Some offal dishes, like pâté, are considered gourmet food.
Offal can also be a cheaper type of food that may be considered taboo in some cultures. Here heads, brains, trotters and tripe for sale in an Istanbul meat market.

Offal /ˈɒfəl/[1], also called, especially in the United States, variety meats or organ meats, refers to the internal organs and entrails of a butchered animal. The word does not refer to a particular list of edible organs, which varies by culture and region, but includes most internal organs other than muscle and bone. As an English mass noun, the term "offal" is used in the same form for singular and plural. Some cultures shy away from offal as food, while others use it as everyday food, or in delicacies.

Some offal dishes are considered gourmet food in international cuisine. This includes foie gras, pâté and sweetbreads. Other offal dishes remain part of traditional regional cuisine and may be consumed especially in connection with holidays. This includes Scottish haggis, Jewish chopped liver, Southern U.S. and African-American chitterlings, as well as many other dishes. Intestines are used as casing for sausages, although cheaper types may use artificial casing.

Depending on the context, offal may refer to those parts of an animal carcass discarded after butchering or skinning; it may also refer to the by-products of milled grains, such as corn or wheat.[2]. Offal not used directly for human or animal food is often processed in a rendering plant, producing material that is used for fertilizer or fuel; or in some cases, it may be added to commercially produced pet food.

In earlier times, mobs sometimes threw offal and other rubbish at condemned criminals as a show of public disapproval:[3]

In 1809 Richard Thomas Dudman and Edward Wood were convicted of a "conspiracy" to commit sodomy, and sentenced to two years' imprisonment and to stand for one hour in the pillory, where they were pelted with offal supplied by the butchers of Newgate and Fleet Markets.



The word shares its etymology with several German words: Abfall (offall in some Western German dialects), afval in Dutch and Afrikaans, avfall in Norwegian and Swedish, and affald in Danish. These Germanic words all mean "garbage", or—literally—"off-fall", referring to that which has fallen off during butchering. However, these words are not used to refer to food. For instance, the German word for offal is Innereien.


Calves' heads in a tripe shop

In some parts of Europe, scrotum, brain, chitterlings (pig's small intestine), trotters (feet), heart, head (of pigs, calves, sheep and lamb), kidney, liver, spleen, "lights" (lung), sweetbreads (thymus or pancreas), fries (testicles), tongue, snout (nose), tripe (reticulum) and maws (stomach) from various mammals are common menu items.

United Kingdom

The traditional Scottish haggis consists of sheep stomach stuffed with a boiled mix of liver, heart, lungs, rolled oats and other ingredients. In the English Midlands, faggots are made from ground or minced pig offal (mainly liver and cheek), bread, herbs and onion wrapped in pig's caul. Steak and kidney pie (typically featuring veal or beef kidneys) is widely known and enjoyed in Britain and Ireland. Brawn is a British English term for "head cheese", or the collection of meat and tissue found on an animal's skull (typically a pig) that is cooked, chilled and set in gelatin. Another British and Irish food is black pudding, consisting of congealed pig's blood with oatmeal made into sausage-like links with pig intestine as a casing, then boiled and is usually fried on preparation. The jelly in Melton Mowbray pork pies is made from pig trotters. Pressed and sliced ox tongue remains popular for use in sandwiches. Luncheon Tongue refers to reformed pork tongue pieces. Both kinds of tongue are found in tinned form and in slices. Home pressing and cooking of tongue has become less common over the last fifty years. Bleached tripe was a popular dish in Northern England with many specialist tripe shops in industrial areas: these too have almost all closed.

Nordic countries

A serving of smalahove at Voss, Norway

In Norway the smalahove is a traditional dish, usually eaten around and before Christmas time, made from a sheep's head. The skin and fleece of the head is torched, the brain removed, and the head is salted, sometimes smoked, and dried. The head is boiled for about 3 hours and served with mashed rutabaga/swede and potatoes. The ear and eye (one half of a head is one serving) are normally eaten first, as they are the fattiest area and must be eaten warm.The head is often eaten from the front to the back, working around the bones of the skull. Smalahove is considered by some to be unappealing or even repulsive. It is mostly enjoyed by enthusiasts, and is often served to tourists and more adventurous visitors.

Other Norwegian specialities include Smalaføtter, which is a traditional dish similar to Smalahove, but instead of a sheep's head it is made of lamb's feet. Syltelabb is boiled, salt-cured pig's trotter, and is known as a Christmas delicacy for enthusiasts. Syltelabb is usually sold cooked and salted. In 2006 the World Cup in Syltelabb eating was held in Brokelandsheia Norway where Norwegian comedian Kristopher Schau participated.

In Denmark a version of liver pâté, known as "leverpostej" in Danish, used as a spread (often in an open sandwich on rye bread) is considered a national dish. The most common main ingredients of leverpostej are pork liver, lard and anchovies, but numerous alternative recipes exist. The 5.5 million Danes consume roughly 14,000 tons of leverpostej per year, the most popular commercial brand being Stryhn's.[4] Versions of brawn (often served on rye bread as an open sandwich with garnish of dijon mustard and pickled beetroot) and blood sausage (served pan-fried with muscovado) are eaten mainly during wintertime, e.g. as part of the traditional Danish Christmas lunch or "julefrokost".

Svið served with mashed potatoes and mashed turnips at BSÍ in Reykjavík.

Iceland has its own version of both haggis and brawn. The Icelandic haggis called "slátur" (slaughter) is made in two versions: "Blóðmör" (bloodlard), a sheep's stomach stuffed with a mixture of sheep's blood, rolled oats and cut up bits of sheep's fat, and "lifrarpylsa" (liver sausage), which consists of sheep stomach stuffed with a mixture of ground lamb's liver, rolled oats and cut-up bits of mutton. The Icelandic brawn "Svið" is made from singed sheep heads, and it is eaten either hot or cold off the bone or set in gelatin.

Sweden has a version of the British black pudding called "blodpudding" (blood pudding) and the Dutch also have their version of black pudding, called "Bloedworst" (bloodsausage). The Scottish haggis is called "pölsa" or "lungmos" (mashed lung). The Swedish "pölsa" is made of some offal like liver or heart, onions, rolled barley and spices and is served with boiled potatoes, fried eggs and sliced beetroot. "Blodpudding" is mostly served sliced and fried with lingonberry preserve, grated carrot and fried bacon. Other popular offal dishes are "levergryta" (liver stew) "leverpastej" (liver pâté).

Finland also has its own version of black pudding, mustamakkara (black sausage). There is also liver sausage, usually eaten as a spread on bread, similarly to the Danish leverpostej. Liver is also eaten in various other forms including fried slices and minced liver patties. Liver casserole, traditionally made with minced liver, rice, butter, onions, egg, syrup and usually raisins, used to be mainly a Christmas dish, but is now available and eaten all year round. There are also many traditional and modern game recipes that use offal.

Western Europe

Kokoretsi on a spit
An uncooked small haggis

In France, the city of Lyon is well known for its Offal: Andouillette, Tablier de sapeur (Breaded Tripe), foie de veau, rognons à la crème, tripes... In Marseille, lamb's trotters and a package of lamb tripe are a traditional food under the name "pieds et paquets". In France, chitterlings sausage is regarded as a delicacy called andouillette.

Especially in southern Germany, some offal varieties are served in regional cuisine. The Bavarian expression Kronfleischküche includes skirt steak and offal as well, e.g. Milzwurst, a sausage containg small pieces of spleen, and even dishes based on udder. Swabia is famous for Saure Kutteln — sour tripes, served steaming hot with fried potatoes. Herzgulasch is a (formerly cheaper) type of goulash using heart. Liver is part of various recipes, such as some sorts of Knödel and Spätzle, and in Liverwurst. As a main dish, together with cooked sliced apple and onion rings, liver (Leber Berliner Art, liver Berlin style) is a famous recipe from the German capital. Helmut Kohl's preference for Saumagen was a challenge to various political visitors during his terms as German Chancellor. Markklößchen are small dumplings made with bone marrow; they are served as part of Hochzeitssuppe (wedding soup), a soup served at marriages in some German regions. In Bavaria, lung stew is served with Knödel, dumplings.

In Belgium several classic dishes include organ meat. Beef or veal tongue in tomato-Madeira sauce with mushrooms and kidneys in mustard cream sauce are probably the most famous ones. The famous "stoofvlees" or carbonade flamande, a beef stew with onions and brown beer, used to contain pieces of liver or kidney, to reduce the costs. Pork tongues are also eaten cold with bread and a vinaigrette with raw onions or some mustard.

Southern Europe

In Italy consumption of entrails and internal organs is quite widespread. Among the most popular preparations are fried or stewed brain; boiled stomach (trippa), often served with tomato sauce; lampredotto (the fourth stomach of the cow), boiled in broth and seasoned with parsley sauce and chili; liver (stir-fried with onions, roasted); kidneys; heart and coronaries (coratella or animelle); head, eyes, and testicles of pig; and several preparations based on chicken entrails. Pajata is a traditional dish from Rome. It refers to the intestines of an "un-weaned" calf, i.e., only fed on its mother's milk. The calf is killed soon after nursing. The intestines are cleaned, but the milk is left inside. When cooked, the combination of heat and the enzyme rennet in the intestines coagulates the milk and creates a sort of thick, creamy, cheese-like sauce. Pajata and tomatoes are often used to prepare a typical sauce for rigatoni. In Sicily, many enjoy a type of sandwich called "pani ca meusa", or bread with spleen and caciocavallo cheese. In the Italian neighborhoods of Brooklyn, New York, where it is also commonly eaten, it goes by the name 'vastedda'. In Norcia and other zones of Umbria, pig's bowels are also cured with herbs, chili pepper and spices, dried and smoked to make a tough, spicy sausage in which the bowel is the main ingredient instead of the casing as usual.

In Spain, the visceral organs are used in many traditional dishes, but the use of some of them is falling out of favor with the younger generations. Some traditional dishes are callos (cow tripe, very traditional in Madrid and Asturias), liver (often prepared with onion or with garlic and parsley, and also as breaded steaks), kidneys (often prepared with sherry wine or grilled), brains (of sheep), criadillas (bull testicles), braised cow's tongue, pig's head and feet (in Catalonia; pig feet are also traditionally eaten with snails), pork brains (part of the traditional 'tortilla sacromonte' in Granada) and pigs' ears (mostly in Galicia). There are also many varieties of blood sausage (morcilla), with flavours and textures ranging from very spicy to very mild. Some of the strongest are as hard in texture as chorizo or salami, while others are very soft, and some types include rice, giving the stuffing a haggis-like appearance. "Morcillas" are added to soups, or just boiled on their own, in which case the cooking liquid is discarded. They are sometimes grilled and rarely fried. Also coagulated, boiled blood is a typical dish in Valencia (cut into cubes and often prepared with onion and/or tomato sauce).

In Portugal traditionally, the whole animal's visceral organs are used in many dishes. Trotters (also known as chispe), tripe and pig's ears are cooked in bean broths. The cow's brain (Mioleira) is also a delicacy, although consumption has decreased since Creutzfeld-Jakob outbreak. The blood of the pig is used to produce a very peculiar form of black pudding known as farinhato that includes flour and seasonings. Chicken feet are also used in soups.

In Greece (and similarly in Turkey, Albania and the Republic of Macedonia), splinantero consists of liver, spleen, and small intestine, roasted over an open fire. A festive variety is kokoretsi (from Turkish kokoreç, Macedonian kukurek): pieces of lamb offal (liver, heart, lungs, spleen, kidney and fat) are pierced on a spit and covered by washed small intestine wound around in a tube-like fashion. The kokoretsi is then roasted over a coal fire. It is a traditional dish for Easter. Another traditional Easter food is magiritsa: a soup made with lamb offal and lettuce in a white sauce, eaten at midnight on Easter Sunday to break the fast of lent. Tzigerosarmas (from Turkish ciğer sarması, meaning "liver wrap") and gardoumba are two varieties of splinantero and kokoretsi made in different sizes and with extra spices to improve the taste.

Eastern Europe

In Romania, there is a dish similar to haggis called drob, which is served at Easter. Romanian peasants make a kind of traditional sausage from pork offal, called caltaboş -- the main difference being that drob is enclosed in abdominal membranes (prapore) of the animal, while chitterlings is used for caltaboş. A popular dish of tripe soup called ciorbă de burtă is similar to shkembe chorba (from Turkish işkembe çorbası). There is also a twofold variation on the concept of head cheese: piftie which does contain gelatin, is served cold and is usually only made from pork or beef (traditionally only pork), but does not contain as much head material (usually only the lower legs and ears are used since they contain large amounts of gelatin) and pacele which is exclusively made of meat and tissue found on the head (save for the eyes and usually only made from lamb; addition of brain and tongue varies by local habit). Pacele is made by first boiling the head whole (to soften the meat and make it easier to peel off) and then peeling/scraping off all meat and tissue from it. A generous amount of garlic or garlic juice (mujdei) is then added and the dish is served warm.

Finally, there are many dishes in Romania that are based on whole offal, such as: grilled pig and cow kidney (served with boiled or steam cooked vegetables—usually peas and carrot slices); butcher's brain (usually lamb's brains, rolled in batter and deep-fried); tongue and olives stew (mostly done with cow tongue) and many others.

The Armenian traditional dish known as khash is a traditional meal with inexpensive ingredients, originating in the Shirak region. The main ingredient in khash is pig's or cow's feet, although other animal parts, such as the ears and tripe, may also be used. Formerly a nutritious winter food for the poor, it is now considered a delicacy, and is enjoyed as a festive winter meal.

In Bulgaria, Republic of Macedonia and Turkey, shkembe chorba is a widespread soup variety made from tripe.

In Poland offal and blood are used to prepare kaszanka. It's a traditional blood sausage (now only somewhat popular) similar to black pudding, made of a mixture of pig's blood, pig offal and buckwheat or barley usually served fried with onions or grilled.

Latin America

Peruvian anticuchos

In some Latin American countries, such as Mexico, almost all internal parts and organs are consumed regularly. Chicken hearts, gizzards and livers are usually eaten fried or boiled, either alone, or in broth. Brainstem is served as soup, sopa de médula. The tongue is boiled to make tacos. Eyes are eaten as tacos de ojo. Tripas (intestines) are also eaten, but normally in tacos rather than stews. A popular dish is the "pancita", a stew of beef stomach. Tripe is also used to make menudo and mondongo. Cow's head is usually eaten as "Tacos de Cabeza", which include every part of the head: lips, cheeks, eyes, etc. Sheep's or goat's head are also eaten as part of the barbacoa, the "Montalayo" is dish made of chopped organs, spiced with Adobo, and cooked inside of the sheep stomach. This is known as "Menudo de Birria" in the Pacific states and is made with goat parts instead of sheep. Chopped carrots and potatoes can be added, as well as peas. Pork brains are considered a delicacy and are eaten in the deep fried Quezadillas de Sesos. Beef and pork liver are regularly eaten pan-fried with onion or breaded and deep-fried. The pork ears, feet and snout are pickled and eaten in tostadas. Elsewhere, as in Peru, beef heart is used for anticuchos - a sort of brochette.

In Brazil, churrasco (barbecue) often includes chicken hearts, roasted on a big skewer. The typical feijoada sometimes contains pork trimmings (ears, feet and tail). Gizzard stews, fried beef liver and beef stomach stews used to be more popular dishes in the past, but are nonetheless still consumed. Buchada, a popular dish from the northeast of the country, consists of the diced organs of a goat, which are seasoned and then sewn inside the goat's stomach and boiled.

In Argentina, Chile and Uruguay, the traditional asado is often made along with several offal types (called "Achuras"), like chinchulines and tripa gorda (chitterlings), mollejas (sweetbreads) and riñón (cow's kidney). Sesos (brains) are used to make ravioli stuffing. Tongue is usually boiled, sliced and marinated with a mixture of oil, vinegar, salt, chopped peppers and garlic. Ccriadillas (testicles) are eaten mostly in cattle-raising regions.


Kenyans eat a lot of meat in general.[citation needed] Sausage is made from the small intestine of a goat, cow or sheep, stuffed with chilli and small chunks of meat, fatty meat, and blood (although some people prefer the bloodless kind). In Kenya it is commonly referred to as 'mutura' which is the Kikuyu name for it. Sheep's or goat's stomach is also stuffed in a similar way.

In the Kikuyu traditions, grilled goat/sheep kidneys are a delicacy usually reserved for young ladies, although today, anybody can consume it. Similarly, the tongue was reserved for men and the ears were to be eaten by little girls. The testicles were for the young men. Liver is also consumed. The heads, lungs and hooves of animals are boiled to make soup and sometimes mixed with herbs for medicinal purposes.

In South Africa offal is enjoyed by South Africans of diverse backgrounds. Due to the popularity of this dish, it is one of the few customs that white (especially Afrikaners) and black South Africans share.

Offal dishes in South Africa do not usually consist of any organs and are mostly limited to stomach skin, sheep's head, shin and very rarely brains. Sheep's head has gained many nicknames over the years such as 'skobo' (township colloquial term meaning head) and 'smiley' (referring to the expression of the head when cooked).

There are numerous recipes to cook the above mentioned items available on many South African websites. One of the more popular way to cook offal in South Africa is to cook it with small potatoes in a curry sauce served on rice. Alternatively it can served with samp or maize rice.


Chinese lou mei, with pig ears (left), and jellyfish (right)
A bowl of dinuguan
Gulai otak, cow's or goat's brain curry
Gulai babat, cow's tripes curry
Cow's liver cooked as rendang
Padang style fried cow lung
Betawi style tendon soto

East Asia

In China, many organs and animal-parts are used for food or traditional Chinese medicine. Since pork is the most consumed meat in China, popular pork offal dishes include stir-fried pork kidneys with oyster sauce, ginger and scallions, "五更肠旺 - Wu Geng Chang Wang" a spicy stew with preserved mustard, tofu, pork intestine slices and congealed pork blood cubes. "炸肥肠 - Zha Fei Chang," deep fried pork intestine slices and dipped in a sweet bean sauce is commonly offered by street hawkers. Pork tongue slices with salt and sesame oil is also a popular dish, especially in Sichuan province. Braised pork ear strips in soy sauce, five-spice powder and sugar is a common "cold plate" appetizer available as hawker food or in major local supermarkets. Stir-fried pork kidneys and/or liver slices with oyster sauce, ginger and scallions or in soups is a regular dish in southern provinces. Pork blood soup is at least 1,000 years old since the Northern Song Dynasty, when the quintessential Chinese restaurant and eateries became popular. Pork blood soup and dumplings, jiaozi, were recorded as food for night labourers in Kaifeng. In Shanghai cuisine, the soup has evolved into the well-known “酸辣湯 — Suan La Tang”, Hot and Sour Soup, with various additional ingredients. As well as pork, the offal of other animals is used in traditional Chinese cooking, most commonly cattle, duck, and chicken.

Perhaps the best examples of taking offal dishes to culinary heights are seen in Hong Kong, where all Chinese regional cuisines converge. For example, shops of the Cantonese “燒味 — Siu mei”, Barbecue Delicacies, have achieved its foundation of influence here. Besides the popular cha siu and crispy skin pork, and all the other poultry, there are also the roasted chicken liver with honey, and the very traditional, and very expensive now, “金錢雞 — Gum Chin Gai”, another honey roasted dimsum that is a sandwich of a piece each of pork fat, pork/chicken liver, ginger and cha siu.

The use of offal in dim sum does not stop there. In dim sum restaurants, the feet of chicken, ducks and pork are offered in various cooking styles. For example, the pork feet in sweet vinegar stew is a popular bowl now besides its traditional function as supplement for postpartum mother care. Young ginger stems, boiled eggs, and blanched pork feet are stew in sweet black rice vinegar for a few hours to make this “豬腳薑 — Jui Kerk Gieng”. “鴨腳紮 — Ap Kerk Jat” is a piece each of ham, shiitake mushroom and deep fried fish maw wrapped with dried bean curd sheet in the duck feet and steamed. The use of fish offal in Cantonese cuisine is not limited to the maw. For example, there is the folksy dish of “東江魚雲煲 — Tung Gong Yu Wan Bo”, a casserole with the lips of fresh water large head fish; and shark fin soup.

In the more pragmatic folksy eateries, however, maximum utilization of the food resource is the traditional wisdom. The fish is completely made use of. Deep fried fish skin is a side dish in the fish ball noodle shop. The intestine is steamed with egg and other ingredients in the Hakka cuisine. The bones are wrapped in a cotton bag to boil in the soup for noodles.

Chaozhou cuisine shows its best manifestation also in Hong Kong. The goose meat, liver (foie gras), blood, intestine, feet, neck and tongue are all major ingredients to various dishes. There is also the must-try soup, pork stomach with whole pepper corns and pickled mustard.

The use of beef organs is classically represented in noodle shops here. Each respectable operation has its own recipe for preparing the stews of brisket, intestine, lung, and varieties of tripe. The big pots are often placed facing the street and next to the entrance such that the mouth-watering aroma is the best draw for the shop′s business.

Contrary to a common Westerners' disgust for these dishes due to cultural unfamiliarity and sanitary concerns, these offal items are very well cleaned. The pork intestines' tough inner skin (which is exposed to bolus and pre-fecal materials) is completely removed. Then, the intestine is exhaustively soaked, cleaned and rinsed. The nephrons of pork kidneys are skilfully excised, and the kidneys are soaked for several hours and cleaned.

The use of the pancreas, liver, kidney, gall bladder, lung and even bronchus of various farm animals together with herbs in Chinese medicine have strong empirical theories and studies are being conducted to try to understand their nature in modern scientific terms. However, there are other strange offal usages in folk practice. Taoist and rural folk beliefs have their influence. The idea of essences and energy, heat and cold, are key. Snake wine with a live snake heart is thought to promote stamina due to the "essences of energy and heat", which is derived from a snake's attributes, such as aggressive behavior (fiery) and venom (energy). When bears were more common in the Chinese northeast, bears claw and dried bear offal were used as medicines, seen as a source of vitality. Dry deer antlers are still a common medicine, thought to provide "yang energy" to complement the male sex and the tail, "yin energy" for the female sex. Extractions of animal penises and testes are still believed to contribute to better male performance and those of the embryo and uterus to the eternal youth of the female. However, these are being marginalized as synthetic hormones get more popular and affordable.

The Cantonese consumed monkey brains, but this is now rare to non-existent, and primarily offered to rich, Western tourists.

In Japan chicken offal is often skewered and grilled over charcoal as yakitori, to be served alongside drinks in an izakaya, a Japanese food-pub. Offal originating from cattle is also an ingredient in certain dishes (see yakiniku). However, Japanese culture mostly disdains offal use from large animals due to the lack of a long tradition of meat-eating, since Buddhist Japan was a largely vegetarian nation (except for the consumption of fish and seafood) prior to the late 19th century. During the Sino-Japanese War, Japanese troops took pigs from Chinese farmers and slaughtered the animals only for the major muscles (no head, feet and fully disemboweled).

In Korea, offal usage is very similar to mainland China but less frequent. Grilled intestine slices and pork blood are both consumed. Headcheese prepared with pork head meat was quite popular in the past. Steamed pork intestines are easy to be found in traditional markets. The popular traditional Korean sausage called soondae is steamed pork small intestines filled with pork blood, seasoned noodles, and vegetables. Pork feet steamed in a special stock are considered delicacy in Korea. Beef stomach and intestines are still quite popular for cooking. It is not difficult to find grilled chicken hearts, gizzards, and feet in traditional street bars. Medicinal usages are also similar to mainland China and less common with offal uses.

Southeast Asia

In Indonesia cow and goat internal organs are popular delicacies, it can be fried, made into soto soups or grilled as satay and almost all of the parts of the animal are eaten. Soto Betawi is known as the type of soto that uses various kinds of offals, while soto babat only uses tripes. Within Indonesian cuisine traditions, the Minangkabau cuisine (popularly known as "Padang food") are known for their fondnesss of offals, mostly are made into gulai (a type of curry) such as gulai otak (brain), gulai babat (tripes), gulai usus (intestine), gulai sumsum (bone marrow), also fried hati (liver) and limpa (spleen). The cartilage, skin and tendon parts of cow legs is also uses as dishes called tunjang, kaki sapi or kikil also can be made as gulai or soto. Cow's stomach (babat) and intestine (iso) are popular, fried or in soup, in Javanese cuisine. Cow's lung, called paru, coated with spices (turmeric and coriander) and fried is often eaten as a snack or side dish. Liver is also sometimes made into a spicy dish called rendang. Cow or goat tongue is sliced and fried, sometimes in a spicy sauce, or more often beef tongue are cooked as semur stew. Brain is sometimes consumed as soto or gulai. Cows and goat testicles popularly called torpedo are consumed too as satay or soto. Due to its rarity the testicles are among the most expensive offals in Indonesia. Giblets of chicken and duck are commonly consumed too.

In Malaysia, cow or goat lung, called paru, coated in turmeric and fried is often served as a side dish to rice, especially in the ever popular nasi lemak. Tripe is used in a few dishes either stir fried or in a gravy. Tripe is also consumed as satay. Liver is deep fried or stir fried in some vegetable dishes.

In Singapore, pig's organ soup is a common feature of hawker centres. Due to Singapore's proximity and ethnic makeup, many of the items written for Indonesia and Malaysia above are also found in Singapore.

In the Philippines, people eat practically every part of the pig, including snout, intestines, ears, and innards. Dinuguan is a particular type of blood-stew (depending on region) made using pig intestines, pork meat and sometimes ears and cheeks usually with a vinegar base, and green chili peppers. Bopis (bópiz in Spanish) is a spicy Filipino dish made out of pork lungs and heart sautéed in tomatoes, chilies and onions. Isaw is another treat enjoyed mostly in the Philippines which is a kebab made with pig's large intestine pieces barbecued and dipped in vinegar before eating. Crispy Pata is popular, consisting of pig's feet that have been boiled until tender, cut into pieces, and then deep fried.

South Asia

In Pakistan, the goat's brain (maghaz), feet (paey), head (siri), stomach (ojhari or but), tongue (zabaan), liver (kalayji), kidney (gurda), udder (kheeri) and testicles (kapooray) as well as chickens' heart and liver are enjoyed. One popular dish, Kata-Kat, is a combination of spices, brains, liver, kidneys and other organs. Beef offal is relished with the above mentioned parts regularly used in food, especially fried delicacies.

In India, lamb and goat brain sauted and stir fried with spices (often called bheja fry) is commonly available in all non-vegetarian restaurants. In Maharashtra, a strong-smelling dish called rakti, made of heavily spiced porcine offal and cartilaginous tissue, is considered a homely indulgence by the local Christian community (observant Muslims avoid pork products). However, the most popular offal is that of goats, especially in South India. Goat intestines are cooked into various spicy dishes, usually a dry curry with spices. Goat blood is also reduced to a dry stir fry with spices and coconut scrapings.

In Bangladesh, a bull's or goat's brain (mogoj), feet (paya), head (matha), stomach skin (bhuri), tongue (jib-ba), liver (kolija), kidney and heart are delicacies. Chickens' heart, gizzard (gi-la) and liver are also enjoyed.

In Nepal, a goat's brain (gidi), feet (khutta), head (tauko), stomach skin (bhudri), tongue (jibro), liver (kalejo), kidney, lungs(phokso), fried intestines (aandra), fried solidified blood (ragati) and to a lesser extent testicles are considered delicacies and are in very high demand in Dashain when families congregate and enjoy them with whiskey and beer. Chickens' heart and liver are also enjoyed but it is chicken's gizzards that are truly prized.

Middle East

In Lebanon, lamb brain is used in nikhaat dishes and sometimes as a sandwich filling. A tradition practiced less often today would be to eat fish eyes either raw, boiled, or fried. Another popular dish in the region surrounding is korouch which is rice-stuffed sheep intestine.

In Iran, tongue (zabaan), feet (paa) or Kaleh Pacheh, sheep liver (jigar), heart (qalb), lungs (shosh), testicles (dombalan) and kidneys are used as certain types of kebab and have a high popularity among people, as well as sheep intestines and stomach, though the latter is boiled. Sheep brains and tongue, alongside knee joints, as a formal breakfast dish called kale pache (lit. "head and leg"), are boiled in water with beans and eaten with traditional bread.

North America

United States

Although the term offal is used in the United Kingdom, in the United States the terms variety meats or organ meats are used instead.[5][6]

In the United States, the giblets of chickens, turkeys and ducks are much more commonly consumed than the organs of mammals, except for the liver, which is eaten quite commonly. Ground chicken livers, mixed with chicken fat and onions, called chopped liver, is a meal made with offal in the United States.

Some ethnic groups have traditional dishes made from lungs (such as lungen stew). Pepper Pot soup, frequently served in Philadelphia, is made from tripe (beef stomach).

Mammal offal is somewhat more popular in the American South, where some recipes include chitterlings, livers, brain, and hog maw. Scrapple, sometimes made from pork offal, is somewhat common in the Mid-Atlantic US, particularly in areas with Amish communities. Fried-brain sandwiches are a specialty in the Ohio River Valley. Traditional recipes for turkey gravy typically include the bird's giblets. Rocky Mountain oysters or prairie oysters (beef testicles) are a delicacy eaten in some cattle-raising parts of the western US and Canada. Turkey Fries (testicles) are served in restaurants in Nebraska.


In Australia offal is most commonly consumed in meat pies or in ethnic dishes.[citation needed]

Food standards require that products containing offal be labeled as such. The presence of brain, heart, kidney, liver, tongue or tripe must be declared either by specific type or more generally as offal. Other offal, such as blood, pancreas, spleen and thymus must be declared by name.[7]

Health and food safety issues

The offal of certain animals is unsafe to consume:

  • The internal organs of the fugu pufferfish are highly toxic — in Japan, fugu can only be prepared by trained master chefs, working under extremely strict regulations, sanitary conditions, and licensing. Even a residual portion of fugu toxin can be fatal.[8]
  • The liver of the polar bear is unsafe to eat because it is very high in vitamin A and can cause hypervitaminosis A, a dangerous disorder. This has been recognized since at least 1597 when Gerrit de Veer wrote in his diary that, while taking refuge in the winter in Nova Zemlya, he and his men became gravely ill after eating polar-bear liver. Seal liver is similarly toxic.[9]
  • Some animal intestines are very high in coliform bacteria and need to be washed and cooked thoroughly to be safe for eating.
  • Nervous system tissue can be contaminated with TSE prions, which cause bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, "mad cow disease"); in some jurisdictions these offal are classified as specified risk materials and are subject to special regulations.[10][11]
  • Offal very high in purines can precipitate[citation needed] an acute attack of gout in someone with the condition.
  • Offal can be very high in cholesterol and saturated fats, including kidneys, stomach, intestines, heart, tongue and liver.[12][13][14][15][16]
  • The practice of feeding raw offal to dogs on farms and ranches can spread echinococcosis, a potentially fatal parasitic disease of animals and humans.

See also


External links


  • McLagan, Jennifer. Odd Bits: How to Cook the Rest of the Animal. Berkeley, Calif.: Ten Speed Press, 2011.

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Look at other dictionaries:

  • offal — of fal, n. [Off + fall.] 1. The rejected or waste parts of any process, especially the inedible parts of a butchered animal, such as the viscera. [1913 Webster +PJC] 2. A dead body; carrion. Shak. [1913 Webster] 3. That which is thrown away as… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • offal — (n.) late 14c., waste parts, refuse, from OFF (Cf. off) + FALL (Cf. fall) (v.); the notion being that which falls off the butcher s block; perhaps a translation of M.Du. afval …   Etymology dictionary

  • offal — *refuse, waste, rubbish, trash, debris, garbage …   New Dictionary of Synonyms

  • offal — ► NOUN 1) the entrails and internal organs of an animal used as food. 2) decaying or waste matter. ORIGIN probably from Dutch afval, from af off + vallen to fall …   English terms dictionary

  • offal — [ôf′əl] n. [ME ofall, lit., off fall] 1. [with sing. or pl. v.] waste parts; esp., the entrails, etc. of a butchered animal 2. refuse; garbage …   English World dictionary

  • offal — /aw feuhl, of euhl/, n. 1. the parts of a butchered animal that are considered inedible by human beings; carrion. 2. the parts of a butchered animal removed in dressing; viscera. 3. refuse; rubbish; garbage. [1350 1400; ME, equiv. to of OFF + fal …   Universalium

  • offal — [14] Etymologically, offal is simply material that has ‘fallen off’. English borrowed the word from Middle Dutch afval, a compound formed from af ‘off’ and vallen ‘fall’ which denoted both the ‘extremities of animals cut off by the butcher, such… …   The Hutchinson dictionary of word origins

  • offal — [14] Etymologically, offal is simply material that has ‘fallen off’. English borrowed the word from Middle Dutch afval, a compound formed from af ‘off’ and vallen ‘fall’ which denoted both the ‘extremities of animals cut off by the butcher, such… …   Word origins

  • offal — [[t]ɒ̱f(ə)l, AM ɔ͟ːf(ə)l[/t]] N UNCOUNT Offal is the internal organs of animals, for example their hearts and livers, when they are cooked and eaten …   English dictionary

  • offal — subproduktas statusas Aprobuotas sritis mėsos produktai apibrėžtis Šviežia mėsa, išskyrus skerdeną, įskaitant vidaus organus ir kraują. atitikmenys: angl. offal vok. Nebenprodukt pranc. abats šaltinis 2004 m. balandžio 29 d. Europos Parlamento ir …   Lithuanian dictionary (lietuvių žodynas)

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