Satay or sate is a dish consisting of chunks or slices of dice-sized
meat( chicken, goat, mutton, beef, pork, fish, etc.) on bambooskewers (although the more authentic version uses skewers from the midrib of the coconut leaf). These are grilled or barbecued over a wood or charcoal fire, then served with various spicy seasonings (depends on satay recipe variants).
Satay may have originated in Java,
Indonesia, but it is also popular in many other Southeast Asian countries, such as: Malaysia, Singapore, and Thailand, as well as in The Netherlandswhich was influenced through its former colonies.
Satay is a very popular delicacy in Indonesia and Malaysia, with a rich variety among Indonesia’s diverse ethnic groups’ culinary art (see
Cuisine of Indonesia). In Indonesia, satay can be obtained from a traveling satay vendor, from a street-side tent- restaurant, in an upper-class restaurant, or during traditional celebration feasts. In Malaysia, satay is a popular dish - especially during celebrations - and can be found throughout the country. A close analog in Japanis yakitori. shish kebabfrom Turkey, chuanrfrom Chinaand sosatiefrom South Africaare also similar to satay.
Although recipes and ingredients vary from country to country, satay generally consists of chunks or slices of meat on
bambooor coconut-leaf-spine skewers, grilled over a wood or charcoalfire. Turmericis a compulsory ingredient used to marinate satay and to give it a characteristic yellow color, especially for beef, chicken, mutton and pork. Meats used include: beef, mutton, pork, venison, fish, shrimp, squid, chicken, and even tripe. Some have also used more exotic meats, such as turtle, crocodile, and snakemeat.
It may be served with a spicy
peanutsauce dip, or peanut gravy, slivers of onions and cucumbers, and ketupat(rice cakes).
Pork satay can be served in a
pineapple-based satay sauce or cucumber relish. An Indonesian version uses a soy-based dip.
Satay is not the same as the Vietnamese condiment, “sate”, which typically includes ground chili, onion, tomato, shrimp, oil, and nuts. Vietnamese sate is commonly served alongside noodle and noodle-soup dishes.
it was supposedly invented by
Javanese street vendors, based on the fact that satay only became popular after the early 19th century, when there was a major influx of Arab immigrants in the region. The satay meats popularly used by Indonesians and Malaysians, muttonand beef, are also traditionally favoured by Arabs and are not as popular in China as are pork and chicken. Conflicting accounts about the origins of satay hold that a Thai vagrant by the name of Art Kojaranchitt snr. invented the dish.
atay variants and outlets of note
Known as "sate" in Indonesian (and pronounced similar to the English), Indonesia is the home of satay, and satay is a widely renowned dish in almost all regions of Indonesia and is considered the
national dish. As a result, many variations have been developed throughout the Indonesian Archipelago.
Sate Lilit : Is an especialy Balinese sate, named lilit bicause people in Bali make it bay sorounding the mate ond the sate stick that name lilit. A lot people who come to Bali like to eat this special sate
; Sate Madura : Originating on the island of
Madura, near Java, is a famous variant among Indonesians. Most often made from mutton or chicken, the recipe's main characteristic is the black sauce made from indonesian sweet soy sauce/kecap manis mixed with palm sugar (called "gula jawa" or "javanese sugar" in Indonesia), garlic, deep fried shallots, peanut paste, fermented "terasi" (a kind of shrimp paste), candlenut/kemiri, and salt. "Sate Madura" uses thinner chunks of meat than other variants. It is eaten with rice or rice cakes wrapped in banana/coconut leaves (lontong/ketupat). Raw thinly sliced shallot and plain sambal are often served as condiments; Sate Padang : A dish from Padang and the surrounding area in West Sumatra, which is made from cow or goat offal boiled in spicy broth then grilled. Its main characteristic is yellow sauce made from rice flour mixed with spicy offal broth, turmeric, ginger, garlic, coriander, galangalroot, cumin, curry powder and salt. It is further separated into two sub-variants, the Pariamanand the Padang Panjang, which differ according to taste and the composition of their yellow sauces.; Sate Ponorogo : A variant of satay originating in Ponorogo, a town in East Java. It is made from sliced marinated chicken meat, and served with a sauce made of peanuts and chilli sauce and Garnished with shredded shallots, sambal(chili paste) and lime juice. This variant is unique for the fact that each skewer contains one large piece of chicken, rather than several small slices. The meat is marinated in spices and sweet soy sauce, in a process called "bacem" and is served with rice or lontong (rice cake).. The grill is made from terracotta earthenware with a hole in one side to allow ventilation for the coals. After three months of use, the earthenware grill disintegrates, and must be replaced. ; Sate Tegal : A sate of yearling or 5-month-old kid meat; the nickname for this dish in Tegal—balibul is an acronym of “just 5 months”. The skewer has four chunks — two pieces of meat, one piece of fat and then another piece of meat. It is grilled over wood charcoal until it is cooked between medium and well done; however it is possible to ask for medium rare. Sometimes the fat piece can be replaced with liver or heart or kidney. Each "kodi", or dish, contains twenty skewers. This is not marinated prior to grilling. On serving, it is accompanied by sweet soya sauce (medium sweetness, slightly thinned with boiled water), sliced fresh chilli, sliced raw shallots ("eschalot"), quartered green tomatoes, and steamed rice, and is sometimes garnished with fried shallots.; Sate Ambal : A satay variant from Ambal, Kebumen, Central Java. This satay uses a native breed of poultry, "ayam kampung". The sauce is not based on peanuts, but rather ground tempeh, chilli and spices. The chicken meat is marinated for about two hours to make the meat tastier. This satay is accompanied with ketupat.; Sate Blora : A variant originating in Blora, located in Central Java. This variant is made of chicken (meat and skin) pieces that are smaller compared to the other variants. It is normally eaten with peanut sauce, rice, and a traditional soup made of coconut milk and herbs. Sate Blora is grilled in front of buyers as they are eating. The buyers tell the vendor to stop grilling when they are finished with their meal.; Sate Lilit : A satay variant from Bali, a famous tourist destination. This satay is made from minced beef, chicken, fish, pork, or even turtle meat, which is then mixed with grated coconut, thick coconut milk, lemon juice, shallots, and pepper. Wound around bamboo, sugar cane or lemon grass sticks, it is then grilled on charcoal.; Sate Makassar : From a region in Southern Sulawesi, this satay is made from beef and cow offal marinated in sour carambolasauce. It has a unique sour and spicy taste. Unlike most satays, it is served without sauce.; Sate Maranggi (Satay Maranggi) : Commonly found in Purwakarta, Cianjurand Bandung, two cities in West Java, this satay is made from beef marinated in a special paste. The two most important elements of the paste are "kecombrang" ("Nicolaia speciosa") flower buds and "ketan" (sweet rice) flour. Nicola buds bring a unique aroma and a liquorice-like taste. It is served with ketan cake ("juadah").; Sate Susu (Milky Satay) : A tasty dish commonly found in Javaand Bali, made from grilled spicy beef brisket with a distinctive milky taste, served with hot chilli sauce.; Sate Kulit ( SkinSatay) : Found in Sumatra, this is a crisp satay made from marinated chicken skin.; Sate Kuda ( Horsemeat Satay): Locally known as “Sate Jaran”, this is made from horsemeat, a delicacy from Yogyakarta. It is served with sliced fresh shallots (small red onion), pepper, and sweet soy sauce.; Sate Bulus ( TurtleSatay) : Another rare delicacy from Yogyakarta. It is a satay made from freshwater “Bulus” (softshell turtle). It is served with sliced fresh shallots (small red onion), pepper, and sweet soy sauce. Bulus meat is also served in soup or Tongseng (Javanese style spicy-sweet soup).; Sate Babi ( PorkSatay) : A popular delicacy among the Indonesian Chinese community, most of whom do not share the Muslim prohibition against pork. This dish can be found in Chinatowns in Indonesian cities, especially around Glodok, Pecenongan, and Senen in the Jakartaarea.; Sate Bandeng ( MilkfishSatay): A unique delicacy from Banten. It is a satay made from boneless “Bandeng” ( milkfish). The seasoned spicy milkfish meat is separated from the small bones, then placed back into the milkfish skin, clipped by a bamboo stick, and grilled over charcoal.; Sate Torpedo ( TesticlesSatay) : Satay made from goat testicles marinated in soy sauce and grilled. It is eaten with peanut sauce, pickles, and hot white rice.; Sate Telor Muda (Young egg Satay) : This satay is made from immature chicken egg ("uritan") obtained upon slaughtering the hens. The immature eggs are boiled and put into skewers to be grilled as satay.; Sate Pusut : A delicacy from Lombok, the neighboring island east of Bali. It is made from a mixture of minced meat (beef, chicken, or fish), shredded coconutmeat, and spices. The mixture then is wrapped around a skewer and grilled over charcoal.; Sate Ampet : Another Lombokdelicacy. It is made from beef, cow’s intestines and other cow’s internal organs. The sauce for "sate ampet" is hot and spicy, which is no surprise since the island’s name, LombokMerah, means Red chili. The sauce is santan ( coconut milk) and spices.; Sate Belut ( EelSatay) : Another Lombokrare delicacy. It is made from belut, a native small eelcommonly found in watery rice paddies in Indonesia. A seasoned eel is skewered and wrapped around each skewer, then grilled over charcoal fire. So each skewer contains an individual small eel.; Sate Buntel (Wrapped Satay): A specialty from Solo or Surakarta, Central Java. It’s made from minced beef or goat (especially meats around ribs and belly area). The minced fatty meats are wrapped by thin fat or muscle membrane and wrapped around a bamboo skewer. The size of this satay is quite large, very similar to a middle eastern kebab. After being grilled on charcoal, the meat is separated from the skewer, cut into bite-size chunks, then served in sweet soy sauce and "merica" (pepper).; Sate Burung Ayam-ayaman (Bird Satay): The satay is made from gizzard, liver, and intestinesof “Burung Ayam-ayaman” (a migrating sea bird). After being seasoned with mild spices and stuck on a skewer, this bird’s internal organs aren’t grilled, but are deep fried in cooking oil instead.; Sate Ati ( LiverSatay): The satay is made from combinations of chicken liver, gizzard, and intestines. After seasoning, the internal organs are not fried or grilled, but are boiled instead. It’s not treated as a main dish, but often as side dish to accompany Bubur Ayam (chicken rice porridge).; Sate Banjar : A variant of satay popular in South Kalimantan, especially in the town of Banjarmasin.
Known as "sate" in Malay (and pronounced similarly to the English), it can be found throughout every state in Malaysia, in restaurants and on the street, with hawkers selling satay in food courts and
Pasar malam. While the popular kinds of satay are usually beef and chicken satays, different regions of Malaysia have developed their own unique variations of satay.
The famously known satay outlets are in Kajang, Selangor which dubbed as the Sate City in the country. Sate Haji Samuri is very popular in Kajang as well as throughout Malaysia. Many branches of Sate Kajang Haji Samuri offer chicken sate, beef sate, deer sate, rabbit sate, fish sate and many other variants.
Satay is one of the earliest foods to be associated with
Singaporesince the 1940s. Previously sold on makeshift roadside stalls and pushcarts, concerns over public health and the rapid development of the city led to a major consolidation of satay stalls at Beach Road in the 1950s, which came to be collectively called the " Satay Club". They were moved to the Esplanade Park in the 1960s, where they grew to the point of being constantly listed in tourism guides.
Open only after dark with an
al frescoconcept, the Satay Club defined how satay is served in Singapore since then, although they are also found across the island in most hawker stalls, modern food courts, and upscale restaurants at any time of the day. Moved several times around Esplanade Park due to development and land reclamation, the outlets finally left the area permanently to Clarke Quayin the late 1990s to make way for the building of the Esplanade - Theatres on the Bay.
Several competing satay hotspots have since emerged, with no one being able to lay claim to the reputation the Satay Club had at the Esplanade. While the name has been transferred to the Clarke Quay site, several stalls from the original Satay club have moved to
Sembawangin the north of the city. The satay stalls which opened at Lau Pa Satare popular with tourists. Served only at night when Boon Tat Streetis closed to vehicular traffic and the stalls and tables occupy the street, it mimics the open-air dining style of previous establishments.
Other notable outlets include the ones at
Newton Food Centre, East Coast Park Seafood Centreand Toa PayohCentral.
The common types of satay sold in Singapore include "Satay Ayam" (
chickensatay), "Satay Lembu" ( beefsatay), "Satay Kambing" ( muttonsatay), "Satay Perut" (beef intestine), and "Satay Babat" (beef tripe).
Singapore’s national carrier,
Singapore Airlines, also serves satay to its First and Raffles Class passengers as an appetizer.
Philippineshas two distinct styles of cooking satay. The first, which is native to the Hispanized peoples of Luzonand the Visayas, consists of mainly pork(sometimes chicken meat) marinated and then glazed with a thick sweet sauce consisting of soy sauceand banana ketchup, which gives the meat a reddish colour, and is then grilled. The marinating sauce has little affiliation to traditional satay recipes used in other regions, and rather derives from a fusion of the satay cooking method used by pre-Hispanized natives, and the development of a preference for sweet as opposed to savory, derived from extensive Chinese and Spanish culinary influences. Due to American influence, this version is simply called " Barbecue/Barbikyu". "Barbikyu" is usually served from street stands in major towns and cities,
The second style, called "Satti", is native to the
Moro peoples of the southern Philippines ( Mindanao, the Sulu Archipelago, southern Palawanand Tawi-Tawi), and is much more similar to traditional Malay and Indonesian "sate" recipes, including the preparation and cooking methods of the meat, an exception being that "satti" is served with a thick peanut infused soup as opposed to being served dry. Due to these areas being predominantly Muslim, the meats prepared for "Satti" is made from Halalmeats such as chicken("manok"), goat("kambing") and lamb("anak biri"). Well renowned by Tausug, Samaland Bajaulocals in the main southern Philippine cities of Zamboangaand Davao, "Satti" has not expanded into Christian dominated areas outside the region. Satti is served at restaurants and cafeteria outlets that specialize in the recipe.
* [http://thaifood.about.com/od/thairecipes/r/thaichickensate.htm Thai Chicken Satay Recipe (with Real Peanut Sauce)]
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