- United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo
conventional_long_name = Kosovo, UN protectorate
map_caption = Kosovo within Serbia
common_name = Kosovo
continent = Europe
region = Balkans
capital = Pristina
sovereignty_type = UN protectorate
sovereignty_note = UN administration of
Kosovo, an autonomous province of Serbia
leader_title1 = Special Representative
established_event1 = UNSCR 1244
10 June, 1999
established_event2 = EULEX
16 February, 2008
currency_code = EURThe United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo or UNMIK is the interim civilian administration in
Kosovo, under the authority of the United Nations. The mission was established on June 10, 1999by Security CouncilResolution 1244.UN document |docid=S-RES-1244(1999) |type=Resolution |body=Security Council |year=1999 |resolution_number=1244 |accessdate=2008-09-06]
Assembly of Kosovounanimously adopted the declaration of independence on 17 February 2008, however UN Resolution 1244 is still in force, which means that ultimate responsibility for the administration of Kosovo still falls on the Special Representative.
The province is the subject of a long-running political and territorial dispute between the Serbian (and previously, the Yugoslav) government and Kosovo's largely ethnic-Albanian population. Whilst Serbia's claim to Kosovo is recognised by some in the international community, a clear majority of the province's population support Kosovo's independence, together with a majority of European countries.
The head of UNMIK is the Special Representative of the Secretary-General ('SRSG') and is appointed by the Secretary-General under the advice of UN member states.
Joachim Rücker, a German diplomat, has been the SRSG since September 2006, replacing Steven Schook who served as acting-SRSG since the departure of Søren Jessen-Petersenin June 2006.
UNMIK has been divided into four sections which it calls "pillars." These are:
* Pillar I: Police and justice (United Nations-led)
* Pillar II: Civil Administration (United Nations-led)
* Pillar III: Democratization and institution building (led by the
Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe)
* Pillar IV: Reconstruction and economic development (
Responsibility for enforcement of Pillars I and II has now been transferred to the institutions of provisional self-government in Kosovo. The UN, however, still monitors this enforcement.
Following a major internal restructuring of its activities, this Pillar structure underwent a change. Pillar I was dissolved and as a consequence the Police Commissioner and the Director of the Department of Justice reporting directly to the SRSG instead of reporting to a DSRSG as was the case earlier. Pillar II was scaled down to a Department of Civil Administration and its Director also reporting directly to the SRSG.
UNMIK oversees a substantial UN International Police force numbered currently at approximately 1985, which includes Formed Police Units as well.
NATO-led force called KFOR provides an international security presence in support of UNMIK's work, but is not subordinate to the UN.
According to resolution 1244, UNMIK is to:
* perform basic civilian administrative functions;
* promote the establishment of substantial autonomy and self-government in Kosovo;
* facilitate a political process to determine Kosovo's future status;
* coordinate humanitarian and disaster relief of all international agencies;
* support the reconstruction of key infrastructure;
* maintain civil law and order;
* promote human rights; and
* assure the safe and unimpeded return of all refugees and displaced persons to their homes in Kosovo.
The UNMIK has been criticized for failing to achieve many of its stated objectives and is widely resented by both Kosovo Serbs and Kosovo AlbaniansFact|date=December 2007. After seven years of work (
as of 2006):
* Key infrastructure is not reconstructed; specifically, electric distribution is still very problematic;
* UNMIK created constitutional framework for Kosovo, while authorised to create only legal framework;
* UNMIK has been slow to transfer competencies to the provisional Kosovo institutions;
* Ethnic violence has occasionally flared (most notably in March 2004);
* Corruption, including allegations of corruption within UNMIK, remains endemic;
* Human rights have been problematic, especially with Kosovo's minority communities;
* There has been a failure to eliminate parallel structures, insofar as health and education within the Kosovo Serbian community remain dependent on Serbian budgets;
* UNMIK has been accused of failing to implement an economic development strategy;
* The government of Serbia claims there are around 250,000. [cite web | title = Serbian Government >> Coordination Centre >> Program of Returns | url=http://web.archive.org/web/20040203102745/http://www.serbia.sr.gov.yu/coordination_centre/index.html | accessdate = 2008-02-23 | year = 2008 ] [
UNHCR: 2002 Annual Statistical Report: Serbia and Montenegro, pg. 9] [cite web | title = The page cannot be found | url=http://www.refugees.org/world/countryrpt/europe/yugoslavia.htm | accessdate = 2008-02-23 | year = 2008 ] refugees and internally displaced persons (IDPs) from Kosovo, the vast majority of whom are Serbs, who still do not feel safe returning to their homes. Kosovo Albanians displaced from the divided town of Mitrovica have yet to be granted the right to return.
* Amongst other things, according to SC Resolution 1244, Serbia is authorised to send a specific amount of its troops back into Kosovo. UNMIK so far has prevented Serbia from doing so, thus in fact breaching the resolution.
* Illegal Serb intelligence and interior forces continue to operate clandestinely in Kosovo, especially in the northFact|date=August 2007;
* Since the establishment of the
United Nations Mission in Kosovo(UNMIK) in 1999, according to some international organizations Kosovohas become a major destination country for women and young girls trafficked into forced prostitution. And that the presence of UN/NATO peacekeeping troops help 'fuel the sex trafficking trade'. According to Amnesty International, most of women are trafficked from Moldova, Romania, Bulgariaand Ukraine[cite news | title = Kosovo UN troops 'fuel sex trade'
url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/3686173.stm | accessdate = 2008-02-23 | year = 2008 ] [cite web | title = Amnesty International | url=http://web.amnesty.org/actforwomen/stories-9-eng | accessdate = 2008-02-23 | year = 2008 ] [cite web | title = Nato force 'feeds Kosovo sex trade' | World news | The Guardian | url=http://www.guardian.co.uk/international/story/0,,1211214,00.html | accessdate = 2008-02-23 | year = 2008 ] .
* On 10 February UN police fired rubber bullets at unarmed demonstrators in Prishtina, killing two and injuring 82. The Chief Constable resigned, however the police unit who fired the rubber bullets returned to Rumania where they have not been investigated. Meanwhile in Prishtina, UNMIK arrested and detained the demonstration organiser,
Albin Kurtiof VETËVENDOSJE!(Albanian for self-determination). He remained in detention without trial until July 2007 and subsequently has been under house arrest. Amnesty Internationalhas criticised UNMIK's conduct of his prosecution. [cite web | title = Amnesty International Australia - 404 | url=http://news.amnesty.org.au/news/comments/7098/ | accessdate = 2008-02-23 | year = 2008 ]
In June 2005, a
BBC[http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/4080048.stm article] suggested that the European Roma Rights Centrewere to sue UNMIK over Roma in Mitrovica Camps.
In July 2006, a book, 'Peace at Any Price: How the World Failed Kosovo', written by two former senior staffers at UNMIK, exposed a catalogue of errors and incompetence in the institution over its seven year history.
Kosovo final status process
A UN-led political process began in late 2005 to determine Kosovo's future status. Belgrade proposed that Kosovo be highly autonomous and remain a part of Serbia — Belgrade officials repeatedly said that an imposition of Kosovo's independence would be a violation of Serbia's sovereignty and therefore contrary to international law and the UN Charter. Representatives of Kosovo's ethnic-Albanian majority asserted that Kosovo must become independent, arguing that the violence of the
Miloševićyears made continued union between Kosovo and Serbia impossible.
UN Special Envoy
Martti Ahtisaari, a former president of Finland, leads the status process with Austrian diplomat Albert Rohan, his deputy. Ahtisaari's office — the UN Office of the Special Envoy for Kosovo (UNOSEK) — is located in Viennaand includes liaison staff from NATO, the European Unionand the United States.
The initial status negotiations focused on technical issues important for Kosovo's long-term stability, particularly the rights and protection of Kosovo's minorities (and especially the Kosovo Serbs). Ahtisaari brought the parties together for the first direct dialogue in February 2006 to discuss decentralization of local government, an important measure in the protection of Kosovo Serb communities. Subsequent meetings addressed economic issues, property rights, protection of Serbian Orthodox Church heritage and institutional guarantees for the rights of Kosovo's minorities.
On July 24, 2006, Ahtisaari brought the parties together in Vienna for the first high-level talks on the status outcome itself. Serbian President
Boris Tadić, Prime Minister Vojislav Koštunica, Kosovo President Fatmir Sejdiuand Prime Minister Agim Çekuattended and presented their respective platforms for Kosovo's future status. Ahtisaari later told the press that the meeting resulted in no breakthroughs, but added that the discussion was "frank and candid" and the atmosphere was better than he could have expected. [" [http://www.kosovo.net/news/archive/2006/July_26/1.html Serbian, Kosovo Albanian talks fail to reach breakthrough on future status] " " Agence France-Presse" (AFP), Vienna, July 24, 2006.]
Ahtisaari briefed Contact Group foreign ministers on September 20, 2006, in New York City at a meeting chaired by U.S. Secretary of state
Condoleezza Rice. At that meeting, the Contact Group released a press statement that reaffirmed its desire to work towards a negotiated settlement in the course of 2006 and also endorsed Ahtisaari's plans to develop a comprehensive proposal for a status settlement. [cite web | title = Kosovo Contact Group Ministerial Statement | url=http://www.state.gov/r/pa/prs/ps/2006/72892.htm | accessdate = 2008-02-23 | year = 2008 ]
As the end of 2006 neared, and despite progress on technical matters, both parties remained diametrically opposed on the question of status itself. [cite news | title = UN frustrated by Kosovo deadlock | url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/6034567.stm | accessdate = 2008-02-23 | year = 2008 ]
February 2, 2007, Ahtisaari delivered to representatives in Belgrade and Pristina a draft status settlement proposal. The proposal covered a wide range of issues related to Kosovo's future, in particular measures to protect Kosovo's non-Albanian communities such as decentralization of government, protection of Serbian Orthodox Church heritage and institutional protections for non-Albanian communities, which would remain in place for at least three years. Whilst not mentioning the word "independence," the draft included several provisions that were widely interpreted as implying statehood for Kosovo. In particular, the draft Settlement would give Kosovo the right to apply for membership in international organizations, to create a Kosovo Security Force and adopt national symbols. [cite web | title = Error Page - Yahoo! News | url=http://news.yahoo.com/s/afp/20070202/ts_afp/serbiakosovounstatusproposal_070202162726;_ylt=Ap9g4N..BOD23p6b5WY2sqsXxHcA;_ylu=X3oDMTBiMW04NW9mBHNlYwMlJVRPUCUl | accessdate = 2008-02-23 | year = 2008 ] Ahtisaari conducted several weeks of consultations with the parties in Vienna to finalize the Settlement, including a high-level meeting on 10 March 2007 that brought together the Presidents and Prime Ministers of both sides. After this meeting, leaders from both sides signalled a total unwillingness to compromise on their central demands (Kosovo Albanians for Kosovo's independence; Belgrade for continued sovereignty over Kosovo). Concluding that there was little hope of the two sides reconciling their positions independently, Ahtisaari said he would submit to the UN Security Council his own proposed status arrangements, including an explicit recommendation for the status outcome itself, by the end of March. [cite web | title = Error Page - Yahoo! News | url=http://news.yahoo.com/s/nm/20070310/wl_nm/serbia_kosovo1_dc_4;_ylt=AvL5xEUliSVd9RrxZLjpSI8XxHcA | accessdate = 2008-02-23 | year = 2008 ]
Most international observers believed that these negotiations would lead to Kosovo's independence, subject to a period of international supervision. [cite web | title = Kosovo&apos;s status | The wheels grind on | Economist.com | url=http://www.economist.com/displaystory.cfm?story_id=4489028 | accessdate = 2008-02-23 | year = 2008 ] Nevertheless, Russian President
Vladimir Putinstated in September 2006that Russia might veto a UN Security Councilproposal on Kosovo's final status that applied different standards than those applied to the separatist Georgian regions of South Ossetiaand Abkhazia. [cite web | title = Putin says world should regard Kosovo, separatist Georgian regions on equal footing - iht, Europe,Russia Kosovo - Europe - International Herald Tribune | url=http://www.iht.com/articles/ap/2006/09/13/europe/EU_GEN_Russia_Kosovo.php | accessdate = 2008-02-23 | year = 2008 ] The Russian ambassador to Serbia asserted that Russia will use its veto power unless the solution is acceptable to both Belgrade and Kosovo Albanians. [cite web | title = B92 - News - Politics - Russian ambassador: Compromise or veto | url=http://www.b92.net/eng/news/politics-article.php?yyyy=2006&mm=12&dd=04&nav_category=92&nav_id=38392 | accessdate = 2008-02-23 | year = 2008 ]
In a survey carried out by
UNDPand published in March 2007, 96% of Kosovo Albanians and 77% of non-Serb minorities in Kosovo wanted Kosovo to become independent within present borders. Some 78% of the Serb minority wanted Kosovo to remain an autonomous province within Serbia. Just 2.5% of the ethnic-Albanians wanted unification with Albania. [UNDP: Early Warning Report page 16, March 2007 http://www.kosovo.undp.org/repository/docs/EWR15FinalENG.pdf] Separately, the UN refugee agency made contingency plans for up to 70,000 further Serbian refugees in the wake of any successful independence claim by Kosovo Albanians. [cite web | title =
Letters to The Daily Telegraph - Telegraph
url=http://www.telegraph.co.uk/opinion/main.jhtml?xml=/opinion/2007/03/30/nosplit/dt3001.xml | accessdate = 2008-02-23 | year = 2008 ] [ [http://www.crisisgroup.org/library/documents/europe/balkans/177_kosovo_status___delay_is_risky.pdf Microsoft Word - 177 Kosovo Status - Delay Is Risky.doc ] ]
In early May 2007, European members of the UN Security Council,
Germanyand the United Statescirculated a draft UN Security Council resolution that would replace UN Security Council Resolution 1244, endorse Ahtisaari's proposals and end the UN administration of Kosovo after a transition period of 120 days. The US Permanent Representative to the UN said that the European/US draft had enough support in the Security Council to be adopted unless Russia chose to object. [cite web | title = UN News Service-News Now | url=http://www.un.org/radio/news/RS/nnF/nnFItemDesc.asp?id=10132 | accessdate = 2008-02-23 | year = 2008 ] [cite web | title = RIA Novosti - Russia - Russia threatens to veto UN Kosovo resolution - dept. FM | url=http://en.rian.ru/russia/20070424/64272686.html | accessdate = 2008-02-23 | year = 2008 ] [cite news | title = Russia threatens veto over Kosovo | url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/6587497.stm | accessdate = 2008-02-23 | year = 2008 ] [" [http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/un_kosovo;_ylt=As7I249q_nofClx8rnKE6LYXxHcAUN Resolution on Kosovo Circulated] ", "AP", May 11, 2007.] Whilst most observers had, at the beginning of the talks, anticipated independence as the most likely outcome, others suggested that a rapid resolution might not be preferable. [cite web | title = FT.com / Comment & analysis / Letters - A long reconciliation process is required | url=http://www.ft.com/cms/s/985caa90-de5a-11db-afa7-000b5df10621.html | accessdate = 2008-02-23 | year = 2008 ]
Contact Groupsaid that, regardless of the outcome of the present negotiations, a new International Civilian Office (ICO) will be established in Kosovo to take up the civil administration provided for under UNSCR 1244, supervise the implementation of any status settlement and safeguard minority rights. NATO leaders said that the presence of KFOR will be maintained in Kosovo after any status settlement. The EU will establish a European Security and Defense PolicyRule of Law mission to focus on the policing and justice sectors.
As of early July 2007 the draft resolution, backed by the
United States, the United Kingdomand other European members of the Security Council, was rewritten four times to try to accommodate Russian concerns [cite web | title = Russia reportedly rejects fourth draft resolution on Kosovo status (SETimes.com) | url=http://www.setimes.com/cocoon/setimes/xhtml/en_GB/newsbriefs/setimes/newsbriefs/2007/06/29/nb-07 | accessdate = 2008-02-23 | year = 2008 ] , and despite talks between the Presidents of Russia and the United States. [cite web | title = Putin and Bush hold rapid meeting to mend relations | World news | The Guardian | url=http://www.guardian.co.uk/international/story/0,,2116116,00.html | accessdate = 2008-02-23 | year = 2008 ] Russia stated that it would not support any resolution which was not acceptable to both parties. [cite web | title = UN Security Council remains divided on Kosovo (SETimes.com) | url=http://www.setimes.com/cocoon/setimes/xhtml/en_GB/newsbriefs/setimes/newsbriefs/2007/07/10/nb-02 | accessdate = 2008-02-23 | year = 2008 ] Representatives of the states backing independence expressed hope that agreement can be found amongst the Security Council. [ [http://www.guardian.co.uk/frontpage/story/0,,2117284,00.html Friendly words but no deal by Bush and Putin | World news | The Guardian ] ] One Western diplomat, quoted by a British newspaper, offered an opinion on the state of negotiations: "I wouldn’t say it was game, set and match to the Russians but it is game and set". [cite web | title = Putin takes fight to Bush over Kosovo, free Muslim state - Times Online | url=http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/europe/article2009990.ece | accessdate = 2008-02-23 | year = 2008 ]
Whilst the draft resolution on Kosovo's status had yet to be endorsed by the Security Council, senior US officials had been suggesting that an agreement might be reached by 2008. The US assistant secretary of state for European affairs told delegates at a
NATOconference in Croatiathat he hoped that Kosovo's future could be resolved in the months leading up to the alliance's next summit meeting in Romaniain April of that year. [cite web | title = Russia dismisses Kosovo statehood without Serb agreement | World news | guardian.co.uk | url=http://www.guardian.co.uk/international/story/0,,2122139,00.html | accessdate = 2008-02-23 | year = 2008 ] Were the draft resolution to fail, observers had been speculating that fresh talks between the parties might follow.
On Monday July 16, 2007 after many weeks of discussions at the Security Council, Russia rejected a fifth draft of a Security Council resolution based on the Ahtisaari proposals. British and European Union officials suggested on July 17, 2007 that a final draft would be presented 'within days' in an effort to secure Russian support.
European Unionforeign policy chief proposed new talks between Belgrade and Kosovo Albanians if this final draft failed, lasting for a period of four months and under the guidance of the Contact Groupof leading nations. cite web | title = FT.com / World - EU and US introduce Kosovo resolution | url=http://www.ft.com/cms/s/8e12741a-347d-11dc-8c78-0000779fd2ac.html | accessdate = 2008-02-23 | year = 2008 ]
Concerns remain that a failure to secure a resolution favourable to Kosovo Albanian opinion might lead to violence in Kosovo, including in the period up to a possible election in November 2007. Kosovo newspaper Zeri suggested, Reuters reported, that Contact Group nations might be considering an international conference on Kosovo in September in Paris.
United States, United Kingdomand other European members of the Security Council formally 'discarded' a draft resolution backing Ahtisaari's proposal on July 20, 2007, having failed to secure Russian backing. Kosovo Albanian leaders reacted by proposing unilateral independence for 28 November 2007, though the UN would be required to overrule any such action. [cite web | title = Kosovo's Ceku proposes date for independence declaration (SETimes.com) | url=http://www.setimes.com/cocoon/setimes/xhtml/en_GB/features/setimes/features/2007/07/20/feature-01 | accessdate = 2008-02-23 | year = 2008 ]
Recognition of any unilateral declaration of independence would likely be of central importance; though US officials have indicated that they might support such a move, European nations have argued against unilateral moves by either side. French foreign minister and former UN Kosovo chief,
Bernard Kouchner, warned that a unilateral declaration would split the European Union over recognition for the province, whilst US State Department spokesman Sean McCormack commented that, 'There is nothing to be gained by short-circuiting the diplomatic process that is under way.' Violence is feared in Kosovo should Kosovo Albanian demands for independence not be met. [cite web | title = FT.com / Home UK / UK - Kosovo move 'would split EU' | url=http://www.ft.com/cms/s/ec139576-397d-11dc-ab48-0000779fd2ac.htm | accessdate = 2008-02-23 | year = 2008 ]
Despite the deadlock , the European Union has already drawn-up plans to take over the province. A 72-member European Union delegation with 200 local support staff would have a mandate to oversee implementation of the UN plan. An EU chief representative would continue to perform the same duties as the SRSG, with veto power over government decisions and the authority to fire officials found obstructing the implementation of the UN Security Council resolution. [cite web | title = EUobserver.com | url=http://euobserver.com/?extreferer_click=&aid=2368 | accessdate = 2008-02-23 | year = 2008 ]
After the war ended, the UN Security Council passed Resolution 1244 that placed Kosovo under transitional UN administration (
UNMIK) and authorized KFOR, a NATO-led peacekeepingforce. Almost immediately, returning Kosovo Albanians attacked Kosovo Serbs [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/University_of_Pri%C5%A1tina#Kosovo_War_and_aftermath] , causing some 200,000-280,000 [" [http://www.reliefweb.int/library/documents/2002/coe-kos-16oct.pdf Kosovo: The Human Rights Situation and the Fate of Persons Displaced from Their Homes (.pdf)] ", report by Alvaro Gil-Robles, Council of EuropeCommissioner for Human Rights, Strasbourg, October 16, 2002, p. 30.] Serbs and other non-Albanians [Note: Including Roma, Egyptian, Ashkalli, Turks and Bosniaks. – Sources:
*Coordinating Centre of Serbia for Kosovo-Metohija: [http://www.kc.gov.yu/D-ENGLISH/dokumenti-eng/program-povratka-eng.html Principles of the Program for Return of Internally Displaced Persons from Kosovo and Metohija]
*" [http://www.reliefweb.int/library/documents/2002/coe-kos-16oct.pdf Kosovo: The Human Rights Situation and the Fate of Persons Displaced from Their Homes (.pdf)] ", report by
Alvaro Gil-Robles, Council of EuropeCommissioner for Human Rights, Strasbourg, October 16, 2002, p. 30.] to flee (note: the current number of internally displaced persons is disputed, [UNHCR, Critical Appraisal of Responsee Mechanisms Operating in Kosovo for Minority Returns, Pristina, February 2004, p. 14.] [U.S. Committee for Refugees (USCR), April 2000, Reversal of Fortune: Yugoslavia's Refugees Crisis Since the Ethnic Albanian Return to Kosovo, p. 2-3.] [" [http://www.reliefweb.int/library/documents/2002/coe-kos-16oct.pdf Kosovo: The human rights situation and the fate of persons displaced from their homes (.pdf)] ", report by Alvaro Gil-Robles, Council of EuropeCommissioner for Human Rights, Strasbourg, October 16, 2002.] [International Relations and Security Network (ISN): [http://www.esiweb.org/pdf/esi_lausanne_reactions_id_1.pdf Serbians return to Kosovo not impossible, says report (.pdf)] , by Tim Judah, June 7, 2004.] with estimates ranging from 65,000 [European Stability Initiative (ESI): [http://www.esiweb.org/pdf/esi_document_id_53.pdf The Lausanne Principle: Multiethnicity, Territory and the Future of Kosovo's Serbs (.pdf)] , June 7, 2004.] to 250,000 [Coordinating Centre of Serbia for Kosovo-Metohija: [http://www.kc.gov.yu/D-ENGLISH/dokumenti-eng/program-povratka-eng.html Principles of the program for return of internally displaced persons from Kosovo and Metohija] .] [UNHCR: 2002 Annual Statistical Report: Serbia and Montenegro, pg. 9] [ U.S. Committee for Refugees and Immigrants(USCRI): [http://www.refugees.org/countryreports.aspx?id=1624 Country report: Serbia and Montenegro 2006] .] ). Many displaced Serbs are afraid to return to their homes, even with UNMIKprotection. Around 120,000-150,000 Serbs remain in Kosovo, but are subject to ongoing harassment and discrimination. This has continued the trend of reducing the numbers of Serbs which, in percentage terms, resulted in changes of the demographic map of the Kosovo and Metohija's population. Over the course of the last century the percentages have changed as follows: 1871 - Serbs: 64% Albanians: 32%; 1948 - Serbs: 24% Albanians: 65%; 1971 - Serbs: 18% Albanians: 74%; 1995 - Serbs: 8% Albanians: 90%; 2008 - Serbs: 5%; Albanians: 92%.
According to Amnesty International, the presence of peacekeepers in Kosovo led to an increase in the
trafficking of womenfor sexual exploitation. [cite web |url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/3686173.stm |title=Kosovo UN troops 'fuel sex trade' |author=BBC News |date=06/05/04] [cite web |url=http://web.amnesty.org/actforwomen/stories-9-eng |title=Kosovo: Trafficked women and girls have human rights |author=Amnesty International |authorlink=Amnesty International] [cite web |url=http://www.guardian.co.uk/international/story/0,,1211214,00.html |title=Nato force 'feeds Kosovo sex trade' |author=The Guardian |date=07/05/04]
In 2001, UNMIK promulgated a Constitutional Framework for Kosovo that established the
Provisional Institutions of Self-Government(PISG), including an elected Kosovo Assembly, Presidency and office of Prime Minister. Kosovo held its first free, Kosovo-wide elections in late 2001 (municipal elections had been held the previous year). UNMIK oversaw the establishment of a professional, multi-ethnic Kosovo Police Service.Fact|date=February 2008
In March 2004, Kosovo experienced its worst inter-ethnic violence since the Kosovo War. The unrest in 2004 was sparked by a series of minor events that soon cascaded into large-scale riots. Serbian men had unleashed their dogs on young Albanian boys, two of whom diedFact|date=January 2008, an unconfirmed event which was used motive for protest since no one was ever arrested nor personally accused in this case. Protesting, the Kosovo Albanians mobs burned hundreds of Serbian houses, Serbian Orthodox Church sites (including some medieval churches and monasteries) and UN facilities. Kosovo Police established a special investigation team to handle cases related to the 2004 unrest and according to Kosovo Judicial Council by the end of 2006 the 326 charges filed by municipal and district prosecutors for criminal offenses in connection with the unrest had resulted in 200 indictments: convictions in 134 cases, and courts acquitted eight and dismissed 28; 30 cases were pending. International prosecutors and judges handled the most sensitive cases. [U.S State Department Report, published in 2007.]
Kosovo Serbsworking for the Serbian governmentreceive, since 1999, a stipendcalled "kosovski dodatak". The extra payment was created during Miloševic regime, and it remains to this day. [cite web |url=http://www.worldpoliticsreview.com/article.aspx?id=1389 |title=Kosovo's Divided City of Mitrovica Warily Awaits Independence |author=Tina Wolfe |date= 2007-11-28 |publisher=World Politics Review]
February 17, 2008, the Assembly of Kosovounanimously declared that Kosovois independent from Serbia. Serbian Prime Minister Vojislav Kostunicaresponded by stating, "Today, this policy of force thinks that it has triumphed by establishing a false state."" [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/7249034.stm Kosovo MPs proclaim independence] ", BBC News Online, 17 February 2008] The Republic of Kosovohas recognition from 37 sovereign UN states.
August 2008after the Kosovo Constitutioncame into play, the UN deiced to cut staff levels by 70% during a UN reconfiguration in the country. Much of the UN powers in Kosovo were transferred to the Kosovo Governmentand the EUpolicing mission in Kosovo called EULEX. [ [http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2008-08/11/content_9192628.htm "U.N. mission cuts down staff in Kosovo "] " xinhuanet.com" 11 May 2008Link accessed 12/08/08 ]
After the declaration of independence
Plans for UNMIK to hand authority over to the
EULEXmission after Kosovo's constitution was approved faltered as a result of Russian opposition to Kosovo's unilateral declaration of independence. The UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moondecided to reconfigure the mission for a temporary period. Reportedly the UN will give way to the EU mission in Albanian areas, but retain control over police in Serb-inhabited areas and set up local and district courts serving minority Serbs. The move is in response to opposition to the EU presence in North Kosovoand other Serb-dominated areas. [cite news|url=http://www.iht.com/articles/ap/2008/06/12/europe/EU-GEN-Kosovo-UN.php|title=Kosovo: UN to reconfigure mission to recognize 'new realities'|publisher= International Herald Tribune|date= 2008-06-12|accessdate=2008-06-13]
United Nations Security Council Resolution 1244- legal basis
European Union Rule of Law Mission in Kosovo(EULEX)
United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo(UNMIK)
Special Representative of the Secretary-General(SRSG)
Provisional Institutions of Self-Government(PISG)
Assembly of Kosovo
Government of Kosovo
President of Kosovo
Prime Minister of Kosovo
Kosovo Protection Corps
Kosovo Police Service
Subdivisions of Kosovo
Municipalities of Kosovo
Standards for Kosovo
International Civilian Representative
EU mission in Kosovo
Republic of Kosovo(2008-)
Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija (1990-1999)
Autonomous Province of Vojvodina
Republic of Serbia
Provisional Institutions of Self-Government
United Nations Security Council Resolution 1244
United Nations Transitional Administration in East Timor, a similar mission that administered East Timorbetween 1999 and 2002.
* [http://www.unmikonline.org/ The United Nations Mission in Kosovo]
* [http://www.unmikonline.org/press/reports/N9917289.pdf Full text of Security Council resolution 1244 (pdf)]
* [http://www.kpaonline.org/ KPA]
Kosovo PropertyKosovo Property Agency - KPA.
* [http://www.guardian.co.uk/international/story/0,,1211214,00.html 'Nato force 'feeds Kosovo sex trade' - The Guardian]
* [http://web.amnesty.org/actforwomen/stories-9-eng Amnesty International - Kosovo: Trafficked women and girls have human rights]
* [http://www.newkosova.org/ Kosova Kosovo]
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