- Improvisational theatre
Improvisational theatre (also known as improv or impro) is a form of
theatrein which the actors use improvisational acting techniques to perform spontaneously. Actors typically use audiencesuggestions to guide the performance as they create dialogue, setting, and plot extemporaneously. Improvisational theatre performances tend to be comedic, although some forms, including Playback Theatreand Theatre of the Oppressed, are not necessarily intended to be comedic.
Many improvisational actors also work as scripted actors, and "improv" techniques are often taught in standard acting classes. The basic skills of listening, clarity, confidence, and performing instinctively and spontaneously are considered important skills for actors to develop.
Modern improvisational comedy, as it is practiced in the West, falls generally into two categories: shortform and longform.
Shortform improv consists of short scenes usually constructed from a predetermined game, structure, or idea and driven by an audience suggestion. Many shortform games were first created by
Viola Spolin. The shortform improv comedy television series " Whose Line Is It Anyway?" has familiarized American and British viewers with shortform.
Longform improv performers create shows in which scenes are often interrelated by story, characters, or themes. Longform shows may take the form of an existing type of theatre, for example a full-length play or Broadway-style musical such as
Spontaneous Broadway. Longform improvisation is especially performed in Chicagoand New York City. Perhaps the best-known, and considered the first, longform structure is the Harold, developed by ImprovOlympiccofounder Del Close. Many such longform structures now exist.
Improvised performance is as old as performance itself. From the 1500s to the 1700s,
Commedia dell'arteperformers improvised in the streets of Italy [Claudon, David. " [http://www.davidclaudon.com/arte/commedia.html A Thumbnail History of Commedia Dell' arte] ." 2003] and in the 1890s theatrical theorists and directors such as Konstantin Stanislavskiand Jacques Copeau, founders of two major streams of acting theory, both heavily utilised improvisation in acting training and rehearsal. ["Twentieth Century Acting Training". ed. Alison Hodge. New York: Routledge, 2000.]
While some people credit
Dudley Riggsas the first vaudevillian to use audience suggestions to create improvised sketches, modern theatrical improvisation is generally accepted to have taken form in the classroom with the theatre games of Viola Spolinin the 1940s and Keith Johnstonein the 1950s. These rehearsal-room activities evolved quickly to an independent artform worthy of presentation before a paying audience.
Viola Spolin can probably be considered the American Grandmother of Improv. She influenced the first generation of Improv at
The Compass Playersin Chicago, which led to The Second City. Her son, Paul Sills, along with David Shepherd, started The Compass Players and Second City. They were among the first organised troupes in Chicago, Illinois and from their success, the modern Chicago improvisational comedy movement was spawned.
Much of the current "rules" of comedic improv were first formalized in Chicago in the late 1950s and early 1960s, initially among The Compass Players troupe. From most accounts
Elaine Maywas central to this intellectual effort. Mike Nichols, Ted Flicker, and Del Closewere her most frequent collaborators in this regard. When Second City opened its doors on December 16th, 1959, Viola Spolinbegan training new improvisers through a series of classes and exercises which became the cornerstone of modern improv training. By the mid 1960s, Viola's classes were handed over to her protégé, Jo Forsberg who further developed Viola's methods into a one-year course, which eventually became Players Workshop, the first official school of improvisation in the country. During this time Jo Forsberg trained many of the performers who went on to star on Second City stage.
Many of the original cast of
Saturday Night Livecame from The Second City and the franchise has produced such comedy stars as Mike Myers, Chris Farleyand John Belushi.
Simultaneously, Keith Johnstone's group "The Theatre Machine", which originated in
London, was touring Europe. This work gave birth to Theatresports, at first secretly in Keith's workshops, and eventually in public when Keith moved to Canada. Torontohas been home to a rich improv tradition.
Dick Chudnow(" Kentucky Fried Theater") founded ComedySportzin Milwaukee, WI. Expansion began with the addition of ComedySportz-Madison (WI), in 1985. The first Comedy League of America National Tournament was held in 1988, with 10 teams participating. The league is now known as World Comedy League and boasts a roster of 19 international cities.
In San Francisco,
The Committeetheater was active during the 1960s.
Modern political improvisation's roots include
Jerzy Grotowski's work in Poland during the late 1950s and early 1960s, Peter Brook's "happenings" in England during the late 1960s, Augusto Boal's "Forum Theatre" in South America in the early 1970s, and San Fransico's The Diggers' work in the 1960s. Some of this work led to pure improvisational performance styles, while others simply added to the theatrical vocabulary and were, on the whole, avant garde experiments. Joan Littlewood, the English actress and director who was active from the 1930s to 1970s, made extensive use of improv in developing plays for performance. However she was successfully prosecuted twice for allowing her actors to improvise in performance. Until 1968, British law required scripts to be approved by the Lord Chamberlain's Office. The department also sent inspectors to some performances to check that the approved script was complied with exactly.
Improvisational comedy on film and television
silent filmmakers such as Charlie Chaplinand Buster Keatonused improvisation in the making of their films, developing their gags while filming and altering the plot to fit. The Marx Brotherswere notorious for deviating from the script they were given, their ad libs often becoming part of the standard routine and making their way into their films.
Improv comedy techniques have also been used in film, television and stand-up comedy, notably the
mockumentaryfilms of director Christopher Guest, the recent HBOtelevision show " Curb Your Enthusiasm" created by Larry David, the UK Channel 4 and ABC television series " Whose Line Is It Anyway, "Nick Cannon's improv comedy show " Wild 'N Out", and most recently, " Thank God You're Here". In Canada, the long-running series " Train 48" was improvised from scripts which contained a minimal outline of each scene.
Psychology of improvisational theatre
In the field of the Psychology of
Consciousness, [http://www.psychodrama.vhs-wangen.de/english.htm Eberhard Scheiffele] explored the altered state of consciousness experienced by actors and improvisers in his scholarly paper: [http://taylorandfrancis.metapress.com/content/b0c8lr8tffbw49wq/ Acting: an altered state of consciousness] . According to G. WIlliam Farthing in "The Psychology of Consciousness"(see [http://sci-con.org/2004/12/levels-of-consciousness/ comparative study] ), actors (in performance, drama classes, or in psychodrama) routinely enter into an altered state of consciousness (ASC). Acting is seen as altering most of the 14 dimensions of changed subjective experience which characterise ASCs according to Farthing, namely: attention, perception, imagery and fantasy, inner speech, memory, higher-level thought processes, meaning or significance of experiences, time experience, emotional feeling and expression, level of arousal, self-control, suggestibility, body image, and sense of personal identity.
Improvisational theatre allows an interactive relationship with the audience. Improv groups frequently solicit suggestions from the audience as a source of inspiration, a way of getting the audience involved, and as a means of proving that the performance is not scripted. That charge is sometimes aimed at the masters of the art, whose performances can seem so detailed that viewers may suspect the scenes were planned.
In order for an improvised
sceneto be successful, the actors involved must work together responsively to define the parameters and action of the scene, in a process of co-creation. With each spoken word or action in the scene, an actor makes an "offer", meaning that he or she defines some element of the reality of the scene. This might include giving another character a name, identifying a relationship, location, or using mime to define the physical environment. These activities are also known as "endowment". It is the responsibility of the other actors to accept the offers that their fellow performers make; to not do so is known as blocking, negation, or denial, which usually prevents the scene from developing. Some performers may deliberately block (or otherwise break out of character) for comedic effect -- this is known as "gagging" -- but this generally prevents the scene from advancing and is frowned upon by many improvisers. Accepting an offer is usually accompanied by adding a new offer, often building on the earlier one; this is a process improvisers refer to as "Yes, And..." and is considered the cornerstone of improvisational technique. Every new piece of information added helps the actors to refine their characters and progress the action of the scene.
The unscripted nature of improv also implies no predetermined knowledge about the props that might be useful in a scene. Improv companies may have at their disposal some number of readily accessible props that can be called upon at a moment's notice, but many improvisers eschew props in favor of the infinite possibilities available through mime. In improv, this is more commonly known as 'space object work' or 'space work', not 'mime'. And the props and locations created by this technique, as 'space objects'. As with all improv "offers", actors are encouraged to respect the validity and continuity of the imaginary environment defined by themselves and their fellow performers; this means, for example, taking care not to walk through the table or "miraculously" survive multiple bullet wounds from another improviser's gun.
Because improv actors may be required to play a variety of roles without preparation, they need to be able to construct characters quickly with physicality,
gestures, accents, voice changes, or other techniques as demanded by the situation. The actor may be called upon to play a character of a different age or sex. Character motivations are an important part of successful improv scenes, and improv actors must therefore attempt to act according to the objectives that they believe their character seeks.
Many theatre troupes are devoted to staging improvisational performances and growing the improv community through their training centres. One of the most widespread is the international organization Theatresports, which was founded by
Keith Johnstone, an English director who wrote what many consider to be the seminal work on the relationship between status, story telling and improvisational acting, "Impro". There are also many independent companies around the world; a non-exhaustive but lengthy list is available [http://www.fuzzyco.com/improv/groups.html here] . In addition to for-profit theatre troupes, there are several college-based improv groups in the United States that are becoming popularized as a result of programs such as Whose Line is it Anyway?.
In Europe the special contribution to the theatre of the abstract, the surreal, the irrational and the subconscious have been part of the stage tradition for centuries. From the 1990s onwards a growing number of European improv groups have been set up specifically to explore the possibilities offered by the use of the abstract in improvised performance, including dance, movement, sound, music, mask work, lighting, and so on. These groups are not especially interested in comedy, either as a technique or as an effect, but rather in expanding the improv genre so as to incorporate techniques and approaches that have long been a legitimate part of European theatre.
Some key figures in the development of improvisational theatre are
Avery Schreiber, Viola Spolinand her son Paul Sills, founder of Chicago's famed Second City troupe and originator of Theater Games, and Del Close, founder of ImprovOlympic(along with Charna Halpern) and creator of the longformimprov known as The Harold. Other luminaries include Keith Johnstone, the British teacher and writer–author of Impro, who founded the Theatre Machineand whose teachings form the foundation of the popular shortform Theatresportsformat, and Dick Chudnow, founder of ComedySportzwhich evolved its family-friendly show format from Johnstone's Theatersports.
Jonathan Foxfounded Playback Theatre, a form of improvised community theatre which is often not comedic and replays stories as shared by members of the audience. The Groundlingsis a popular and influential improv theatre and training center in Los Angeles, California.
In the late 1990s, Matt Besser, Matt Walsh, Ian Roberts, and Amy Poehler founded the
Upright Citizens Brigade Theaterin New York and later they founded one in Los Angeles. The two theatres host a large improv school.
David Shepherd, with Paul Sills, founded the
The Compass Playersin Chicago. Shepherd was intent on developing a true "people's Theatre", and hoped to bring political drama to the stockyards. The Compass went on to play in numerous forms and companies, in a number of cities including NY and Hyannis, after the founding of The Second City. A number of Compass members were also founding members of The Second City. In the 1970s, Shepherd began experimenting with group-created videos. He is the author of "That Movie In Your Head", about these efforts. See Coleman, Janet, The Compass: The Improvisational Theatre that Revolutionized American Comedy Chicago, University Of Chicago Press; Reprint edition (November 1, 1991)
List of improvisational theatre companies
* Coleman, Janet. 1991. "The Compass: The Improvisational Theatre that Revolutionized American Comedy". Chicago: University Of Chicago Press.
* Johnstone, Keith. 1981. "Impro: Improvisation and the Theatre" Rev. ed. London: Methuen, 2007. ISBN 0713687010.
* Spolin, Viola. 1967. "Improvisation for the Theater". Third rev. ed. Evanston, Il.: Northwestern University Press, 1999. ISBN 081014008X.
* [http://www.unexpectedproductions.org/living_playbook.htm The Living Playbook] : online collection of improvisational games, by
Seattletroupe Unexpected Productions.
* [http://www.dukeimprov.com DUI] : official webpage of premiere college improvisational troupe, includes videos, bios, etc.
* [http://www.dangoldstein.com/howtoimprovise.html How to Be a Better Improviser] : an excellent primer on some of the basic precepts ("ground rules") of improv, by improviser and teacher
* [http://www.improvactor.com/Improv/improv-shakespeare.htm How To Improvise Shakespeare] A quick crash course on how to better improvise in the style of Shakespeare.
* [http://www.improvoker.com Improvoker] features stories, thoughts, and ideas about longform improvisational comedy by improvisers.
* [http://www.yesand.com YesAnd.com] features improv news, resources and message boards.
* The [http://www.improvresourcecenter.com Improv Resource Center] is a community site for dedicated improvisers in Chicago, New York and other parts of the United States.
* [http://www.learnimprov.com Learn Improv] List of improv warm-ups, exercises, and handles.
* [http://www.coderedimprov.com/advice.html Tips for New Improv Troupes] This page includes both improv and business advice for comedians who want to start an improv troupe.
* [http://www.imprology.com The Far Games] Improv games and workshops formats to get wise or laugh trying
* [http://www.ludusludius.co.uk Ludus Ludius] Creating theatre through improvised playfulness
* [http://www.pantheater.com/Articles/RulesImprovPartI.htm Basic Improv Rules] Some basic "rules" for improvisational theater from Pan Theater.
* [http://www.forum-improvisation.net forum improvisation] Platform for international improvisational theatre around the world, possibility to add own data.
* [http://www.impro.infini.fr Impro.infini] French improv
* [http://coldtownetheater.com ColdTowne Theater] Improv Classes, shows, and workshops in the heart of Texas.
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