Dallas, Texas

Dallas, Texas

Infobox Settlement
official_name = City of Dallas
settlement_type = City
nickname = Big D, D-Town
motto = Live Large. Think Big.

imagesize =
image_caption =

#ifeq:Dallas, Texas|Dallas, Texas|Dallas seal.png|

mapsize = 250px
map_caption = Location in Dallas County and the state of Texas

mapsize1 =
map_caption1 =
subdivision_type = Country
subdivision_name = United States of America
subdivision_type1 = State
subdivision_name1 = Texas
subdivision_type2 = Counties
subdivision_name2 = Dallas
government_type = Council-manager
leader_title = Mayor
leader_name = Tom Leppert
area_magnitude = 1 E9
area_total_sq_mi = 385.0
area_total_km2 = 997.1
area_land_sq_mi = 342.5
area_land_km2 = 887.2
area_water_sq_mi = 42.5
area_water_km2 = 110.0
population_as_of = 2007
urban_land_sq_mi = 1407.2
urban_population = 4145659population_footnotes = cite web|url=http://www.census.gov/Press-Release/www/2007/cb07-91table1.pdf|title=Population Estimates for the 25 Largest U.S. Cities based on July 1, 2006 Population Estimates|publisher=US Census Bureau|accessdate=2007-06-28|format=PDF] [http://www.un.org/esa/population/publications/wup2003/WUP2003.htm United Nations World Urbanization Prospects] ] [http://www.census.gov/population/www/estimates/metro_general/2006/CBSA-EST2006-01.csv U.S. Census Bureau] - Annual Estimates of the Population of Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas]
population_total = 1,232,940 (9th largest)
population_density_km2 =
population_density_sq_mi = 3605.08
population_urban =
population_metro = 6,145,037 (4th largest)
population_blank1_title = Demonym
population_blank1 = Dallasites|population_blank1_title = Demonym
population_blank1 = Dallasites
timezone = Central
utc_offset = -6
timezone_DST = Central
utc_offset_DST = -5
postal_code_type =
postal_code =
area_code = 214, 469, 972
elevation_ft = 430
elevation_m = 131
latd = 32 |latm = 46 |lats = 58 |latNS = N
longd = 96 |longm = 48 |longs = 14 |longEW = W
website = http://www.dallascityhall.com
established_title = Incorporated
established_date = 2 February 1856
blank_name = FIPS code
blank_info = 48-19000GR|2
blank1_name = GNIS feature ID
blank1_info = 1380944GR|3

blank2_name = Primary Airport
blank2_info = Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport- DFW (Major/International)
blank3_name = Secondary Airport
blank3_info = Dallas Love Field- DAL (Major)
website = [http://www.dallascityhall.com/ dallascityhall.com]
footnotes =

Dallas (PronEng|ˈdæləs) is the third-largest city in the state of Texas and the ninth-largest in the United States.cite news |title=McKinney falls to third in rank of fastest-growing cities in U.S. |first=Ian |last=McCann |url=http://www.dallasnews.com/sharedcontent/dws/dn/latestnews/stories/071008dnmetpopulation.43799b9.html |work=The Dallas Morning News |date=2008-07-10] The city covers convert|342.5|sqmi|km2|0, not including water area, and is the county seat of Dallas County.cite web |url=http://dallascityhall.org/ |title=Dallas - Serving you! |publisher= City of Dallas |year=2006 |accessdate=2006-05-04] As of June 23, 2007, the United States Census Bureau estimates the population of Dallas at 1,232,940 people. [cite web |url=http://www.census.gov/Press-Release/www/2007/cb07-91table1.pdf |title=Population Estimates for the 25 Largest U.S. Cities based on July 1, 2006 Population Estimates |work=US Census Bureau |format=pdf]

The city is the main economic center of the 12-county Dallas–Fort Worth metropolitan area, nicknamed "the Metroplex." At over 6.1 million people, it is the fourth-largest metropolitan area in the United States.

Dallas is listed as a gamma world city by the Loughborough University Globalization and World Cities Study Group & Network. [ [http://www.lboro.ac.uk/gawc/ Globalization and World Cities Study Group & Network] - [http://www.lboro.ac.uk/gawc/citylist.html Inventory of World Cities] . Retrieved on October 21, 2006.]

Founded in 1841 and formally incorporated as a city on February 1856, the city's economy is primarily based on banking, commerce, telecommunications, computer technology, energy, and transportation. Dallas is the core of the largest inland metropolitan area in the United States that lacks any navigable link to the sea. [scaps|side note: In ascending order from the Dallas/Fort Worth Metroplex (in terms of metropolitan population): Chicago via Lake Michigan, Los Angeles via the Pacific Ocean, and New York City via the Atlantic Ocean.] The city's prominence despite this comes from its historical importance as a center for the oil and cotton industries, its position along numerous railroad lines, its status as a major inland port, and a strong industrial and financial sector.Handbook of Texas |id=DD/hdd1 |name=DALLAS, TX |author=Jackie McElhaney and Michael V. Hazel |retrieved=2006-04-20]


Before Texas was claimed in the 16th century as a part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain by the Spanish Empire, the Dallas area was inhabited by the Caddo Native Americans. Later, France also claimed the area, but in 1819 the Adams-Onís Treaty made the Red River the northern boundary of New Spain, officially placing Dallas well within Spanish territory.Herbert E. Bolton, "Athanase de Mezieres and the Louisiana-Texas Frontier 1768-1780," Cleveland: Arthur H Clark Company, 1914.] The area remained under Spanish rule until 1821, when Mexico declared independence from Spain and the area became part of the Mexican state of Coahuila y Tejas. In 1836, the Republic of Texas broke off from Mexico to become an independent nation.Handbook of Texas|id=RR/mzr2|name=Republic of Texas|author=Joseph Milton Nance|retrieved=2006-09-25] In 1839, four years into the Republic's existence, Warren Angus Ferris surveyed the area around present-day Dallas. Two years later, John Neely Bryan established a permanent settlement that later became the city of Dallas. The Republic of Texas was then annexed by the United States in 1845 and Dallas County was established the following year. It is uncertain whether the city was named after George Mifflin Dallas, the U.S. Vice President under James Knox Polk. [History of Dallas, Texas (1839-1855)#Establishment]


Dallas is the county seat of Dallas County. Portions of the city extend into neighboring Collin, Denton, Kaufman, and Rockwall counties. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of convert|385|sqmi|km2|1, convert|342.5|sqmi|km2|1 of it being land and convert|42.5|sqmi|km2|1 of it (11.03%) water. Dallas makes up one-fifth of the much larger urbanized area known as the Dallas/Fort Worth Metroplex, in which one quarter of all Texans live. [DFW Metroplex population: 6,003,967 per A Texas population: 23,507,783 per B; 6,003,967/23,507,753 = [http://www.google.com/search?q=6003967/23507753 0.24935538] or 25.54%.]


Dallas and its surrounding area are mostly flat; the city itself lies at elevations ranging from convert|450|ft|m|0 to convert|550|ft|m|0. The western edge of the Austin Chalk Formation, a limestone escarpment, rises convert|200|ft|m|0 and runs roughly north-south through Dallas County. South of the Trinity River (Texas), the uplift is particularly noticeable in the neighborhoods of Oak Cliff and the adjacent cities of Cockrell Hill, Cedar Hill, and Grand Prairie. Marked variations in terrain are also found in cities immediately to the west in Tarrant County surrounding Fort Worth, as well as along Turtle Creek north of Downtown..

Dallas, like many other cities in the world, was founded along a river. The city was founded at the location of a "white rock crossing" of the Trinity River, where it was easier for wagons to cross the river in the days before ferries or bridges. The Trinity River, though not usefully navigable, is the major waterway through the city. Its path through Dallas is paralleled by Interstate 35E along the Stemmons Corridor, then south alongside the western portion of Downtown and past south Dallas and Pleasant Grove, where the river is paralleled by Interstate 45 until it exits the city and heads southeast towards Houston. The river is flanked on both sides by convert|50|ft|m|0 tall earthen levees to protect the city from frequent floods. [ [http://www.trinityrivercorridor.org/ Trinity River Corridor Project] - [http://www.trinityrivercorridor.org/pdf/DallasFloodwayHistoryPaper.pdf Dallas Floodway History] . (PDF). Retrieved on 19 October 2006.] Since it was rerouted in 1908, the river has been little more than a drainage ditch within a floodplain for several miles above and below downtown Dallas, with a more normal course further upstream and downstream, but as Dallas began shifting towards postindustrial society, public outcry about the lack of aesthetic and recreational use of the river ultimately gave way to the Trinity River Project, which was initialized in the early 2000s and is scheduled to be completed in the 2010s. If the project materializes fully, it promises improvements to the riverfront in the form of man-made lakes, new park facilities and trails, and transportation upgrades.

The project area will reach for over convert|20|mi|km in length within the city, while the overall geographical land area addressed by the Land Use Plan is approximately convert|44000|acre|km2 in size—about 20% of the land area in Dallas. Green space along the river will encompass approximately convert|10000|acre|km2, making it one of the largest and diverse urban parks in the world. [ [http://www.trinityrivercorridor.org/ Trinity River Corridor Project] - [http://www.trinityrivercorridor.org/html/faqs.html FAQs] . Retrieved on 19 October 2006.]

White Rock Lake, a reservoir constructed at the beginning of the 20th century, is Dallas's other significant water feature. The lake and surrounding park are a popular destination among boaters, rowers, joggers, and bikers, as well as visitors seeking peaceful respite from the city at the convert|66|acre|m2|-3|sing=on Dallas Arboretum and Botanical Garden, located on the lake's eastern shore. [ [http://www.dallasarboretum.org/ Dallasarboretum.org] - [http://www.dallasarboretum.org/Events/Dallas_Blooms.htm Dallas Blooms] . Retrieved on 17 April 2006.] Bachman Lake, just northwest of Love Field Airport, is a smaller lake also popularly used for recreation. Northeast of the city is Lake Ray Hubbard, a vast convert|22745|acre|km2|0|sing=on reservoir located in an extension of Dallas surrounded by the suburbs of Garland, Rowlett, Rockwall, and Sunnyvale. [ [http://www.rtis.com/reg/lakes/rayhubba.htm Lake Ray Hubbard] - [http://www.rtis.com/reg/lakes/Set the Hook!] "Guide to Lone Star Lakes and Lunkers" - [http://www.rtis.com/reg/lakes/rayhubba.htm Lake Ray Hubbard] . Retrieved on 17 April 2006.] To the west of the city is Mountain Creek Lake, once home to the Naval Air Station Dallas (Hensley Field) and a number of defense aircraft manufacturers. [ [http://www.globalsecurity.org GlobalSecurity.org] - [http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/ Military] - http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/facility/ US Military Facilities] - [http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/facility/dallas.htm NAS Dallas / Hensley Field] . Retrieved on 17 April 2007.] North Lake, a small body of water in an extension of the city limits surrounded by Irving and Coppell, initially served as a water source for a nearby power plant but is now being targeted for redevelopment as a recreational lake due to its proximity to Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport, a plan that the lake's neighboring cities oppose. [" [http://www.dallasnews.com The Dallas Morning News] " - 18 May 2005. “ [http://forum.dallasmetropolis.com/showpost.php?p=67710&postcount=1 Foes say North Lake development a threat to lifestyle] ” by Eric Aasen. Retrieved on7 April 2006.]


Infobox Weather
location = Dallas, Texas
Jan_Hi_°F =55 |Jan_REC_Hi_°F =95
Feb_Hi_°F =61 |Feb_REC_Hi_°F =95
Mar_Hi_°F =69 |Mar_REC_Hi_°F =98
Apr_Hi_°F =77 |Apr_REC_Hi_°F =100
May_Hi_°F =84 |May_REC_Hi_°F =103
Jun_Hi_°F =92 |Jun_REC_Hi_°F =112
Jul_Hi_°F =96 |Jul_REC_Hi_°F =111
Aug_Hi_°F =96 |Aug_REC_Hi_°F =115
Sep_Hi_°F =89 |Sep_REC_Hi_°F =110
Oct_Hi_°F =79 |Oct_REC_Hi_°F =100
Nov_Hi_°F =66 |Nov_REC_Hi_°F =92
Dec_Hi_°F =57 |Dec_REC_Hi_°F =89
Jan_Lo_°F =36 |Jan_REC_Lo_°F =2
Feb_Lo_°F =41 |Feb_REC_Lo_°F =2
Mar_Lo_°F =49 |Mar_REC_Lo_°F =12
Apr_Lo_°F =56 |Apr_REC_Lo_°F =29
May_Lo_°F =65 |May_REC_Lo_°F =36
Jun_Lo_°F =73 |Jun_REC_Lo_°F =42
Jul_Lo_°F =77 |Jul_REC_Lo_°F =57
Aug_Lo_°F =76 |Aug_REC_Lo_°F =55
Sep_Lo_°F =69 |Sep_REC_Lo_°F =40
Oct_Lo_°F =58 |Oct_REC_Lo_°F =26
Nov_Lo_°F =47 |Nov_REC_Lo_°F =15
Dec_Lo_°F =39 |Dec_REC_Lo_°F =1
Jan_Precip_inch =1.89
Feb_Precip_inch =2.31
Mar_Precip_inch =3.13
Apr_Precip_inch =3.46
May_Precip_inch =5.30
Jun_Precip_inch =3.92
Jul_Precip_inch =2.43
Aug_Precip_inch =2.17
Sep_Precip_inch =2.65
Oct_Precip_inch =4.65
Nov_Precip_inch =2.61
Dec_Precip_inch =2.53
source =weather.com cite web
url =http://www.weather.com/outlook/travel/businesstraveler/wxclimatology/monthly/USTX0327 | title =Monthly Averages for Dallas, TX | accessmonthday =Jan 10 | accessyear =2008
publisher = | language =
accessdate = 2008-01-10
Dallas has a humid subtropical climate, though it is located in a region that also tends to receive warm, dry winds from the north and west in the summer, bringing temperatures well over convert|100|°F|°C|0|lk=on at times and heat-humidity indexes soaring to as high as convert|117|°F|°C|0|lk=on.

Winters are generally mild, with typical daytime highs between convert|55|°F|°C|0|lk=on and convert|70|°F|°C|0|lk=on and nighttime lows between convert|35|°F|°C|0|lk=on and convert|50|°F|°C|0|lk=on. However, strong cold fronts known as "Blue Northers" sometimes pass through Dallas, plummeting nightly lows below convert|30|°F|°C|0|lk=on. Snowfall is seen on average 2–4 days out of the year and snow accumulation is typically seen at least once every winter. [ [http://www.srh.noaa.gov NOAA] - [http://www.srh.noaa.gov/fwd/CLIMO/dfw/normals/dfwann.html DFW Climate] . Retrieved on 26 March 2006.] A couple of times each year, warm and humid air from the south overrides cold, dry air, leading to freezing rain, which often causes major disruptions in the city if the roads and highways become slick. On the other hand, daytime highs above convert|65|°F|°C|0|lk=on are not unusual during the winter season. In sum, extremes in weather are more readily seen in Dallas and Texas as a whole than along the Pacific and Atlantic coasts, due to the state's location in the interior of the United States.

Spring and autumn bring pleasant weather to the area. Vibrant wildflowers (such as the bluebonnet, Indian paintbrush and other flora) bloom in spring and are planted around the highways throughout Texas. [ [http://www.dot.state.tx.us TXDOT] - [http://www.dot.state.tx.us/travel/flora_conditions.htm Wildflower and Fall Foliage] . Retrieved on 17 April 2007.] Springtime weather can be quite volatile, but temperatures themselves are mild. The weather in Dallas is also generally pleasant between late September and early December, and unlike springtime, major storms rarely form in the area.

In the spring, cool fronts moving south from Canada collide with warm, humid air streaming in from the Gulf Coast. When these fronts meet over north central Texas, severe thunderstorms are generated with spectacular lightning shows, torrents of rain, hail, and occasionally, tornadoes. Over time, tornadoes have perhaps been the biggest natural threat to the city.

The U.S. Department of Agriculture places Dallas in Plant Hardiness Zone 8a. [ [http://www.usna.usda.gov/ USNA] - [http://www.usda.gov/wps/portal/usdahome USDA] [http://www.usna.usda.gov/Hardzone/hzm-sm1.html Plant Hardiness Zone
] . Retrieved on 13 June 2006.
] According to the American Lung Association, Dallas has the 12th highest ozone air pollution in the nation, ranking it behind Los Angeles and Houston. [ [http://www.lungusa.org/site/pp.asp?c=dvLUK9O0E&b=50752#graph6 Lungusa.com] . Retrieved on 2 March 2006.] Much of the air pollution in Dallas, and the Metroplex in general, comes from a hazardous materials incineration plant in the small town of Midlothian, as well concrete installations in neighboring Ellis County. [ [http://www.downwindersatrisk.org/ Downwindersatrisk.org] - [http://www.downwindersatrisk.org/DownwindersAtRisk-MovingToMidlothian.htm Pollution in Midlothian] . Retrieved on 17 April 2006.] Another major contributor to air pollution in Dallas are automobiles. Due to the area's spread-out nature and high amount of urban sprawl, automobiles are the only viable mode of transportation for many.

The city's all-time recorded high temperature is 113 °F (45 °C), while the all-time recorded low is -2 °F (-18.9 °C). The average daily low in Dallas is convert|57|°F|°C|0, and the average daily high in Dallas is convert|77|°F|°C|0. Dallas receives approximately convert|37.1|in|mm|1 of rain per year.



Dallas's skyline contains several buildings over convert|700|ft|m|-1 in height, making the city the fifteenth-tallest city on earth. [ [http://www.ultrapolisproject.com/ Ultrapolis Project] - [http://www.ultrapolisproject.com/Tallest_25_Skylines_Cities.htm World's Tallest Cities] . Numbers for 2004 & 2005, 2006 numbers under development. Retrieved on 22 April 2007.]

Although some of Dallas's architecture dates from the late 19th and early 20th centuries, most of the notable architecture in the city is from the modernist and postmodernist eras. Iconic examples of modernist architecture include Reunion Tower, the JFK Memorial, I. M. Pei's Dallas City Hall. Fountain Place, Bank of America Plaza, Renaissance Tower, JPMorgan Chase Tower, and Comerica Bank Tower are good examples of postmodernist skyscrapers. Several smaller structures are fashioned in the Gothic Revival style, such as the Kirby Building, and the neoclassical style, as seen in the Davis and Wilson Buildings. One architectural "hotbed" in the city is a stretch of historic houses along Swiss Avenue, which contains all shades and variants of architecture from Victorian to neoclassical. [ [http://www.swissavenue.com/index.asp Swissavenue.com] - Retrieved 13 June 2006.]

As part of the Trinity River Project, Dallas is also seeing construction of a series of new signature bridges designed by Santiago Calatrava. The first one to be built the Margaret Hunt Hill Bridge will reach a height of over 40 stories above the river basin.



East Dallas is home to Deep Ellum, a trendy arts area close to Downtown, the homey Lakewood neighborhood, historic Vickery Place and Bryan Place, and the architecturally significant Swiss Avenue. North of the Park Cities is Preston Hollow, home to Texas's wealthiest residents, as well as the most expensive homes in the state. The area is also characterized by a variety of high-powered shopping areas, including Galleria Dallas, NorthPark Center, Highland Park Village, and Preston Center. In the northeast quadrant of the city is Lake Highlands, one of Dallas's most unified middle-class neighborhoods. [http://www.lhaia.org/ Lake Highlands Area Improvement Association] - [http://www.lhaia.org/images/Map_March2006big.jpgMap] . Retrieved 3 October 2006.]

Southwest of Downtown lies Oak Cliff, a hilly area that has undergone gentrification in recent years in neighborhoods such as the Bishop Arts District. Oak Cliff originated as a township founded in the mid-1800s and was annexed by the city of Dallas in 1903. [ [http://www.oakcliff.com/history.htm Oak Cliff, Texas - Early History] . Retrieved 1 August 2008] Today, most of the area's northern residents are Hispanic. South Oak Cliff, on the other hand, became predominantly African-American after the early 1970s. Much of the southern portion of the city has struggled with high rates of poverty and crime. [" [http://www.dallasnews.com/ Dallas Morning News] " - “ [http://www.dallasnews.com/s/dws/spe/2004/dallas/index1.html Dallas at the Tipping Point] ” - [http://www.dallasnews.com/s/dws/spe/2004/dallas/crime2.html Costs of Crime] . Retrieved 25 October 2006.]

South Dallas, a distinct neighborhood southeast of Downtown, lays claim to the Cedars, an eclectic artist hotbed south of downtown and Fair Park, home of the annual State Fair of Texas. The area, predominantly African-American, is arguably the poorest in the city. While Oak Cliff is mostly lower-income but fairly vibrant, South Dallas contains large numbers of boarded-up buildings and vacant lots.

To spur growth in the southern sector of the city, University of North Texas opened a Dallas campus in October 2006 in south Oak Cliff near the intersection of Interstate 20 and Houston School Rd. [http://www.unt.edu/unt-dallas/ University of North Texas Dallas Campus] - [http://www.unt.edu/unt-dallas/location.htm Location] . Retrieved 4 October 2006] Large amounts of undeveloped land remains nearby, due to decades of slow growth south of Downtown. Further east, in the southeast quadrant of the city, is the large neighborhood of Pleasant Grove. Once an independent city, it is a collection of mostly lower-income residential areas stretching all the way to Seagoville in the southeast. Though a city neighborhood, Pleasant Grove is surrounded by undeveloped land on all sides, including swampland separating it from South Dallas that will in the future be part of the Great Trinity Forest, a subsection of the city's Trinity River Project.

Dallas is further surrounded by many suburbs and includes three enclaves within the city boundaries—Cockrell Hill, Highland Park, and University Park.



In terms of voting patterns, the Dallas-Fort Worth Metroplex is the third most liberal of the Texas metropolitan areas after Austin and El Paso. In contrast, 54% of Houston and San Antonio voters and an even higher percentage of rural Texan voters are conservative. [http://alt.coxnewsweb.com/statesman/metro/081205libs.pdf] Nonetheless, Dallas is known to many as a high-profile center of evangelical Protestant Christianity.

As a city, present-day Dallas can be seen as moderate, with conservative Republicans dominating the upper-middle class suburban neighborhoods of North Dallas and liberal Democrats dominating neighborhoods closer to Downtown as well as the city's southern sector. As a continuation of its suburban northern neighborhoods, Dallas's northern suburbs are overwhelmingly conservative. Plano, the largest of these suburbs, was ranked as the fifth most conservative city in America by The Bay Area Center for Voting Research, based on the voting patterns of middle-age adults. However, the city of Dallas (excluding its suburbs) generally votes for Democratic political candidates in local, state, and national elections. In the 2004 U.S. Presidential elections, over 75% of Dallas voters voted for John Kerry over George W. Bush, making the city the 32nd most liberal city in the United States by sheer percentages and more liberal than traditionally left-leaning cities such as Los Angeles, Milwaukee, and Cincinnati. [http://alt.coxnewsweb.com/statesman/metro/081205libs.pdf] Dallas County as a whole was split evenly, with 50% of voters voting for Bush and 49% voting for Kerry. [ [http://www.uselectionatlas.org/RESULTS/statesub.php?year=2004&fips=48113&f=0&off=0&elect=0 Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections - State Data ] ] In the 2006 elections for Dallas County judges, 41 out of 42 seats went to Democrats.

In 2004, Lupe Valdez was elected Dallas County Sheriff. An open lesbian, she is currently one of only two female sheriffs in the state of Texas, the other being Sheriff Rosanna Abreo of Bastrop County.

Nevertheless, in 2007, conservative Republican Tom Leppert defeated liberal Democrat Ed Oakley by a margin of 58% to 42% to become mayor of Dallas. Had Oakley been elected, he would have become the first openly-gay mayor of a large U.S. city. Though candidates' political leanings are well publicized in the media, Dallas's elections are officially non-partisan. The city's previous mayor was Laura Miller, a liberal Jewish woman who had previously written for the Dallas Observer, the city's most popular alternative newspaper.


Dallas is renowned for its barbecue, authentic Mexican, and Tex-Mex cuisine. Famous products of the Dallas culinary scene include the frozen margarita and the chain restaurants Chili's and Romano's Macaroni Grill. [cite news
last = Nelson
first = Colleen McCain
title = One Man's Invention, Forever Frozen In Time - Dallas: Margarita Machine Takes Its Rightful Place In History
work = Dallas Morning News
date = 2005-10-05
url = http://www.dallasnews.com/s/dws/news/city/lakewood/stories/DN-margarita_09met.ART.West.Edition2.4242abd.html
accessdate = 2007-02-07
] The French Room at the Hotel Adolphus in Downtown Dallas was named the best hotel restaurant in the US by Zagat Survey. A number of nationally ranked steakhouses can be found in the Dallas area, including Bob's Steak & Chop House, currently ranked #3 according to the USDA Prime Steakhouses chart behind Ruth's Chris Times Square and Bones Atlanta. [ [http://www.primesteakhouses.com/ USDA top 10 Steak Houses in America] ]


The Arts District in the northern section of Downtown is home to several arts venues, both existing and proposed. Notable venues in the district include the Dallas Museum of Art, the Morton H. Meyerson Symphony Center, The Trammell & Margaret Crow Collection of Asian Art, the Nasher Sculpture Center, The Dallas Contemporary, and The Dallas Children's Theatre. Venues under construction or planned include the Winspear Opera House and the Dallas Center for the Performing Arts. [ [http://www.dallasopera.org/ The Dallas Opera] - [http://www.dallasopera.org/the_company/the_winspear.php The Winspear Opera House] . Retrieved on 19 October 2006.] [ [http://www.dallasperformingarts.org/ Dallas Center for the Performing Arts] - [http://www.dallasperformingarts.org/buildingthecenter.html Building the Center] . Retrieved on 19 October 2006.] The Arts District is also home to DISD's Booker T. Washington High School for the Performing and Visual Arts, a magnet school which was recently expanded. [ [http://www.artsmagnet.org/ Artsmagnet.org] . Retrieved on 20 April 2006.]

Deep Ellum, immediately east of Downtown, originally became popular during the 1920s and 1930s as the prime jazz and blues hot spot in the South.cite book |last=Payne |first=Darwin |title= Dallas, an illustrated history |year=1982 |publisher=Windsor Publications |location=Woodland Hills, California |id= ISBN 0-89781-034-1 |pages=157-185 |chapter= Chapter VI: The Spirit of Enterprise] Artists such as Blind Lemon Jefferson, Robert Johnson, Huddie “Leadbelly” Ledbetter, and Bessie Smith played in original Deep Ellum clubs such as The Harlem and The Palace. Today, Deep Ellum is home to hundreds of artists who live in lofts and operate in studios throughout the district alongside bars, pubs, and concert venues. [ [http://www.deepellumtx.com/ The Deep Ellum Association] - [http://www.deepellumtx.com/time_line.html Time Line] . Retrieved on 19 October 2006.] A major art infusion in the area results from the city's lax stance on graffiti, and a number of public spaces including tunnels, sides of buildings, sidewalks, and streets are covered in murals. One major example, the Good-Latimer tunnel, was torn down in late 2006 to accommodate the construction of a light rail line through the site.Fact|date=March 2008

Like Deep Ellum before it, the Cedars neighborhood to the south of Downtown has also seen a growing population of studio artists and an expanding roster of entertainment venues. The area's art scene began to grow in the early 2000s with the opening of Southside on Lamar, an old Sears warehouse converted into lofts, studios, and retail. [ [http://southsideonlamar.com/ Southside on Lamar] - [http://southsideonlamar.com/history.html History] . Retrieved on 19 October 2006.] Current attractions include Gilley's Dallas and Poor David's Pub. [ [http://www.gilleysdallas.com/ Gilley's Dallas] - “ [http://www.gilleysdallas.com/PressRoom/pressreleases/PRrelease0911.pdf The Legend Returns: Gilley's Brings New Life to Downtown Dallas] .” (PDF). Retrieved on 19 October 2006.] [ [http://www.poordavidspub.com/ Poor David's Pub] - [http://www.poordavidspub.com/#find%20us Find Us] . Retrieved on 19 October 2006.] Dallas Mavericks owner and local entrepreneur Mark Cuban purchased land along Lamar Avenue near Cedars Station in September 2005, and locals speculate that he is planning an entertainment complex for the site. [ [http://www.dallasnews.com/ The Dallas Morning News] - 6 September 2005. " [http://www.dallasnews.com/sharedcontent/dws/classifieds/news/homecenter/realestate/stories/DN-cuban_01bus.ART.State.Edition2.13bfde7f.html Mark Cuban snaps up tracts near downtown] " by Steve Brown. Retrieved on 20 April 2006.]

South of the Trinity River, the fledgling Bishop Arts District in Oak Cliff is home to a number of studio artists living in converted warehouses. Walls of buildings along alleyways and streets are painted with murals and the surrounding streets contain many eclectic restaurants and shops. [ [http://www.bishopartsdistrict.com/ Bishop Arts District] - Information from home page. Retrieved on 19 October 2006.]

Dallas has an Office of Cultural Affairs as a department of the city government. The office is responsible for six cultural centers located throughout the city, funding for local artists and theaters, initiating public art projects, and running the city-owned classical radio station WRR. [ [http://www.dallasculture.org/ City of Dallas Office of Cultural Affairs] - [http://www.dallasculture.org/culturalCenters.cfm Cultural Centers] . Retrieved on 19 October 2006.]


Dallas is home to the Dallas Desperados (Arena Football League), Dallas Mavericks (National Basketball Association), and Dallas Stars (National Hockey League). All three teams play at the American Airlines Center.

The Major League Soccer team FC Dallas, formerly the Dallas Burn, used to play in the Cotton Bowl but moved to Pizza Hut Park in Frisco upon the stadium's opening in 2005. [ [http://fc.dallas.mlsnet.com/ FC Dallas] - [http://fc.dallas.mlsnet.com/t104/about/ About] . Retrieved on 20 October 2006.] However, the college Cotton Bowl football game is still played at the stadium. The Dallas Sidekicks, a former team of the Major Indoor Soccer League, used to play in Reunion Arena, as did the Mavericks and Stars before their move to the American Airlines Center. [ [http://www.dallassidekicks.com/ Dallas Sidekicks] - [http://www.dallassidekicks.com/turftime/ Turf Time] . Retrieved on 20 October 2006.]

The Texas Tornado, three-time defending champions of the North American Hockey League, plays at the Deja Blue Arena in Frisco. [ [http://www.tornadohockey.com/ Texas Tornado] - Information from home page. Retrieved on 20 October 2006.]

Nearby Irving is home to the Dallas Cowboys of the National Football League. Since joining the league as an expansion team in 1960, the Cowboys have enjoyed substantial success, advancing to eight Super Bowls and winning five. Known widely as "America's Team," the Dallas Cowboys are financially the most valuable sports 'franchise' in the world, worth approximately 1.5 billion dollars. [ [ http://www.forbes.com/2007/09/13/nfl-team-valuations-biz-07nfl_cz_kb_mo_cs_0913nfl_land.html] - [http://www.forbes.com/2007/09/13/nfl-team-valuations-biz-07nfl_cz_kb_mo_cs_0913nfl_land.html] . Retrieved on 24 May 2008.] They are also the second most valuable sports organization in the world. The Cowboys are only out-valued by Manchester United, a soccer club from England, who are valued at 1.8 billion dollars. [ [ http://www.forbes.com/lists/2008/34/biz_soccer08_Manchester-United_340001.html] ] The Cowboys currently play at Texas Stadium and are relocating in 2009 to their new 100,000-seat stadium in under construction in suburban Arlington. [ [http://www.dallascowboys.com/history_year.cfm Dallas Cowboys] - [http://www.dallascowboys.com/history_year.cfm History] . Retrieved on 20 October 2006.]

Also in Arlington is Rangers Ballpark, [ [http://texas.rangers.mlb.com/tex/ballpark/index.jsp Rangers Ballpark] . Retrieved on 1 August 2008.] home of the Texas Rangers of Major League Baseball. [ [http://texas.rangers.mlb.com/ Texas Rangers] - [http://texas.rangers.mlb.com/NASApp/mlb/tex/ballpark/index.jsp Ballpark] . Retrieved on 20 October 2006.]

NASCAR and other auto racing leagues have a presence in the area as well. Races are held every year at Texas Motor Speedway north of Fort Worth, a major stop on the NASCAR circuit. About halfway between Dallas and Fort Worth, horse-racing takes place at Lone Star Park in Grand Prairie.

Other teams in the Dallas area include the Dallas Harlequins of the USA Rugby Super League, as well as the Frisco RoughRiders, the Fort Worth Cats, and the Grand Prairie AirHogs—all minor league baseball teams. [ [http://www.quins.com/ Dallas Harlequins] - Information from home page. Retrieved on 20 October 2006.] The Dallas Diamonds, the two-time national champions of the Women's Professional Football League, plays in North Richland Hills. [ [http://www.dallasdiamondsfootball.com/ Dallas Diamonds] - Information from home page. Retrieved on 20 October 2006.] [ [http://www.dallasdiamondsfootball.com/ Dallas Diamonds] - [http://www.dallasdiamondsfootball.com/stadium.htm Stadium] . Retrieved on 20 October 2006.] McKinney is home to the Dallas Revolution, an Independent Women's Football League team. [ [http://www.dallasrevolution.com Dallas Revolution] - Information from home page. Retrieved on 20 October 2006.]

Cricket is another sport that is popular among diaspora from South Asian countries. Local universities such as SMU and University of Texas at Dallas have their own cricket clubs that are affiliated with USA Cricket.

Major league sports teams in Dallas:


The City of Dallas maintains and operates 406 parks on convert|21000|acre|km2|0 of parkland. Its flagship park is the convert|260|acre|km2|2|sing=on Fair Park, which hosted the Texas Centennial Exposition in 1936. The city is also home to Texas's first and largest zoo, the convert|95|acre|km2|2 Dallas Zoo, which opened at its current location in 1888. [ [http://www.dallaszoo.com/ DallasZoo.com] - [http://www.dallaszoo.com/general/general.asp?page=gi General Information] . Retrieved on 28 September 2006.]

The city's parks contain 17 separate lakes, including White Rock and Bachman lakes, spanning a total of convert|4400|acre|km2|2. In addition, Dallas is traversed by convert|61.6|mi|km|1 of biking and jogging trails, including the Katy Trail, and is home to 47 community and neighborhood recreation centers, 276 sports fields, 60 swimming pools, 232 playgrounds, 173 basketball courts, 112 volleyball courts, 126 play slabs, 258 neighborhood tennis courts, 258 picnic areas, six 18-hole golf courses, two driving ranges, and 477 athletic fields. [ [http://www.dallasparks.org/ DallasParks.org] - [http://www.dallasparks.org/Facilities/facilitiesmain.aspx Facilities] . Retrieved on 28 September 2006.]

To the west of Dallas in Arlington is Six Flags Over Texas, the original franchise in the Six Flags theme park chain. Hurricane Harbor, a large water park owned by Six Flags, is also in Arlington.


Dallas has numerous local newspapers, magazines, television stations and radio stations that serve the Dallas/Fort Worth Metroplex as a whole, which is the 5th-largest media market in the United States. [ [http://www.arbitron.com/ Arbitron] - [http://www.arbitron.com/radio_stations/mm001050.asp Fall 2006 Market Ratings] . Retrieved on 13 October 2006.]

Dallas has one daily newspaper, "The Dallas Morning News", which was founded in 1885 by A. H. Belo and is Belo Corporation's flagship newspaper. The "Dallas Times Herald", started in 1888, was the "Morning News"' major competitor until Belo purchased the paper on December 8, 1991 and closed the paper down the next day. Other daily newspapers are "Al Día", a Spanish-language paper published by Belo, "Quick", a free, summary-style version of the "Morning News", the Jewish community's Texas Jewish Post, and a number of ethnic newspapers printed in languages such as Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese.

Other publications include the "Dallas Observer" and the "North Texas Journal", both alternative weekly newspapers, "D Magazine", a monthly magazine about business, life, and entertainment in the Metroplex, and "TRAVELHOST Magazine", local visitor information available in hotel rooms. In addition, the Park Cities and suburbs such as Plano also have their own community newspapers.

In terms of the larger metro area, the "Fort Worth Star-Telegram" is another significant daily newspaper, covering Fort Worth/Tarrant County and other suburban areas to the west and northwest of Dallas. It also publishes a major Spanish-language newspaper for the entire Metroplex known as La Estrella. To the north of Dallas and Fort Worth, the Denton Record-Chronicle covers the city of Denton and its adjacent county.

Area television stations affiliated with the major broadcasting networks include KDFW 4 (FOX), KXAS 5 (NBC), WFAA 8 (ABC) (owned by Belo), KTVT 11 (CBS), KERA 13 (PBS), KUVN 23 (UNI), KDFI 27 (MNTV"), KDAF 33 (The CW") and KXTX 39 (TMD). KTXA-21 is an independent station formerly affiliated with the now-defunct UPN network.

Sixty-three (63) radio stations operate within range of Dallas. [ [http://www.radio-locator.com Radio-Locator] - [http://www.radio-locator.com/cgi-bin/locate?select=city&city=dallas&state=tx&x=17&y=5 Dallas, Texas] . Retrieved on 20 October 2006.] The City of Dallas operates WRR 101.1 FM, the area's main classical music station, from city offices in Fair Park. [ [http://www.dallascityhall.com/FairParkNews/FPStory5.html Dallas's Fair Park Newsletter] . Retrieved on 9 May 2006.] It was licensed in 1948 and is the oldest commercially operated radio station in Texas and the second-oldest in the United States, after KDKA (AM) in Pittsburgh. [ [http://www.wrr101.com/about.shtml WRR Classical 101.1 FM: The First Radio Station In Texas, est. 1921 - About WRR] . Retrieved on 9 May 2006.] Because of the city's centrally-located geographical position and lack of nearby mountainous terrain, high-power class A medium-wave stations KRLD and WBAP can broadcast as far as southern Canada at night and can be used for emergency messages when broadcasting is down in other major metropolitan areas in the United States.

Hispanic Broadcasting Corporation (HBC), the largest company in the Spanish language radio station business, is based in Dallas. [ [http://www.emailwire.com/ Emailwire.com] - “ [http://www.emailwire.com/cgi-bin/news/db.cgi?db=ads&uid=default&ID=3355&C1=Radio&view_records=1&full_view=1 Hispanic Broadcasting Corporation Announces Renan Almendarez Coello, El Cucuy De La Mañana, “is Taking His Career to New Heights”] .” Originally published 30 January 2003. Retrieved on 19 October 2006.] In 2003, HBC was acquired by Univision and became Univision Radio Inc., but the radio company remains headquartered in the city. [ [http://www.business.com Business.com] - [http://www.business.com/directory/media_and_entertainment/radio/hispanic_broadcasting_corporation/index.asp Hispanic Broadcasting Corporation] . Retrieved on 19 October 2006.]


There is a large Protestant Christian influence in the Dallas community, as the city is deep within the Bible Belt. Methodist and Baptist churches are prominent in many neighborhoods and anchor two of the city's major private universities (Southern Methodist University and Dallas Baptist University). The Cathedral of Hope, a Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Protestant church, is the largest congregation of its kind in the world. [ [http://www.cathedralofhope.com/ Cathedralofhope.com] - [http://www.cathedralofhope.com/history/index.php History] . Retrieved on 17 April 2006.] The city is also home to a sizable Mormon community, which led The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints to build a major temple in the city in 1984.

The Catholic Church is also a significant organization in the Dallas area and operates the University of Dallas, a liberal-arts university in the Dallas suburb of Irving. Across the street from the university is one of only 13 Cistercian Abbeys in the United States and the only one that operates a private preparatory school as well. The Cathedral Santuario de Guadalupe in the Arts District oversees the second-largest Catholic church membership in the United States, with 70 parishes in the Dallas Diocese. Dallas is also home to three Eastern Orthodox Christian churches. [ [http://www.superpages.com/ SuperPages] - [http://www.superpages.com/yellowpages/C-Orthodox+Churches/S-TX/T-Dallas/ Orthodox churches in Dallas, Texas] . Retrieved on 13 October 2006.]

Further, a large Muslim community exists in the north and northeastern portions of Dallas, as well as in the northern Dallas suburbs. The oldest mosque in Texas is located in Denton, about convert|40|mi north of Downtown Dallas.

Dallas and its surrounding suburbs also have one of the largest Jewish communities in the United States. Most of the city's Jewish residents reside in North Dallas, particularly within convert|3|to|4|mi|0 miles on either side of Hillcrest Road. [ [http://www.jewishdallas.org/ The Jewish Federation of Greater Dallas] - [http://www.jewishdallas.org/content_display.html?ArticleID=23497 Congregations] . Retrieved on 20 October 2006.] Temple Emanu-El, the largest synagogue in the South/Southwest, was founded in 1873. The community is presently led by Rabbi David E. Stern. For more information, see the History of the Jews in Dallas, Texas. [ [http://www.huc.edu/newspubs/pressroom/07/7/stern.shtml Temple Emanu-El of Dallas] . Retrieved on 07 November 2007.]

Dallas also has a large Buddhist community. Immigrants from Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, Nepal, Tibet, Japan, China, Taiwan, and Sri Lanka have all contributed to the Buddhist population, which is concentrated in the northern suburbs of Garland and Richardson. Numerous Buddhist temples dot the Metroplex, including [http://www.watdallas.com/ The Buddhist Center of Dallas] , Lien Hoa Vietnamese Temple of Irving, and [http://www.meditationintexas.org Kadampa Meditation Center Texas] and [http://www.watbuddhamahamunee.com/ Wat Buddhamahamunee] of Arlington.


The most notable event held in Dallas is the State Fair of Texas, which has been held annually at Fair Park since 1886. The fair is a massive event, bringing in an estimated $350 million to the city's economy annually. The Red River Shootout, which pits the University of Texas at Austin against The University of Oklahoma at the Cotton Bowl also brings significant crowds to the city.

Other festivals in the area include several Cinco de Mayo celebrations hosted by the city's large Mexican population, an Saint Patrick's Day parade along Lower Greenville Avenue, Juneteenth festivities, the Greek Food Festival of Dallas, and an annual Halloween parade on Cedar Springs Road. With the opening of Victory Park, WFAA Channel 8 has begun to host an annual New Year's Eve celebration in AT&T Plaza that the television station hopes will reminisce of celebrations in New York's Times Square.


In its beginnings, Dallas relied on farming, neighboring Fort Worth's cattle market, and its prime location on Indian trade routes to sustain itself. Dallas's key to growth came in 1873 with the building of multiple rail lines through the city. As Dallas grew and technology developed, cotton became its boon, and by 1900, Dallas was the largest inland cotton market in the world, becoming a leader in cotton gin machinery manufacturing. By the early 1900s, Dallas was a hub for economic activity all over the southwestern United States and was selected in 1914 as the seat of the Eleventh Federal Reserve District. By 1925, Texas churned out more than ⅓ of the nation's cotton crop, with 31% of Texas cotton produced within a 100-mile (161 km) radius of Dallas. In the 1930s, oil was discovered east of Dallas near Kilgore, Texas. Dallas's proximity to the discovery put it immediately at the center of the nation's oil market. Oil discoveries in the Permian Basin, the Panhandle, the Gulf Coast, and Oklahoma in the following years further solidified Dallas's position as the hub of the market.cite book |last=Payne |first=Darwin |title= Dallas, an illustrated history |year=1982 |publisher=Windsor Publications |location=Woodland Hills, California |id= ISBN 0-89781-034-1 |pages=189-221 |chapter= Chapter VII: The Emergence of “Big D”]

The end of World War II left Dallas seeded with a nexus of communications, engineering, and production talent by companies such as Collins Radio Corporation. Decades later, the telecommunications and information revolutions still drive a large portion of the local economy. The city is sometimes referred to as the heart of "Silicon Prairie" because of a high concentration of telecommunications companies in the region, the epicenter of which lies along the "Telecom Corridor", home to more than 5,700 companies. [ [http://www.telecomcorridor.com/ Telecom Corridor website] . Retrieved 21 February 2006.] The Corridor is home to Texas Instruments and regional offices for Alcatel Lucent, AT&T, Ericsson, Fujitsu, Nokia, Rockwell, Cisco Systems, Sprint, and Verizon, as well as the national offices of CompUSA and Nortel. In December 2007, Ontario's Research in Motion (RIM), makers of the BlackBerry handheld computer, announced Irving as the site of its U.S. headquarters.

In the 1980s, Dallas was a real estate hotbed, with the metropolitan population skyrocketing and the concurrent demand for housing and jobs. Several of Downtown Dallas's largest buildings are the fruit of this boom, but over-speculation and the savings and loan crisis prevented any further additions to Dallas' skyline. Between the late 1980s and the early 2000s, central Dallas went through a slow period of growth and has only recently bounced back. This time, the real estate market in the Dallas-Fort Worth Metroplex has proven to be much more resilient than those of most other parts of the United States.

Dallas is no longer a hotbed for manufacturing like it was in the early 20th century, but plenty of goods are still manufactured in the city. [ [http://www.tceq.state.tx.us/implementation/air/sip/dfw.html Dallas-Fort Worth Ozone Nonattainment Area] . Retrieved 1 October 2006.] Texas Instruments employs 10,400 people at its corporate headquarters and chip plants in neighboring Richardson, and defense and aircraft manufacturing still dominates the economy of nearby Fort Worth. [ [http://www.ti.com/corp/docs/company/factsheet.shtml Texas Instruments] - [http://www.ti.com/corp/docs/company/factsheet.shtml Fact Sheet] . Retrieved 1 October 2006.]

The Dallas-Fort Worth Metroplex as a whole has the largest concentration of corporate headquarters in the United States. New additions to the list include AT&T, which announced plans in June 2008 to relocate its corporate headquarters to Downtown Dallas from San Antonio, and Comerica Bank, which relocated in 2007 from Detroit. Suburban Irving is home to four Fortune 500 companies of its own, including Exxon Mobil, the most profitable company in the world and the second largest by revenue, [ [http://money.cnn.com/magazines/fortune/fortune500/2008/full_list/] -Retrieved on June 15 2008] Kimberly-Clark, Fluor (engineering), and Commercial Metals. [ [http://money.cnn.com/magazines/fortune/fortune500/2008/states/TX.html] - Retrieved on June 15 2008.] Additional companies internationally headquartered in the Metroplex include Southwest Airlines, American Airlines, RadioShack, Neiman Marcus, 7-Eleven, Brinker International, id Software, ENSCO Offshore Drilling, Mary Kay Cosmetics, CompUSA, Zales and Fossil. Corporate headquarters in the northern suburb of Plano include EDS, Frito Lay, Dr Pepper Snapple, and JCPenney.

In addition to its large number of businesses, Dallas has more shopping centers per capita than any other city in the United States and is also home to the second shopping center built in the United States, Highland Park Village, which opened in 1931. [http://www.visitdallas.com VisitDallas.com] - [http://www.visitdallas.com/shared/file.download.php?id=259 Shopping in Dallas] . (PDF) Retrieved 20 February 2007.] Dallas is home of the two other major malls in North Texas, the Dallas Galleria and NorthPark Center, which is also the largest mall in Texas. Both malls feature high-end stores and are major tourist draws for the region.

The city itself is home to 15 billionaires, placing it 9th worldwide among cities with the most billionaires. [ [http://www.forbes.com/2007/03/07/billionaires-worlds-richest_07billionaires_cz_lk_af_0308billie_land.html Forbes Magazine list of billionaires.] Retrieved on 2007-10-08.] The ranking does not even take into account the eight billionaires who live in the neighboring city of Fort Worth.

Dallas is currently the third most popular destination for business travel in the United States, and the Dallas Convention Center is one of the largest and busiest convention centers in the country, at over convert|1000000|sqft|m2, and the world's single-largest column-free exhibit hall. [ [http://www.dallascvb.com/meetings/why_dallas/ Meeting Professionals - Why Dallas? ] ]

:seealso|List of companies in Dallas, Texas:seealso|List of shopping malls in Dallas, Texas

Law and government

The city uses a council-manager government, with Tom Leppert serving as Mayor, Mary Suhm serving as city manager, and 14 council members serving as representatives to the 14 council districts in the city. [http://www.dallascityhall.com/ City of Dallas] - [http://www.dallascityhall.com/government/mayor/mayor.html Mayor] . Retrieved 16 October 2006.] [http://www.dallascityhall.com/ City of Dallas] - [http://www.dallascityhall.com/government/CityManager/city_manager_suhm.html City Manager] . Retrieved 13 January 2007.] [ [http://www.dallascityhall.com/ City of Dallas] - [http://www.dallascityhall.com/government/government.html Government] . Retrieved 16 October 2006.] This organizational structure was recently contested by some in favor of a strong-mayor city charter, only to be rejected by Dallas voters.

In the 2006-2007 fiscal year, the city's total budget (the sum of operating and capital budgets) was $2,344,314,114. [http://www.dallascityhall.com/Budget/Introduction.pdf City of Dallas FY06-07 Adopted Budget Overview] . (PDF). Retrieved 17 October 2006.] The city has seen a steady increase in its budget throughout its history due to sustained growth: the budget was $1,717,449,783 in 2002-2003, [http://dallascityhall.org/pdf/FY04AdoptedBudget/Introduction/Introduction.pdf City of Dallas FY03-04 Adopted Budget Overview] . (PDF). Retrieved 9 May 2006.] $1,912,845,956 in 2003-2004, $2,049,685,734 in 2004-2005, [http://dallascityhall.org/pdf/FY06AdoptedBudget/Overview/Overview.pdf City of Dallas FY05-06 Adopted Budget Overview] . (PDF). Retrieved 9 May 2006.] and $2,218,345,070 in 2005-2006.

National and state legislators representing Dallas:

The United States District Court for the Northern District of Texas, which exercises original jurisdiction over 100 counties in North and West Texas, convenes in the Earle Cabell Federal Building and Courthouse in the Government District of Downtown. The same building additionally houses United States Bankruptcy and Magistrate Courts and a United States Attorney office. Dallas also is the seat of the Fifth Court of Appeals of Texas.

Crime and enforcement

Policing in Dallas is provided predominantly by the Dallas Police Department, which has 2,977 officers. The Dallas chief of police is David Kunkle. [http://dallascityhall.org/ City of Dallas] - [http://dallascityhall.org/government/government.html Government] . Retrieved 7 May 2006.] The Police Headquarters are located in the Cedars neighborhood of South Dallas.

According to the FBI, a city to city comparison of crime rates is not meaningful, because recording practices vary from city to city, citizens report different percentages of crimes from one city to the next, and the actual number of people physically present in a city is unknown. [http://www.fbi.gov/ucr/06prelim/] With that in mind, Dallas's violent crime rate (12.06 per 1,000 people) is lower than that of St Louis (24.81), Detroit (24.22), Baltimore (16.96), Philadelphia (15.62), Cleveland (15.47), Miami (15.09), Washington (14.48), Kansas City (14.44) and Boston (13.39). However, Houston (11.69), Los Angeles (7.87), and New York City (6.38) have lower violent crime rates than Dallas. [ [http://www.fbi.gov/ucr/06prelim/ucrtable4index.htm] ]

Fire protection

Fire protection and emergency medical service in the city is provided by Dallas Fire-Rescue, which has 1,670 firefighters and 56 working fire stations in the city limits. [ [http://dallasfirerescue.com/sta_list/stadrlst.html Dallas Fire-Rescue] - Station List - Note station 50 does not exist, thus listing of 57-1 = 56. Retrieved 4 May 2006.] The Dallas Fire-Rescue chief is Eddie Burns, Sr. The department also operates the Dallas Firefighter's Museum at Dallas's oldest remaining fire station, built in 1907, along Parry Avenue near Fair Park. In addition, the department operates in mutual aid agreements with several surrounding municipalities.

In 1995, the Dallas Fire Department Training Academy (now the Chief Dodd Miller Training Academy) began to host firefighter recruits from other Metroplex municipalities in its 22-week basic firefighter training school, effectively becoming a regional training center. The Academy is reverently known as "The Drill Tower" by instructors and graduates, referring to the facility's most taxing structure/activity, a six story tower whose staircase is routinely climbed three times in rapid succession by recruits in full gear and high-rise hose packs.


title=Historical populations
footnote= [Handbook of Texas|id=DD/hdd1|name=DALLAS, TX|author=Jackie McElhaney and Michael V. Hazel 1860 & 1870 populations.] [ [http://www.census.gov/ United States Census Bureau] - Dallas population in [http://www2.census.gov/prod2/decennial/documents/1880a_v1-12.pdf 1880] (pg.40), [http://www2.census.gov/prod2/decennial/documents/1890a_v1-12.pdf 1890] (pg.3), [http://www2.census.gov/prod2/decennial/documents/33405927v1ch02.pdf 1900] (pg.4), [http://www2.census.gov/prod2/decennial/documents/36894832v3ch6.pdf 1910] (pg.3), [http://www2.census.gov/prod2/decennial/documents/41084484v1ch1.pdf 1920] (pg.79), [http://www2.census.gov/prod2/decennial/documents/10612982v3p2ch09.pdf 1930] (pg.68), [http://www2.census.gov/prod2/decennial/documents/33973538v2p6ch9.pdf 1940] (pg.106), [http://www2.census.gov/prod2/decennial/documents/23761117v1ch10.pdf 1950] (pg.106), [http://www2.census.gov/prod2/decennial/documents/33255142v1p45ch02.pdf 1960] (pg.23), [http://www2.census.gov/prod2/decennial/documents/00496492v1p45s1ch02.pdf 1970] (pg.12), [http://www2.census.gov/prod2/decennial/documents/1980a_txAB-01.pdf 1980] (pg.38), [http://www.census.gov/prod/cen1990/cph2/cph-2-45.pdf 1990] (pg.114), [http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/SAFFFacts?_event=ChangeGeoContext&geo_id=16000US4819000&_geoContext=01000US%7C04000US48%7C16000US4827000&_street=&_county=dallas&_cityTown=dallas&_state=04000US48&_zip=&_lang=en&_sse=on&ActiveGeoDiv=geoSelect&_useEV=&pctxt=fph&pgsl=010&_submenuId=factsheet_1&ds_name=DEC_2000_SAFF&_ci_nbr=null&qr_name=null&reg=null%3Anull&_keyword=&_industry=2000] . Retrieved 20 November 2006.]
As of the censusGR|2 of 2000, there were 1,188,580 people, 451,833 households, and 266,580 families residing in Dallas proper. The population density was 3,469.9 people per square mile (1,339.7/km²). There were 484,117 housing units at an average density of 1,413.3 per square mile (545.7/km²).

There were 451,833 households out of which 30.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 38.8% were married couples living together, 14.9% had a female householder with no husband present, and 41.0% are classified as non-families by the United States Census Bureau. Of 451,833 households, 23,959 are unmarried partner households: 18,684 heterosexual. 32.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.00% and the average family size was 3.37%.

In the city the population was spread out with 26.6% under the age of 18, 11.8% from 18 to 24, 35.3% from 25 to 44, 17.7% from 45 to 64, and 8.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 30 years. For every 100 females there were 101.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 100.5 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $37,628, and the median income for a family was $40,921. Males had a median income of $31,149 versus $28,235 for females. The per capita income for the city was $22,183. About 14.9% of families and 17.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 25.1% of those under age 18 and 13.1% of those aged 65 or over. In 2006 the median price for a house was $123,800, and save a 2003 recession, Dallas has seen a steady increase in the cost of homes over the past 6 years. [ [http://www.housealmanac.com/ HouseAlmanac.com] - [http://dallas.housealmanac.com/ Dallas housing statistics] . Retrieved 30 September 2006.]

The racial makeup of Dallas was 50% White, 25.88% Black, 4.5% Asian, 1% Native American, .50% Pacific Islander, 20% from other races, and 5.3% from two or more races. 35% of the population was Hispanic or Latino of any race. Hispanics outnumbered African-Americans for the first time in the 2000 census as the largest minority group in Dallas.

The city has historically been predominantly white, but its population has diversified as it has grown in size and importance over the 20th century to the point that non-Hispanic whites now represent only one-third of the city's population. [ [http://iussp2005.princeton.edu/download.aspx?submissionId=51068 Cordell, Dennis D., Southern Methodist University (Dallas) and Garcia y Griego, Manuel, University of Texas at Arlington, "The Integration of Nigerian and Mexican immigrants in Dallas/Fort Worth, Texas", working paper, 2005] ] In addition, almost 25% of Dallas's population and 17% of residents in the Metroplex as a whole are foreign-born. [ [http://www.city-data.com/city/Dallas-Texas.html Dallas, Texas (TX) Detailed Profile - relocation, real estate, travel, jobs, hospitals, schools, crime, news, sex offenders ] ] [ [http://www.fairus.org/site/PageServer?pagename=research_research3b0f_sup | FAIR: Metro Area Factsheet: Dallas-Ft. Worth, Texas CMSA ] ]

Dallas is a major destination for Mexican immigrants, both legally and illegally. The southwestern and southeastern portions of the city, particularly Oak Cliff and Pleasant Grove, consists of a mixture of black and Hispanic residents, while the southern portion of the city is predominantly black. North Dallas, on the other hand, is mostly white, though many enclaves of predominantly black and Hispanic residents exist. In addition, Dallas and its suburbs are home to a large number of Asian American residents—Korean, Taiwanese, Chinese, Filipino, Vietnamese, Indian, Bangladeshi, Pakistani, and Arab all have large presences in the area, particularly in the suburbs of Garland, Richardson, Plano, Carrollton, Irving, Arlington, Frisco, and Allen.

About half of Dallas's population was born outside of Texas. Many residents have migrated to the city from other parts of the country, particularly the Midwest, Northeast, and other Sunbelt states such as California. [ [http://www.hellodallas.com/Social.cfm Dallas Texas Social and demographic information ] ]


There are 337 public schools, 89 private schools, 38 colleges, and 32 libraries in Dallas [http://mywikicity.com/wiki/index.php?title=Dallas]

Colleges and universities

Colleges and universities in the Dallas city limits

The University of Texas Southwestern Medical School is a medical school located in the city's Stemmons Corridor. It is part of the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, one of the largest grouping of medical facilities in the world. The school is very selective, admitting only around 200 students a year. The facility enrolls 3,255 postgraduates and is home to four Nobel Laureates—three in physiology/medicine and one in chemistry.

Dallas Baptist University (DBU) is a private, coeducational university located in the Mountain Creek area of southwest Dallas. Originally located in Decatur, Texas, the school moved to Dallas in 1965. [ [http://www.dbu.edu/ Dallas Baptist University] - [http://www.dbu.edu/about/history.asp History] . Retrieved 18 October 2006.] The school currently enrolls over 5,100 students. [ [http://www.dbu.edu/ Dallas Baptist University] - [http://www.dbu.edu/about/quick_facts.asp Facts and Statistics] .]

Paul Quinn College is a private, historically black college located in southeast Dallas. Originally located in Waco, Texas, it moved to Dallas in 1993 and is housed on the campus of the former Bishop College, another private, historically black college. Dallas billionaire and entrepreneur Comer Cottrell, Jr., founder of ProLine Corporation, bought the campus of Bishop College and bequeathed it to Paul Quinn College in 1993. [ [http://www.thehistorymakers.com/ The History Makers] - [http://www.thehistorymakers.com/biography/biography.asp?bioindex=942&category=styleMakers Comer Cottrell, Jr.] Retrieved 18 October 2006.] The school enrolls about 3,000 undergraduate students.

The University of North Texas at Dallas, currently located at a temporary site in South Oak Cliff along Interstate 20, is being built at a nearby location along Houston School Road. [http://www.unt.edu/unt-dallas/ University of North Texas Dallas Campus] . [http://www.unt.edu/unt-dallas/newcampus/index.htm New Campus] . Retrieved 4 October 2006.] The school will be the first public university within Dallas city limits when completed.

Dallas Theological Seminary, also within the city limits, is recognized as one of the leading seminaries in the evangelical faith. Situated convert|3|mi|km|0 east of Downtown Dallas, it currently enrolls over 2,000 graduate students and has graduated over 12,000 alumni.

At the 2-year level, the Dallas County Community College District has seven campuses located throughout the area with branches in Dallas as well as the surrounding suburbs.

Colleges and universities near Dallas

Dallas is a major center of education for much of the south central United States. In addition to those located in the city, the surrounding area also contains a number of universities, colleges, trade schools, and other educational institutions.

Southern Methodist University (SMU) is a private, coeducational university in University Park, an independent city that, together with the adjacent town of Highland Park, is entirely surrounded by Dallas. SMU was founded in 1911 by the Southern Methodist Church and now enrolls 6,500 undergraduates, 1,200 professional students in the law and theology departments, and 3,500 postgraduates. [ [http://www.smu.edu SMU.edu] - [http://www.smu.edu/facts/history.asp Facts About SMU History] . Retrieved 9 May 2006.] [ [http://www.smu.edu SMU.edu] - [http://www.smu.edu/facts/demographic.asp Facts About Demographics] . Retrieved 9 May 2006.]

The University of Texas at Dallas, part of the state public university system, is located in the city of Richardson, adjacent to Dallas and in the heart of the "Telecom Corridor". UT Dallas, or UTD, is renowned for its work in combining the arts and technology, as well as for its programs in engineering, computer science, economics, international political economy, neuroscience, speech and hearing, pre-health, pre-law and management. The university has many collaborative research relationships with UT Southwestern Medical Center. UT Dallas is home to approximately 15,000 students.

The University of Dallas, in the suburb of Irving, is an enclave of traditional Roman Catholicism in the mostly-Protestant religious landscape of Dallas. St. Albert the Great Dominican Priory and Holy Trinity Seminary are located on campus, while the Cistercian Monastery and Cistercian Preparatory School are located just to the southeast. The Highlands School, a PK–12 Legionary school, is connected to the east by jogging trails. As a center for religious study, the Cistercian Monastery continues to be notable in scholastic developments in theology.

Also in the nearby suburbs and neighboring cities are the University of North Texas and Texas Woman's University in Denton, as well as the University of Texas at Arlington in Arlington. Fort Worth also has two major universities within its city limits, Texas Christian University and Texas Wesleyan University. A number of colleges and universities are also located outside the immediate metropolitan area.

Primary and secondary schools

Public schools

Most neighborhoods in the city of Dallas are located within the Dallas Independent School District, the 12th-largest school district in the United States. [http://www.dallasisd.org DallasISD.org] - [http://www.dallasisd.org/inside_disd/ Inside DISD] . Retrieved 1 May 2006.] The school district operates independently of the city and enrolls over 161,000 students. In 2006, one of the district's magnet schools, The School for the Talented and Gifted in Oak Cliff, was named the best school in the United States (among public schools) by "Newsweek", retaining the title in 2007. Another one of DISD's schools, the Science and Engineering Magnet, placed 8th in the same 2006 survey and moved up to the #2 spot the following year. [ [http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/12532678/sit Newsweek America's Best High Schools - MSNBC.com] . Retrieved 1 May 2006.] Other DISD high schools named to the list were Hillcrest, W. T. White, and Woodrow Wilson high schools. Woodrow Wilson was also named the top comprehensive high school in Dallas by local publication "D Magazine".

A few areas of Dallas also extend into other school districts, including Carrollton-Farmers Branch, Duncanville, Garland, Highland Park, Mesquite, Plano, and Richardson. The Wilmer-Hutchins Independent School District once served portions of southern Dallas, but it was shut down for the 2005-2006 year. WHISD students started attending other Dallas ISD schools during that time. Following the close, the Texas Education Agency consolidated WHISD into Dallas ISD.

Many school districts in Dallas County, including Dallas ISD, are served by a governmental agency called Dallas County Schools. The system provides busing and other transportation services, access to a massive media library, technology services, strong ties to local organizations for education/community integration, and staff development programs. [ [http://www.dcschools.com/default.asp Dallas County Schools] - [http://www.dcschools.com/info/ServeYou.asp?City=Dallas Dallas ISD] . Retrieved 29 May 2006.]

Private schools

There are also many private schools in Dallas, most notably Jesuit College Preparatory School of Dallas, St. Mark's School of Texas, The Hockaday School, Episcopal School of Dallas, Parish Episcopal School, Bishop Dunne Catholic School, Ursuline Academy of Dallas, Yavneh Academy of Dallas, and First Baptist Academy of Dallas. Many Dallas residents also attend The Highlands School in adjacent Irving, as well as Greenhill School and Trinity Christian Academy in adjacent Addison.


The city is served by the Dallas Public Library system. The system was originally created by the Dallas Federation of Women's Clubs with efforts spearheaded by then-president Mrs. Henry (May Dickson) Exall. Her work in raising money led to a grant from philanthropist and steel baron Andrew Carnegie, which enabled the construction of the first branch of the library system in 1901. [ [http://dallaslibrary.org/ DallasLibrary.org] - [http://www.dallaslibrary.org/100/historySynopsis.htm History] . Retrieved 1 May 2006.] Today, the library operates 25 branch locations throughout the city, including the 8-story J. Erik Jonsson Central Library in the Government District of Downtown. [ [http://dallaslibrary.org/ DallasLibrary.org] . Retrieved 13 March 2006.]

The former Texas School Book Depository, where according to the Warren Commission Report, Lee Harvey Oswald shot and killed president John F. Kennedy in 1963, has served since the 1980s as a county government office building, except for its sixth and seventh floors, which house the "museum of the assassination," known officially as The Sixth Floor Museum.


Health systems

Dallas has many hospitals and a number of medical research facilities within its city limits. One major research center is UT Southwestern Medical Center in the Stemmons Corridor, along with the affiliated UT Southwestern Medical School. The health care complex includes within its bounds Parkland Memorial Hospital, Children's Medical Center, St. Paul University Hospital, and the Zale Lipshy University Hospital.

Dallas also has a VA hospital in the southern portion of the city, the Dallas Veterans Affairs Medical Center. The center is home to a Consolidated Mail Outpatient Pharmacy (CMOP), part of an initiative by the Department of Veterans Affairs to provide mail-order prescriptions to veterans using computerization at strategic locations throughout the United States.

Other hospitals in the city include Baylor University Medical Center in Deep Ellum, Methodist Dallas Medical Center in Oak Cliff, Methodist Charlton Medical Center near Duncanville, Medical City Dallas Hospital and Presbyterian Hospital in North Dallas, and the Texas Scottish Rite Hospital for Children in Oak Lawn.


Like many other major cities in the United States, the primary mode of local transportation in Dallas is the automobile, though efforts have been made to increase the availability of alternative modes of transportation, including the construction of light rail lines, biking and walking paths, wide sidewalks, a trolley system, and buses.

The city is at the confluence of three major interstate highways—Interstates 20, 30, 35E, and 45. The Dallas area freeway system is set up in the popular hub-and-spoke system, shaped much like a wagon wheel. Starting from the center of the city, a small freeway loop surrounds Downtown, followed by the Interstate 635 loop about convert|10|mi|0 outside Downtown, and ultimately the tolled President George Bush Turnpike. Inside these freeway loops are other boulevard- and parkway-style loops, including Loop 12 and Belt Line Road. Another beltway around the city upwards of convert|45|mi|km|0 from Downtown is under plan in Collin County.

Radiating out of Downtown Dallas's freeway loop are the spokes of the area's highway system—Interstates 30, 35E, and 45, U.S. Highway 75, U.S. Highway 175, State Spur 366, the Dallas North Tollway, State Highway 114, U.S. Highway 80, and U.S. Highway 67. Other major highways around the city include State Highway 183 and State Spur 408. The recently-completed interchange at the intersection of Lyndon B. Johnson Freeway (Interstate 635) and Central Expressway (U.S. Highway 75) contains 5 stacks and is aptly called the High Five Interchange. It is currently the only 5-level interchange in Texas and is one of the largest freeway interchanges in the United States.

Dallas Area Rapid Transit (DART) is the Dallas-area public transportation authority, providing buses, rail, and HOV lanes to commuters. DART began operating the first light rail system in the Southwest United States in 1996 and continues to expand its coverage. Currently, two light rail lines are in service, the DART R and the DART B. The DART R travels through Oak Cliff, South Dallas, Downtown, Uptown, North Dallas, Richardson and Plano, while the DART B goes through Oak Cliff, Downtown, Uptown, East Dallas, Lake Highlands, and Garland. The DART R|style=nl and DART B|style=nl lines are conjoined between 8th & Corinth Station in Oak Cliff and Mockingbird Station in North Dallas. The two lines service Cityplace Station, the only subway station in the Southwest. DART has also begun construction on its DART G|style=nfnl and DART O|style=nfnl lines, which will serve DFW Airport, Love Field Airport, Irving and Las Colinas, Carrollton, Farmers Branch, the Stemmons Corridor, Victory Park, downtown, Deep Ellum, Fair Park, south Dallas and Pleasant Grove.

Fort Worth's smaller public transit system, The T, connects with DART via a commuter rail line, the DART TRE, linking Downtown Dallas's Union Station and Downtown Fort Worth's T&P Station, with several points in between. As is happening in other cities around the country with high-speed regional train service, DART's rail system has skyrocketed land values in parts of Dallas and has led to a flurry of residential and transit-oriented development.

Dallas is served by two commercial airports: Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport (DFW) and Dallas Love Field (DAL). In addition, Dallas Executive Airport (formerly Redbird Airport), serves as a general aviation airport for the city, and Addison Airport functions similarly just outside the city limits in the suburb of Addison. Two more general aviation airports are located about convert|35|mi|0 north of Dallas in McKinney, and another two are located in Fort Worth, on the west side of the Metroplex.

DFW International Airport is located in the suburbs slightly north of and equidistant to Downtown Fort Worth and Downtown Dallas. In terms of size, DFW is the largest airport in the state, the 2nd largest in the United States, and 3rd largest in the world. In terms of traffic, DFW is the busiest airport in the state, 3rd busiest in the United States, and 6th busiest in the world. The headquarters of American Airlines, the largest air carrier in the world, is located less than a mile from DFW within the city limits of Fort Worth. Similarly, Love Field is located within the city limits of Dallas about convert|6|mi|0 northwest of Downtown, and is headquarters to Southwest Airlines.


Dallas is served by Dallas Water Utilities, which operates several waste treatment plants and pulls water from several area reservoirs. [ [http://www.dallascityhall.com/dwu/water_utilities.html Dallas Water Utilities] - [http://www.dallascityhall.com/dwu/water_utilities_functions.html Functions] . Retrieved 15 October 2006.] The city's electric system is maintained by several companies, including Cirro Energy and TXU, [ [http://www.txuelectricdelivery.com/ TXU Electric Delivery] - [http://www.txuelectricdelivery.com/electricity/territory/default.asp Service Territory] . Retrieved 14 October 2006.] whose parent company, Energy Future Holdings Corporation, has headquarters in the city. [ [http://www.txucorp.com/ Energy Future Holdings Corporation ] - [http://www.txucorp.com/contact/default.aspx Contact Us] . Retrieved 14 October 2006.] The city offers garbage pickup and recycling service weekly through its Sanitation Services department. [ [http://www.dallascityhall.com/html/sanitation_collection.html City of Dallas Sanitation Servces] - [http://www.dallascityhall.com/html/faq_s.html Sanitation FAQ] . Retrieved 14 October 2006.] Telephone networks, broadband internet, and cable television service are available from several companies, including AT&T, Time Warner Cable, and Verizon FiOS.

ister Cities

Dallas has the following sister cities: [ [http://www.sister-cities.org/icrc/directory/usa/TX Sister Cities International ] ]

*flagicon|CZE Brno, Czech Republic
*flagicon|FRA Dijon, France
*flagicon|MEX Monterrey, Mexico
*flagicon|LVA Riga, Latvia
*flagicon|IRQ Kirkuk, Iraq
*flagicon|RUS Saratov, Russia
*flagicon|TWN Taipei, Taiwan
*flagicon|JPN Sendai, Japan
*flagicon|PRC Tianjin City, People's Republic of China
*flagicon|IND Hyderabad, India


51: should the reference above not work, you may use this one [http://www.forbes.com/lists/2008/34/biz_soccer08_Manchester-United_340001.html]

See also

* The John F. Kennedy assassination
* "Dallas", the TV series

Further reading

#Herbert E. Bolton, “Athanase de Mezieres and the Louisiana-Texas Frontier 1768-1780,” Cleveland: Arthur H Clark Company, 1914.
#John William Rogers, “The Lusty Texans of Dallas,” E P Dutton, 1951

External links

* [http://www.dallascityhall.com/ Official City Website]
* [http://www.dallascityhall.com/pwt/bike_links.html/ Dallas Bike Plan]
* [http://www.dallascvb.com/visitors/ Dallas Convention & Visitors Bureau]
* [http://www.cityofdallasemployees.com/ Dallas Civilian Employees Website]
* [http://www.dallashistory.org/ Dallas Historical Society]
* [http://www.dallaslibrary.org/CTX/murphyandbolanz/ Historical city maps, including streets, streams and trolley lines, circa 1880-1920]
* [http://texashistory.unt.edu/browse/contributor/DHS/ Dallas Historical Society photographs hosted by the Portal to Texas History]
* [http://dallaslibrary.org/ Dallas Public Library]
* [http://www.dallasobserver.com/bestof/ Best of Dallas guide to city culture]
* [http://www.wildtexas.com/parks/results.php?nearby_cities=Dallas Dallas area parks]
*Gnis|1380944|USGS Elevation data
*Handbook of Texas|id=DD/hdd1|name=Dallas

Geographic Location (8-way)
Centre = Dallas
North = McKinney, Texas
Northeast = Texarkana, Texas
East = Terrell, Texas / Shreveport, Louisiana
Southeast = Kaufman, Texas / Houston, Texas
South = Waco, Texas
Southwest = Cleburne, Texas
West = Fort Worth, Texas
Northwest = D/FW Airport / Denton, Texas

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