- List of countries
sprotect2 This list of countries, arranged alphabetically, gives an overview of countries of the world. It includes territories that are independent states (both those that are "internationally recognized" and "generally unrecognized"), inhabited dependent territories, and areas of special sovereignty.
Such inclusion criteria means the list does not treat the word "country" as synonymous with "sovereign state," as one may often find in colloquial usage. Note, that in certain circumstances and in certain languages the term "country" is understood in the most restrictive sense, thus including only the 193 entities mentioned under the first item below.
The list covers all areas under the jurisdiction of the listed countries, namely
territory, territorial waters(including internal waters and contiguous zones), exclusive economic zone, continental shelf, and airspace.
The names of countries in the list are given in English and include both an English version of the short official or normative names (e.g.
Afghanistan) and an English version of the (longer) official names (e.g. Islamic Republic of Afghanistan). The listing of any name in this article is not meant to imply an official position in any naming dispute.
Types of political entities included
On this list are 245 entities of the following types:
*193 states with general international recognition:
**192 member states of the
**1 state with general international recognition but not UN membership, governed by the
Holy See(a UN permanent observer): Vatican CityThe Holy See is a unique sovereign entity under international law vis-à-vis Vatican Citywith the Popeas the head of both, maintaining diplomatic/official relations with [http://www.vatican.va/news_services/press/documentazione/documents/corpo-diplomatico_index_en.html over 170 states/entities] and participating in various international organizations either in its own capacity or on behalf of Vatican City. Vatican City is administered by a Governor appointed by the Pope.] .
*9 states lacking general international recognition, none of which are UN members, that may be defined as states in the body of
customary international law, drawing on the precedent of the Montevideo Convention:
**3 states with limited international recognition and are able to fulfill clause d of the Montevideo Convention ("capacity to enter into relations with the other states") due to their memberships in certain
international organizations (i.e. World Bank, African Union)
***1 state, no longer a UN member since late 1971, recognized by 22 UN member states and the
Holy See( Vatican City), and currently with de factointernational relations with many others: the nowrap| Republic of China(commonly referred to as Taiwan).
***1 state, recognised by Kosovorecognition UN member states and the Republic of China (Taiwan) [ [http://www.taipeitimes.com/News/taiwan/archives/2008/02/20/2003402059 Taipei Times - archives ] ] : the nowrap|Republic of Kosovo
Kosovounilaterally declared independence on 17 February 2008. Serbiaregards it as an integral part of its territory, the formal name of which is "Kosovo and Metohija". It has been under United Nations administration since 1999 under the terms of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1244that ended the Kosovo conflict. That resolution reaffirmed the sovereignty of Serbia over Kosovo but required the UN administration to promote the establishment of 'substantial autonomy and self-government' for Kosovo pending a 'final settlement' for negotiation between the parties. See also Constitutional status of Kosovo.] .
***1 state, recognized by 46 UN member states but never admitted to the UN itself, with most of its claimed territory under Moroccan de facto administration: the nowrap|
Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republicin Western Sahara.
**6 states with no or almost no international recognition.
***2 states, diplomatically recognized by 2 UN member states: the nowrap|Republic of Abkhazia
Abkhaziais a de facto independent state operating within what the majority of states recognize as the de jure territory of Georgia. After fifteen years without diplomatic recognition from any UN member state, Russia became the first generally-recognized state recognize Abkhazia as independent on 26 August 2008. See [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/7582181.stm Russia recognises Georgian rebels ] . BBC News. Retrieved August 26, 2008.] and the nowrap|Republic of South Ossetia South Ossetiais a de facto independent state operating within what the majority of states recognize as the de jure territory of Georgia. After fifteen years without diplomatic recognition from any UN member state, Russia became the first generally-recognized state recognize South Ossetia as independent on 26 August 2008. See [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/7582181.stm Russia recognises Georgian rebels ] . BBC News. Retrieved August 26, 2008.] .
***1 state, diplomatically recognized by no UN member states except
Turkey: the nowrap| Turkish Republic of Northern CyprusThe Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprusis a de facto independent state operating within what the majority of states recognize as the de jure territory of the Republic of Cyprus, recognized by no UN member states except Turkey. Though without universal diplomatic recognition, it was accepted as an observer state of the Organization of the Islamic Conferencein the name of Turkish Cypriot State since 1979. In addition, the legislatureof the Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic regards TRNC as sovereign but Azerbaijan, who exercises sovereignty over Nakhichevan, has not followed suit. See [https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/cy.html The World Factbook - Cyprus] ( 10 January 2006). Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved January 17, 2006.] .
***3 states, diplomatically recognized by no UN member states whatsoever: the nowrap|
Nagorno-Karabakh Republic Nagorno-Karabakhis a de facto independent state inside the de jure territory of the Republic of Azerbaijan, diplomatically recognized by no UN member states. See [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/country_profiles/3658938.stm Regions and territories: Nagorno-Karabakh] ( 17 January 2006). BBC News. Retrieved January 17, 2006.] , the nowrap| Republic of Somaliland Somalilandis a de facto independent state inside the de jure territory of the Somali Republic, diplomatically recognized by no UN member states. See [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/country_profiles/3794847.stm Regions and territories: Somaliland] ( 30 December 2005). BBC News. Retrieved January 17, 2006.] and TransnistriaTransnistria is a de facto independent state inside the de jure territory of the Republic of Moldova, diplomatically recognized by no UN member states, commonly known and referred to internationally as Transnistria, but sometimes referred to as "Pridnestrovie" (along with the corresponding long-form name "Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic"). See [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/country_profiles/3641826.stm Regions and territories: Trans-Dniester] ( 13 December 2005). BBC News. Retrieved January 17, 2006.] .
*38 inhabited dependent territories:
**3 external territories of
Australia( Christmas Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islandsand Norfolk Island).
**2 overseas countries in the United Kingdom of Denmark (
Faroe Islandsand Greenland).
**7 overseas territories of
France: [The overseas regions/overseas departments of French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martiniqueand Réunionare integral part of France, and therefore not listed.]
sui generis(unique) community ( New Caledonia).
***6 overseas collectivities:
****1 overseas country (
****1 departmental collectivity (
****1 territorial collectivity (
Saint Pierre and Miquelon)
****2 collectivities (
Saint Barthélemyand Saint Martin)
****1 territory (
Wallis and Futuna)
**2 overseas countries in the
Kingdom of the Netherlands( Arubaand Netherlands Antilles).
**3 dependent territories of
***2 states in free association with New Zealand (
Cook Islandsand Niue).
***1 overseas territory (
**16 dependent territories of the
British overseas territories( Anguilla, Bermuda, British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Falkland Islands, Gibraltar, Montserrat, Pitcairn Islands, Saint Helena(and its dependencies Ascension Islandand Tristan da Cunha), Turks and Caicos Islands, and the Sovereign Base Areasof Akrotiri and Dhekelia).
***3 Crown dependencies (
Guernsey, Jerseyand the Isle of Man).
**5 unincorporated territories of the
***2 commonwealths (
Northern Mariana Islandsand Puerto Rico).
***2 organized territories (
Guamand U.S. Virgin Islands).
***1 de facto organized territory lacking an
Organic Act( American Samoa).
*5 special entities recognized by international treaty or agreement (
Ålandin Finland; Svalbardin Norway; the Palestinian territories; and the 2 special administrative regions of the People's Republic of China, Hong Kongand Macau).
In the 'Entities not included', an outline is given on the entities not included in this list. This includes distinct political and legal entities which are known as countries, but are integral parts of a sovereign state also termed a country - notably the
constituent countriesof the United Kingdom.
Key of country names
*Afghanistan (bold) - States with general international recognition
*"Abkhazia" (bold and italic) - States lacking general international recognition
*Akrotiri and Dhekelia (unbold) - Other non-state countries
List of countries
*"flag|Abkhazia" – Republic of Abkhazia
*flag|Afghanistan – Islamic Republic of Afghanistan
Akrotiri and Dhekelia– Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia ("UK overseas territory")
*flag|Åland – Åland Islands ("Autonomous province of Finland")
*flag|Albania – Republic of Albania
*flag|Algeria – People's Democratic Republic of Algeria
*flag|American Samoa – Territory of American Samoa ("US territory")
*flag|Andorra – Principality of Andorra
*flag|Angola – Republic of Angola
*flag|Anguilla ("UK overseas territory")
*flag|Antigua and Barbuda
*flag|Argentina – Argentine Republic [
Argentinais also named Argentine Nation for purposes of legislation.]
*flag|Armenia – Republic of Armenia & Nagorno-Karabakh Republic (Artsakh)
*flag|Aruba ("Self-governing country in the Kingdom of the Netherlands")
Ascension Island("Dependency of the UK overseas territory of Saint Helena")
*flag|Australia – Commonwealth of Australia
*flag|Austria – Republic of Austria
*flag|Azerbaijan – Republic of Azerbaijan [See also Nagorno-Karabakh.]
*flag|Bahamas|name=Bahamas, The – Commonwealth of The Bahamas
*flag|Bahrain – Kingdom of Bahrain
*flag|Bangladesh – People's Republic of Bangladesh
*flag|Belarus – Republic of Belarus
*flag|Belgium – Kingdom of Belgium
*flag|Benin – Republic of Benin
*flag|Bermuda ("UK overseas territory")
*flag|Bhutan – Kingdom of Bhutan
*flag|Bolivia – Republic of Bolivia
*flag|Bosnia and Herzegovina [See also entities
Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovinaand Republika Srpska, as well as District Brčko.]
*flag|Botswana – Republic of Botswana
*flag|Brazil – Federative Republic of Brazil
*flag|Brunei – Negara Brunei Darussalam
*flag|Bulgaria – Republic of Bulgaria
*flag|Burma – Union of Myanmar
*flag|Burundi – Republic of Burundi
*flag|Cambodia – Kingdom of Cambodia
*flag|Cameroon – Republic of Cameroon
Canadais also infrequently referred to as Dominion of Canada.]
*flag|Cape Verde – Republic of Cape Verde
*flag|Cayman Islands ("UK overseas territory")
*flag|Central African Republic [The
Central African Republicis also infrequently rendered as Central Africa.]
*flag|Chad – Republic of Chad
*flag|Chile – Republic of Chile
*flag|People's Republic of China|name=China – People's Republic of China [The
People's Republic of Chinais commonly referred to as China. It is sometimes called mainland Chinato distinguish it from the Republic of China. The term mainland Chinais also used at times to refer to all of the People's Republic of China except for its special administrative regions of Hong Kongand Macao.]
*"For "China, Republic of", see "Taiwan"
*flag|Christmas Island – Territory of Christmas Island ("Australian overseas territory")
*flag|Cocos (Keeling) Islands – Territory of Cocos (Keeling) Islands ("Australian overseas territory")
*flag|Colombia – Republic of Colombia
*flag|Comoros – Union of the Comoros
*flag|Democratic Republic of the Congo|name=Congo – Democratic Republic of the Congo [The
Democratic Republic of the Congois referred to as Congo-Kinshasa to distinguish it from the Republic of the Congo. It is also often referred to as Zaire, its official name from 1971 to 1997.]
*flag|Republic of the Congo|name=Congo – Republic of the Congo [The
Republic of the Congois referred to as Congo-Brazzaville to distinguish it from the Democratic Republic of the Congo.]
*flag|Cook Islands ("Associated state of New Zealand")
*flag|Costa Rica – Republic of Costa Rica
*flag|Côte d'Ivoire – Republic of Côte d'Ivoire
*flag|Croatia – Republic of Croatia
*flag|Cuba – Republic of Cuba
*flag|Cyprus – Republic of Cyprus [See also Northern Cyprus.]
*flag|Czech Republic [The
Czech Republicis also infrequently rendered as Czechia. See Names of the Czech Republic.]
*flag|Denmark – Kingdom of Denmark
*"For "Dhekelia", see Akrotiri and Dhekelia"
*flag|Djibouti – Republic of Djibouti
*flag|Dominica – Commonwealth of Dominica
*flag|East Timor – Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste
*flag|Ecuador – Republic of Ecuador
*flag|Egypt – Arab Republic of Egypt
*flag|El Salvador – Republic of El Salvador
*flag|Equatorial Guinea – Republic of Equatorial Guinea
*flag|Eritrea – State of Eritrea
*flag|Estonia – Republic of Estonia
*flag|Ethiopia – Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia
*flag|Falkland Islands ("UK overseas territory") [
Falkland Islandsis also claimed by Argentinaas Islas Malvinas.]
*flag|Faroe Islands ("Self-governing country in the Kingdom of Denmark")
*flag|Fiji – Republic of the Fiji Islands
*flag|Finland – Republic of Finland
*flag|France – French Republic
*flag|French Polynesia ("French overseas collectivity")
*flag|Gabon – Gabonese Republic
*flag|Gambia|name=Gambia, The – Republic of The Gambia
*flag|Georgia [See also Abkhazia and South Ossetia.]
*flag|Germany – Federal Republic of Germany
*flag|Ghana – Republic of Ghana
*flag|Gibraltar ("UK overseas territory")
*flag|Greece – Hellenic Republic
*flag|Greenland ("Self-governing country in the Kingdom of Denmark")
*flag|Guam – Territory of Guam ("US organized territory")
*flag|Guatemala – Republic of Guatemala
*flag|Guernsey – Bailiwick of Guernsey ("British Crown dependency") [The Bailiwick of Guernsey includes its self-governing dependencies
Alderney, Hermand Sark.]
*flag|Guinea – Republic of Guinea
*flag|Guinea-Bissau – Republic of Guinea-Bissau
*flag|Guyana – Co-operative Republic of Guyana
*flag|Haiti – Republic of Haiti
*flag|Honduras – Republic of Honduras
*flag|Hong Kong – Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China ("Area of special sovereignty") [
Hong Kongis a Special administrative region of the People's Republic of China. It is often diplomatically known as Hong Kong, China.]
*flag|Hungary – Republic of Hungary
*flag|Iceland – Republic of Iceland
*flag|India – Republic of India
*flag|Indonesia – Republic of Indonesia
*flag|Iran – Islamic Republic of Iran
*flag|Iraq – Republic of Iraq
*flag|Republic of Ireland|name=Ireland - Ireland [Ireland is often referred to as the "Republic of Ireland" (its official "description" but not its "name"). Sometimes this is done to distinguish Ireland from island of Ireland as a whole. However, sometimes it is done for political reasons and is contentious.]
*flag|Isle of Man ("British Crown dependency")
*flag|Israel – State of Israel
*flag|Italy – Italian Republic
*"For "Ivory Coast", see Côte d'Ivoire"
*flag|Jersey – Bailiwick of Jersey ("British Crown dependency")
*flag|Jordan – Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan
*flag|Kazakhstan – Republic of Kazakhstan
*flag|Kenya – Republic of Kenya
*flag|Kiribati – Republic of Kiribati
*flag|North Korea|name=Korea, North – Democratic People's Republic of Korea [The Democratic People's Republic of Korea is popularly known as North Korea.]
*flag|South Korea|name=Korea, South – Republic of Korea [The Republic of Korea is popularly known as South Korea.]
*"flag|Kosovo" – Republic of Kosovo
*flag|Kuwait – State of Kuwait
*flag|Kyrgyzstan – Kyrgyz Republic [
Kyrgyzstanis also sometimes rendered as Kirghizia.]
*flag|Laos – Lao People's Democratic Republic
*flag|Latvia – Republic of Latvia
*flag|Lebanon – Republic of Lebanon
*flag|Lesotho – Kingdom of Lesotho
*flag|Liberia – Republic of Liberia
*flag|Libya – Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya
*flag|Liechtenstein – Principality of Liechtenstein
*flag|Lithuania – Republic of Lithuania
*flag|Luxembourg – Grand Duchy of Luxembourg
*flag|Macao – Macao Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China ("Area of special sovereignty") [Macao is a Special administrative region of the People's Republic of China. It is diplomatically known as Macao, China. ]
*flag|Macedonia – Republic of Macedonia [
Republic of Macedoniais referred to by UN and a number of countries and international organizations as the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia.]
*flag|Madagascar – Republic of Madagascar
*flag|Malawi – Republic of Malawi
*flag|Maldives – Republic of Maldives
*flag|Mali – Republic of Mali
*flag|Malta – Republic of Malta
*flag|Marshall Islands – Republic of the Marshall Islands
*flag|Mauritania – Islamic Republic of Mauritania
*flag|Mauritius – Republic of Mauritius
*flag|Mayotte|local – Departmental Collectivity of Mayotte ("French overseas collectivity")
*flag|Mexico – United Mexican States
*flag|Micronesia – Federated States of Micronesia
*flag|Moldova – Republic of Moldova [See also Transnistria.]
*flag|Monaco – Principality of Monaco
*flag|Montserrat ("UK overseas territory")
*flag|Morocco – Kingdom of Morocco [See also Western Sahara.]
*flag|Mozambique – Republic of Mozambique
*"For "Myanmar", see Burma"
*"flag|Nagorno-Karabakh" – Nagorno-Karabakh Republic (Artsakh)
*flag|Namibia – Republic of Namibia
*flag|Nauru – Republic of Nauru
*flag|Nepal – Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal
*flag|Netherlands – Kingdom of the Netherlands [Legally the
Netherlandsrefers to the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, with the latter consisting of the Netherlands and two overseas countries, namely Arubaand the Netherlands Antilles.]
*flag|Netherlands Antilles ("Self-governing country in the Kingdom of the Netherlands")
*flag|New Caledonia|local – Territory of New Caledonia and Dependencies ("French community sui generis")
*flag|Nicaragua – Republic of Nicaragua
*flag|Niger – Republic of Niger
*flag|Nigeria – Federal Republic of Nigeria
*flag|Niue ("Associated state of New Zealand")
*flag|Norfolk Island – Territory of Norfolk Island ("Australian overseas territory")
*"flag|Northern Cyprus" – Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus
*flag|Northern Mariana Islands – Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands ("US commonwealth")
*"For "North Korea", see Korea, North"
*flag|Norway – Kingdom of Norway
*flag|Oman – Sultanate of Oman
*flag|Pakistan – Islamic Republic of Pakistan
*flag|Palau – Republic of Palau
*"flag|Palestine" – Palestinian Territories [ The
Palestinian territoriesare those portions of the former British Mandate of Palestinecaptured and administered by Jordan and Egypt in the late 1940s, and later by Israelfollowing the 1967 Six-Day War. They include Gaza Stripand West Bank, both of which are now divded into 3 areas (Area A, Area B, and Area C) and 16 governorates under the jurisdiction of the Palestinian National Authorityin accordance with the Oslo Accords. The permanent legal and political status of these places are subject to further negotiation between the government of Israeland the Palestine Liberation Organization.]
*flag|Panama – Republic of Panama
*flag|Papua New Guinea – Independent State of Papua New Guinea
*flag|Paraguay – Republic of Paraguay
* "For "People's Republic of China", see China"
*flag|Peru – Republic of Peru
*flag|Philippines – Republic of the Philippines
*flag|Pitcairn Islands – Pitcairn, Henderson, Ducie, and Oeno Islands ("UK overseas territory")
*flag|Poland – Republic of Poland
*flag|Portugal – Portuguese Republic
*"For "Pridnestrovie", see Transnistria"
*flag|Puerto Rico – Commonwealth of Puerto Rico ("US commonwealth")
*flag|Qatar – State of Qatar
*flag|Russia – Russian Federation
*flag|Rwanda – Republic of Rwanda
*flag|Saint Barthélemy|local – Collectivity of Saint Barthélemy ("French overseas collectivity")
*flag|Saint Helena ("UK overseas territory")
*flag|Saint Kitts and Nevis – Federation of Saint Christopher and Nevis
*flag|Saint Martin|local – Collectivity of Saint Martin ("French overseas collectivity")
*flag|Saint Pierre and Miquelon|local – Territorial Collectivity of Saint Pierre and Miquelon ("French overseas collectivity")
*flag|Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
*flag|Samoa – Independent State of Samoa
*flag|San Marino – Most Serene Republic of San Marino
*flag|São Tomé and Príncipe – Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe
*flag|Saudi Arabia – Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
*flag|Senegal – Republic of Senegal
*flag|Serbia – Republic of Serbia [See also Kosovo - under
*flag|Seychelles – Republic of Seychelles
*flag|Sierra Leone – Republic of Sierra Leone
*flag|Singapore – Republic of Singapore
*flag|Slovakia – Slovak Republic
*flag|Slovenia – Republic of Slovenia
Somaliais presently fragmented with its Transitional National Government] - Somali Republic
*"flag|Somaliland" – Republic of Somaliland
*flag|South Africa – Republic of South Africa
*"For "South Korea", see Korea, South"
*"flag|South Ossetia" – Republic of South Ossetia
*flag|Spain – Kingdom of Spain
*flag|Sri Lanka – Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka
*flag|Sudan – Republic of the Sudan
*flag|Suriname – Republic of Suriname
*flag|Svalbard ("Territory of Norway") [
Svalbardis an overseas territory of Norwayrecognized by international treaty.]
*flag|Swaziland – Kingdom of Swaziland
*flag|Sweden – Kingdom of Sweden
*flag|Switzerland – Swiss Confederation
*flag|Syria – Syrian Arab Republic
*"flag|Republic of China|name=Taiwan" – Republic of China [The
Republic of China(ROC) is a state commonly referred to as Taiwan. It is also diplomatically occasionally known as Chinese Taipeior other names. The ROC is no longer a United Nations member since late 1971 and regarded by UN as Taiwan, Province of China (see also One-China policyand Taiwan Province, People's Republic of China). It is currently recognized by ROCrecognition UN member states, including observer state the Holy See, and with de facto international relations with most others. The political status of the ROC and the legal status of Taiwan (alongside the territories currently under the ROC jurisdiction) are in dispute. The ROC should not be confused with the Republic of Taiwanproposed by supporters of Taiwan independence.]
*flag|Tajikistan – Republic of Tajikistan
*flag|Tanzania – United Republic of Tanzania
*flag|Thailand – Kingdom of Thailand
*"For "Timor-Leste", see East Timor"
*flag|Togo – Togolese Republic
*flag|Tokelau ("Overseas territory of New Zealand")
*flag|Tonga – Kingdom of Tonga
*"flag|Transnistria" – Transnistrian Moldovan Republic
*flag|Trinidad and Tobago – Republic of Trinidad and Tobago
*flag|Tristan da Cunha ("Dependency of the UK overseas territory of Saint Helena")
*flag|Tunisia – Tunisian Republic
*flag|Turkey – Republic of Turkey
*flag|Turks and Caicos Islands ("UK overseas territory")
*flag|Uganda – Republic of Uganda
*flag|United Arab Emirates
*flag|United Kingdom – United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
*flag|United States – United States of America
*flag|Uruguay – Eastern Republic of Uruguay
*flag|Uzbekistan – Republic of Uzbekistan
*flag|Vanuatu – Republic of Vanuatu
*flag|Vatican City – State of the Vatican City
*flag|Venezuela – Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela
*flag|Vietnam – Socialist Republic of Vietnam
*flag|British Virgin Islands|name=Virgin Islands, British – British Virgin Islands ("UK overseas territory")
*flag|U.S. Virgin Islands|name=Virgin Islands, United States – United States Virgin Islands ("US organized territory")
*flag|Wallis and Futuna|local – Territory of Wallis and Futuna Islands ("French overseas collectivity")
*flag|Western Sahara - Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic [
Western Saharais a former Spanish colony which was in 1960s put on the United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territoriessubject to decolonization. It is claimed by the Kingdom of Morocco which currently rules large portion of it, and the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic(SADR) which exercises effective control over the area east of Moroccan Wall. SADR is a member of the African Unionand the Asian-African Strategic Partnership formed at the 2005 Asian-African Conference. It is currently recognized by 46 UN member states but has never been admitted to UN itself. UN has attempted to hold a referendumthrough the mission United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara(MINURSO), and is holding direct talks between Morocco and the Polisario Front (the ruling party of SADR). Despite these attempts, however, the legal and political status of Western Sahara remain unresolved. See also Legal status of Western Sahara.]
*flag|Yemen – Republic of Yemen
*"For "Zaire", see Democratic Republic of the Congo"
*flag|Zambia – Republic of Zambia
*flag|Zimbabwe – Republic of Zimbabwe
Confederations, supranational unions (such as the European Union) and international / intergovernmental organizations which are associations of countries.
* Sovereign entities without territorial possessions, all permanent observers of the
Sovereign Military Order of Malta" (SMOM), a sovereign entity under international law that maintains diplomatic/official relations with [http://www.orderofmalta.org/attdiplomatica.asp?idlingua=5 over 100 states/entities] and participating in various international organizations.
International Committee of the Red Cross" (ICRC), an independent non-state entity under international law which maintains delegations worldwide, founding body of the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movementand guardian of international humanitarian law in accordance with the Geneva Conventions.
International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies" (IFRC), an independent non-state entity under international law which, together with the ICRC, assists and coordinates between National Societies of the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement.
* Entities considered integral part of other countries:
** Component states of
federations, such as "states" of Australia, "provinces" of Canada, "Bundesländer" of Germany, "estados" of México, "estados" of Brazil, and "states" of the United States.
** Substate units of federacies that enjoy considerably more independence than the majority of others, like "
Zanzibar" ( Tanzania).
** Constituent countries of the
United Kingdom, i.e. " England", " Scotland", " Wales" and " Northern Ireland".
Mount Athos" ("Regime of Aghion Oros" or "Autonomous Monastic State of the Holy Mountain"), a monastic republic in Greecepolitically self-governed by the Holy Community of the 20 Monasteries of the Holy Mountain Athos and its Holy Executive and spiritually under the direct jurisdiction of the Ecumenical Patriarch in accordance with the constitution of Greece.
** Condominiums like
Pheasant Island(sovereignty of which jointly shared by Franceand Spain).
** Autonomous areas legally part of sovereign states, such as "
Catalonia" ( Spain), " Tibet" ( People's Republic of China) and " Chechnya" ( Russia); but excluding Åland, which is recognized by international treaties.
** Special Administrative Regions established within countries, like "
Aceh" ( Indonesia), excluding Hong Kongand Macauwhich are recognized by international treaties.
Special Economic Zones (SEZs) in sovereign states with economic laws different from the rest of the states, such as "Shenzhen SEZ" of the People's Republic of China.
** Areas leased by countries like Russian part of
Saimaa Canaland Malyj Vysotskij Island (leased by Finlandfrom Russia).
** Enclaves / Exclaves that belong to one country but are not connected to it by land (islands are not included) and are surrounded by other countries, like
Alaska( United States) and Kaliningrad ( Russia).
** Overseas portions of countries legally integrated into the country, like:
Chile: " Easter Island" and " Juan Fernández Islands" (special territories).
France: " French Guiana", " Guadeloupe", " Martinique" and " Réunion" (also overseas departments).
Portugal: " Azores" and " Madeira" (autonomous regions).
Spain: " Canary Islands" (autonomous community) and the " Plazas de soberanía" (including the autonomous cities " Ceuta" and " Melilla").
United States: " Hawaii" (state).
** Other subnational entities of countries.
* Dependent territories without indigenous inhabitation:
Australia: " Ashmore and Cartier Islands", " Coral Sea Islands" and " Heard Island and McDonald Islands".
France: " Clipperton Island" and " French Southern and Antarctic Lands" (excluding the French claim of Adélie Landin Antarctica).
Norway: " Bouvet Island".
United Kingdom: " British Indian Ocean Territory" and " South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands".
United States: " Navassa Island"," Petrel Islands", " Serranilla Bank", " United States Pacific Island Wildlife Refuges" and " Wake Island".
* Places where
extraterritorialityis applied such as embassies, consulates and military bases of foreign countries, and most notably:
United Nations" United Nations headquarters" at New Yorkwhich is an international zone governed under its own rules.
** The "SMOM headquarters" in
** The "ICRC headquarters" in
** The specified "
Properties of the Holy See" in Italy.
Pavillon de Breteuil" in Franceused by the General Conference on Weights and Measures.
** "Guantanamo Bay", a territory of
Cubaunder the permanent control (with no claim of sovereignty) of the United Stateswhich pays rent under terms of treaties with Cuba.
* Territorial claims of sovereign states to
Antarcticaand its outlying islands south of 60°S which are held in abeyance under the terms of the Antarctic Treaty:
Argentina: " Argentine Antarctica" (25°W to 74°W, overlapping British and Chilean claims).
Australia: " Australian Antarctic Territory" (160°E to 142°02' E and 136°11' E to 44°38' E).
Chile: " Antártica Chilena Province" (53°W to 90°W, overlapping Argentine and British Claims).
France: " Adélie Land" (142°02' E to 136°'11 E)
New Zealand: " Ross Dependency" (150°W to 160°E).
Norway: " Queen Maud Land" (44°38' E to 20°W) and " Peter I Island" (at 68°50' S, 90°35'W).
United Kingdom: " British Antarctic Territory" (20°W to 80°W, overlapping Argentine and Chilean claims).
** ("No formal claims have been made in the sector between 90°W and 150°W, except for the Norwegian claim to
Peter I Island".)
Brazil's "Zone of Interest": "Brazilian Antarctica" (28°W to 53°W, overlapping Argentine and British claims, informal claim).
* Territorial claims to the
Arcticmade by sovereign states which are all members of the Arctic Council.
* Various disputed or occupied territories, see the
List of territorial disputes.
* Demilitarized or neutral zones between two warring countries (the two sides of the demarcation line in the zones are considered parts of the respective warring countries, with the exception of the "neutral ground" between
Gibraltarand Spainwhich does not belong to either country.
* Places under the control of UN Peacekeeping Missions.
* Places under the control of secessionist movements, guerrilla forces, or terrorist organizations.
* Entities not claiming sovereignty with de facto control over their territory.
* Governments in exile.
*Surviving monarchs and
pretenders of abolished monarchies.
* Subnational traditional monarchies,
tribes and indigenous peoples, with their heads holding traditional (mostly ceremonial) roles and/or exercising limited jurisdiction.
Nations without their own states, many of which are members of the Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization(UNPO).
micronations that are not recognized internationally, see the List of micronations.
* Anarchist movements and communities.
* Extinct political entities.
* All forms of
land claims, including claims to the so-called terra nullius.
* Organizations that attempt to establish a
* Fictional, imaginary and proposed countries as well as space and ocean colonization projects and
extraterrestrial real estatethat do not exist in the real world.
Cruise ships and other passenger vessels in international waters.
List of international rankings
List of unrecognized states
title=Countries by geographic locale
Lists of countries
* [http://unstats.un.org/unsd/methods/m49/m49alpha.htm Countries or areas, codes and abbreviations] (2006).
United Nations StatisticsDivision. Retrieved 18 October 2006.
* [http://publications.europa.eu/code/en/en-5000500.htm Countries and currencies] (2006).
European Commission. Retrieved 27 October 2006.
* [http://www.iso.org/iso/en/prods-services/iso3166ma/02iso-3166-code-lists/list-en1.html ISO 3166 country code list] (2006)
ISO3166-1 Retrieved 18 October 2006.
*PDFlink| [http://www.un.org/Depts/Cartographic/english/geoinfo/geoname.pdf List of Territories] |151 KiB (2004).
United Nations CartographicSection. Retrieved 17 January 2006.
* [https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/index.html The World Factbook] (2006).
Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 17 January 2006.
* [http://www.madore.org/~david/misc/countries.html How many countries are there in the world?] an article by David Madore on this unanswerable question
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