called The Depot, and the Olympic Legacy Plaza.
On October 3, 2006, the LDS Church, who owns the
ZCMI Center Malland Crossroads Mall, both on Main Street, announced plans to demolish the malls, a skyscraper, and several other buildings to make way for the $1 billion City Creek Centerredevelopment. It will combine several new office and residential buildings (one of which will be the third-tallest building in the city) around an outdoor shopping center featuring a stream, fountain, and other outdoor amenities, and is expected to be completed in 2011. [ [http://deseretnews.com/dn/view/0,1249,650196045,00.html Downtown rebound: LDS Church unveils plans for 20 acre development] . Doug Smeath, "Deseret Morning News".] Sugar House is a neighborhood with a small town main street shopping area and numerous old parks. Sugar House Parkis the second largest park in the city, and is host to frequent outdoor events and the primary Fourth of July fireworks in the city.
Other attractions in or within close proximity to Salt Lake City include the
Golden Spike National Historic Site(where the world's first transcontinental railroadwas joined), the Lagoon Amusement Park, the Great Salt Lake, the Bonneville Salt Flats, Gardner Historic Village, one of the largest dinosaur museums in the U.S. at Thanksgiving Point in Lehi, and the world's largest man-made excavation at Bingham Canyon Mine.
ports and recreation
Winter sports, such as skiingand snowboarding, are popular activities in the Wasatch Mountainseast of Salt Lake City. Eight ski resorts lie within 50 miles (80 km) of the city. Alta, Brighton, Solitude Mountain Resort, and Snowbird are located in Big and Little Cottonwood Canyons to the southeast, Deer Valley, The Canyons, and Park City Resortare located to the east, near Park City in Summit County, and Sundanceis located to the southeast in Utah County. The ski resorts see frequent storms that deposit light, dry snow due to a phenomenon known as the lake effect, where storms amplified by the warm waters of the Great Salt Lake precipitate in the Wasatch Mountains. Alta and Deer Valley only allow skiing, while the others allow both skiing and snowboarding. The popularity of the ski resorts has increased nearly 29% since the 2002 Winter Olympics. [cite news | url=http://www.wolfcreekresort.com/news-SLT-5-17-06.htm | title=Utah's ski industry chalks up another record year for visitors | author=Mike Gorrell |coauthor=Knight Ridder | date=2006-05-16 | publisher= The Salt Lake Tribune]
Most of the ski resorts also offer summer activities. The mountains surrounding Salt Lake City are very popular for
hiking, camping, rock climbing, mountain and road biking, and other related outdoor activities. In addition, the many small reservoirs and rivers in the Wasatch Mountains are popular for boating, fishing, and other water-related activities. Salt Lake City is the primary jumping-off point for exploring the national parks and monuments and rugged terrain of the southern half of the state, as it contains the only international airport in the state.
Salt Lake City is home to the
Utah Jazzof the National Basketball Association(NBA), who play their home games in EnergySolutions Arenaand are the only top-level professional sports team in the state. They have been among the most successful NBA franchises of the last 20 years. The city's other professional sports include Real Salt Lakeof Major League Soccer, the Utah Blazeof the Arena Football League, and the Salt Lake Beesof the Pacific Coast League(minor league baseball). Real Salt Lakewas founded in 2005, and initially played at Rice-Eccles Stadiumon the University of Utahcampus. A soccer-specific stadiumfor Real Salt Lake, Rio Tinto Stadium, opened in October 2008 in the suburb of Sandy after undergoing nearly 2 years of funding difficulties. [ [http://www.deseretnews.com/dn/view/0,1249,645193551,00.html Salt Lake County plays ball, OKs a deal with Real] . Leigh Dethman, "Deseret Morning News."] The Utah Blazebegan play in 2006, and were popular in their first season in Utah, recording the highest average attendance in the league. [ [http://deseretnews.com/dn/view/0,1249,635211068,00.html Blaze burn bright with optimism] ] The Salt Lake Bees, the Triple A affiliate of the Los Angeles Angels, play home games at Franklin Covey Field. Nearby West Valley City has the Utah Grizzliesice hockey team of the ECHL. The new ABA league has twice attempted to expand into the city, first with the Utah Snowbearsin the 2004-05 season (which folded after reaching the quarterfinals of the playoffs) and later with the Salt Lake Dream(who folded before ever playing a game). The Continental Basketball Association(CBA) also attempted an expansion with the Utah Eagles, who folded halfway through the 2006-07 season. The Utah Starzzof the WNBA were once located within the city, but moved to San Antonio and became the Silver Stars after reaching the playoffs just once and struggling with attendance.
professional sportsin the Salt Lake City metropolitan area:
Utah lacks a professional football team of its own, and
college footballis very popular in the state. The University of Utahand Brigham Young Universityboth maintain large followings in the city, and rivalries are intense during the annual game between the two universities. This is sometimes referred to as the Holy War because of BYU's status as an LDS university and despite the fact that Utah is a secular university. The city has also played host to several international soccer games, with the US as the home team (due to the partisan support when playing Latin American teams).
There are four major freeways located within Salt Lake City. Interstate 15 runs north-south just west of downtown, while Interstate 80 enters near the airport and briefly merges with I-15 west of downtown before heading east through residential neighborhoods into
Parley's Canyon. State Route 201 runs east-west along the border with West Valley City; and Interstate 215, a beltway, traverses the city's northwest and west neighborhoods and encircles the city's southern suburbs. SR-201, I-15, and I-80 bisect one another at the "spaghetti bowl" just south of the city in neighboring South Salt Lake.
An additional freeway, known as the
Mountain View Corridor, is proposed to reduce growing congestion and accommodate rapidly-growing population along the west side of the Salt Lake Valley, with construction set to begin around 2010 and completion after 2015. The Legacy Parkway, part of the Legacy Highwaysystem, is under construction and will connect into I-215 just north of the city borders by fall 2008. This highway is expected to significantly reduce congestion on I-15into Davis County. State Route 154 (Bangerter Highway) is an expressway that provides access to the rapidly growing western and southern portions of the Salt Lake Valley, beginning at Salt Lake City International Airport. U.S. Route 89 enters from Davis County parallel to I-15 before heading southeast into downtown. In downtown, US-89 becomes State Street and extends south as the main surface street through the center of the city. Both SR-154 and US-89 connect to I-15 at the far south end of the valley.
Salt Lake City's mass transit service is operated by the
Utah Transit Authority(UTA) and includes an extensive bus system, light rail, and a commuter rail line. The convert|19|mi|km|sing=on light railsystem, called TRAX, consists of two lines originating downtown, one heading south to Sandy and the other splitting east to the University of Utah. Daily ridership averages 42,500 (as of the first quarter of 2007), [ [http://www.apta.com/research/stats/ridership/riderep/documents/07q1lr.pdf Q1 2007 light rail ridership report] ] significantly above original projections, and is the eleventh-most ridden light rail system in the country, but also the fifth-most ridden system by mile. TRAX began service on December 4, 1999. The University Line opened in 2001 and was extended in 2003 to its current terminus at the University Medical Center. Both lines begin at the Salt Lake City Intermodal Hubdowntown; the University Line splits east at 400 South. The system has a total of 28 stations (with 17 of them in Salt Lake City proper), with 13 more currently under construction.
Salt Lake City Intermodal Hub, near the Gateway District, was opened in 2005. The purpose of the Intermodal Hub is to serve as a central station for national, commuter, and light rail as well as national and local bus services. It is currently occupied by Greyhound; Amtrakis expected to be a future tenant, as well. An extension of the TRAX line from the EnergySolutions Arena through the Gateway District to the Intermodal Hub was completed in April 2008, followed by the opening of the FrontRunner commuter railline to Ogden on April 26, 2008. [ [http://email@example.com?CQ_SESSION_KEY=ZUOBZAWERBWO&CQ_CUR_DOCUMENT=55&CQ_TEXT_MAIN=YES Deseret News - UTA FrontRunner up and running today] . "Deseret Morning News". April 26, 2008.]
Future TRAX lines to other Salt Lake City suburbs, as well as to the airport, are also planned. A sales tax hike for road improvements, light rail, and commuter rail was approved by voters on November 7, 2006. [ [http://deseretnews.com/dn/view/0,1249,650205317,00.html Transit measures approved] . Nicole Warburton, "Deseret Morning News."] In addition, $500 million in federal funding has been approved for all four of the planned TRAX extensions in addition to an extension of FrontRunner south to Provo, which broke ground on August 12, 2008. [ [http://firstname.lastname@example.org?CQ_SESSION_KEY=ZUOBZAWERBWO&CQ_CUR_DOCUMENT=3&CQ_TEXT_MAIN=YES Deseret News - Ground broken for FrontRunner line to Utah County] . "Deseret News". August 12, 2008.] The letter of intent signed with the
Federal Transit Administrationwill allow all of these projects to begin construction in 2008 or 2009. [ [http://email@example.com?CQ_SESSION_KEY=QONBBZRFUXBH&CQ_CUR_DOCUMENT=15&CQ_TEXT_MAIN=YES UTA on track for U.S. funds] . Nicole Warburton, "Deseret Morning News".] It is expected that all of these projects will be complete by 2014. [ [http://firstname.lastname@example.org?CQ_SESSION_KEY=QONBBZRFUXBH&CQ_CUR_DOCUMENT=44&CQ_TEXT_MAIN=YES UTA setting end dates on TRAX construction] . "Deseret Morning News."]
UTA also operates an extensive bus system that extends throughout the
Wasatch Frontfrom Brigham City in the north to Santaquin in the south and as far west as Grantsville. UTA also operates routes to the ski resorts in Big and Little Cottonwood Canyons during the ski season (typically November to April). Approximately 60,000 people ride the bus daily, although ridership has reportedly declined since TRAX was constructed. [ [http://www.sltrib.com/News/ci_8658942 Salt Lake Tribune - Bus riders press for probe of UTA] . March 22, 2008.] Amtrak, the national passenger rail system, provides service to Salt Lake City, operating its California Zephyrdaily in both directions between Chicago and Emeryville, Californiaacross the bay from San Francisco. Greyhound Bus Linesserves Salt Lake City as well, providing access north-to-south through Utah along the I-15 corridor.
Salt Lake City International Airportis located approximately 4 mi (6 km) west of downtown. Delta Air Linesoperates its second largest hub at the airport, serving over 100 non-stop destinations throughout the United States, Mexico, and Canada. Daily non-stop service to Paris, Francebegan in June 2008. SkyWest Airlinesoperates its largest hub at the airport as Delta Connection, and serves 243 cities as Delta Connection and United Express. The airport is served by 4 UTA bus routes, and plans are in the works for a future light rail route. Ute Cab, City Cab, and Yellow Cabare the major taxi services, and Express Shuttle is a major shuttle company servicing the city and metro area. A total of 22,029,488 passengers flew through Salt Lake City International Airport in 2007, representing a 2.19 % increase over 2006.2007 Salt Lake City International Airport Statistics [http://www.slcairport.com/cmsdocuments/airstats2007_12.pdf] Retrieved on 2008-03-05.] The airport currently ranks as the twenty second busiest airport in the United States in terms of total passengers.Salt Lake City Department of Airports Fast Facts [http://www.slcairport.com/fast_facts.html] Retrieved on 2008-03-05.]
The city is also close in proximity to two additional airports, one being Bountiful-Skypark Airport, located approximately seven miles northwest of downtown in Woods Cross, the other being
Salt Lake City Municipal 2 Airport, located in West Jordan. These airports are primarily used for general aviationpurposes.
Salt Lake City has several
sister cities, [ [http://www.sister-cities.org/icrc/directory/usa/UT Online Directory: Utah, USA (2005)] . "Sister Cities International".] including:
Ross C. ("Rocky") Anderson, former SLC mayor and anti-war, anti-Bush pundit
Parley Baer, actor
Roseanne Barr, comedian, actress, and writer (former resident)
*Robert Bennett, Junior Senator of
Jaime Bergman, actress, former Playmate (former resident)
Craig Bolerjack, national sports personality
The Brobecks, indie rock band which received critical acclaim from Spin and URB mgazine as well as other musicians (based in Salt Lake City)
Neal Cassady, icon of the Beat Generation of the 1950s and the psychedelic movement of the 1960s, who inspired the character of Dean Moriartyin Jack Kerouac's classic On the Road(born in Salt Lake City)
Cytheria, Porn star born in Salt Lake City and raised in West Valley City
Gregg Hale, Guitar player from the platinum UK band Spiritualized
Shannon Hale, an American author of young adult fantasy and adult fiction.
Jeremy Horn, mixed martial artist
Derek Hough, professional dancer on Dancing With the Stars
Jon Huntsman, Jr., governor of Utah
Jon Huntsman, Sr., billionaire philanthropist of Huntsman Corporation
Thomas Kearns, 1900's millionaire, mining & railroad magnate, philanthropist, U.S. Senator and owner of Salt Lake Tribune
Dick Nourse, KSL television news anchor (retired late Nov. 2007)
Claude Nowellaka Corky King, founder of Summum
Maddox, writer, humorist, satirist, webmaster, comic book creator
Mick Morris, bass player for Orange County hardcore band, Eighteen Visions
Karl Rove, political strategist(former resident)
Cael Sanderson, four Year undefeated NCAA wrestler and gold medalist in the 2004 Olympics in freestyle wrestling (former resident)
Dell Schanze, entrepreneur
Elizabeth A. Smart, kidnapping victim that made national headlines 2002-2003
James Sorenson, billionaire
Kaycee Stroh, who plays Martha Coxon High School Musicaland High School Musical 2
Ruth Todd, KSL and KTVX television news anchor (semi-retired Feb. 2007)
Ryne Sanborn, who plays Jason Crosson High School Musicaland High School Musical 2and known as the child of light at the 2002 Winter Olympics.
Tony Toscano, Host of Emmy Award winning movie review show Talking Pictures.
Anne Wingate, mystery writer
Richard Whitehead Young, United States Armygeneral
David Zabriskie, professional cyclist, 2005 Tour de Francestage 1 winner
2002 Winter Olympics
Great Salt Lake
Utah Jazz(NBA Basketball)
Real Salt Lake(MLS Soccer)
List of famous Salt Lakers
Salt Lake City Tornado
Trolley Square shooting
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints
USS Salt Lake City(Ships of the United States Navy named "Salt Lake City").
Seal of Salt Lake City
*cite book | title=Grace & Grandeur: A History of Salt Lake City | author=Alexander, Thomas G. | year=2001 | publisher=Heritage Media Corp | id=ISBN 1-886483-60-4
*cite book | title=Mormons & Gentiles: A History of Salt Lake City | author=Alexander, Thomas G. and Allen, James B. | year=1984 | publisher=Pruett Publishing Co | id=ISBN 0-87108-664-6
*cite book | title=
World Book Encyclopedia| author=Bagley, Will | year=2004 | publisher=World Book Inc | id=ISBN 0-7166-0104-4 | edition=S-Sn | pages=76-76a
*cite book | title=The Gathering Place: An Illustrated History of Salt Lake City | author=McCormick, John S. | year=2000 | publisher=
Signature Books| id=ISBN 1-56085-132-5
*cite book | title=Insiders' Guide: Salt Lake City | author=Rainey, Virginia | year=2004 | publisher=Globe Pequot Press | id=ISBN 0-7627-2836-1 | edition=4th
*Stober, Daniel (2004). [http://members.aol.com/utahhwyp/strtname.htm Utah Street Names] . Retrieved 2004.
*cite news | first=Terry | last=McCarthy | title=The New Utah | date=February 3, 2002 | publisher=Time.com | url=http://www.time.com/time/olympics2002/article/0,8599,198870,00.html
* [http://www.slcgov.com/info/area_info/climate.htm Area Information - Salt Lake City's Climate (1991)] . "slcgov.com". Retrieved March 2005.
* [http://www.slcgov.com/info/area_info/employment.htm Area Information - Employment (2002)] . "slcgov.com". Retrieved March 2005.
* [http://www.slcgov.com/info/area_info/faq_new.htm Area Information - FAQ (2005)] . "slcgov.com". Retrieved March 2005.
* [http://www.governor.state.ut.us/dea/CCBrief3.pdf Cities and Counties of Utah Census Brief (May 2001)] . Retrieved April 15, 2005 (PDF file).
* [http://ols.nndc.noaa.gov/plolstore/plsql/olstore.prodspecific?prodnum=C00095-PUB-A0001#TABLES Comparative Climatic Data Publication - Data Tables] . "NOAA National Data Centers - NOAA Satellites and Information". Retrieved November 2004.
* [http://www.slcgov.com/info/area_info/salt_lake_city.htm Salt Lake City History (2004)] . "slcgov.com". Retrieved September 2004.
* [http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761579320/Salt_Lake_City.html Salt Lake City (2005)] . "Encarta Encyclopedia". Retrieved March 2005.
* [http://www.mormontabernaclechoir.com The Official Site of the Mormon Tabernacle Choir] . "Official website of the Mormon Tabernacle Choir." Retrieved May 2006.
title=History of Salt Lake City
place=Salt Lake City
publisher=Star Printing Co.
* [http://www.slcgov.com/ Salt Lake City government website]
* [http://www.saltlakechamber.org/ Salt Lake City Chamber of Commerce]
* [http://www.utahstories.com/transcript_second_Instalment_main%20street.htm History of downtown Salt Lake City told from the perspective of the long-time local merchants]
* [http://www.downtownslc.org/ The Downtown Alliance (tourist, resident, and potential resident guide to downtown area)]
* [http://www.downtownrising.com/index.php Downtown Rising (information on the current $1.5 billion construction projects in downtown)]
* [http://www.arttix.org/ artTix (fine-art events information)]
* [http://travel.utah.gov/ The Utah Office of Tourism]
* [http://www.slcjazzfestival.org/ Salt Lake City International Jazz Festival]
* [http://www.wrh.noaa.gov/slc/ National Weather Service - Salt Lake City]
* [http://www.visitsaltlake.com/ Salt Lake Convention & Visitors Bureau]
* [http://yellowsubterfuge.com/gallivan-center-guide-salt-lake-city/ Salt Lake Gallivan Center Guide]
* [http://www.gastronomicslc.com Gastronomic SLC - Independent restaurant guide to Salt Lake City]
*wikitravelpar|Salt Lake City
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