Fasting is primarily the act of willingly abstaining from some or all food, drink, or both, for a period of time. An absolute fast is normally defined as abstinence from all food and liquid for a defined period, usually a single day (24 hours), or several days. Other fasts may be only partially restrictive, limiting particular foods or substance. The fast may also be intermittent in nature. Fasting practices may preclude sexual intercourse and other activities as well as food.
In a physiological context, fasting may refer to (1) the metabolic status of a person who has not eaten overnight, and (2) to the metabolic state achieved after complete digestion and absorption of a meal. Several metabolic adjustments occur during fasting, and some diagnostic tests are used to determine a fasting state. For example, a person is assumed to be fasting after 8–12 hours. Metabolic changes toward the fasting state begin after absorption of a meal (typically 3–5 hours after a meal); "post-absorptive state" is synonymous with this usage, in contrast to the "post-prandial" state of ongoing digestion. A diagnostic fast refers to prolonged fasting (from 8–72 hours depending on age) conducted under observation for investigation of a problem, usually hypoglycemia. Finally, extended fasting has been recommended as therapy for various conditions by health professionals of most cultures, throughout history, from ancient to modern.
Glucose is the body's primary fuel source and is essential for the brain's functioning. When denied glucose for more than 4–8 hours, the body turns to the liver for glycogen, a storage form of glucose, to be used for fuel. A process called glycogenolysis converts glycogen into a usable form of fuel. At this point, the body also uses small amounts of protein to supplement this fuel. This fuel will last for up to 12 hours before the body needs to turn to glycogen stored in muscles, lasting for a few more days. If glucose is still denied at this point, muscle wasting is prevented by temporarily switching to fat as the fuel source, meaning fat is converted into ketone bodies through catabolism. Ketones, while not sugars, can be used by the brain as a fuel source as long as glucose is denied.
The body continues to use fat for as long as there is fat to consume. The body will generally indicate to the faster when fat levels are running extremely low (less than 7% and 10% of body weight for males and females, respectively) with an increased urge for food. Fasts are usually broken long before this point. If the fast is not broken, starvation begins to occur, as the body begins to use protein for fuel. Health complications associated with fast-induced starvation include electrolyte imbalances, thinning hair, lanugo, cardiac arrhythmia and renal failure. Death can occur if fasting is pursued to the point of complete starvation.
Research suggests there are major health benefits to caloric restriction. Benefits include reduced risks of cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, insulin resistance, immune disorders, and more generally, the slowing of the aging process, and the potential to increase maximum life span. According to Dr. Mark P. Mattson, chief of the laboratory of neurosciences at the US National Institute on Aging, fasting every other day (intermittent fasting) shows beneficial effects in mice as strong as those of caloric-restriction diets, and a small study conducted on humans at the University of Illinois indicates the same results  According to the US National Academy of Sciences, other health benefits include stress resistance, increased insulin sensitivity, reduced morbidity, and increased life span. Long-term studies in humans have not been conducted. However, short-term human trials showed benefits in weight loss. The side effect was that the participants felt cranky during the three week trial. According to the study conducted by Dr. Eric Ravussin, "Alternate-day fasting may be an alternative to prolonged diet restriction for increasing the life span".
Adherence to Greek Orthodox fasting periods contributes to an improvement in the blood lipid profile, including a decrease in total and LDL cholesterol, and a decrease in the LDL to HDL cholesterol ratio. A statistically insignificant reduction in HDL cholesterol was also observed. These results suggest a possible positive impact on the obesity levels of individuals who adhere to these fasting periods.
Changes in blood chemistry during fasting, in combination with certain medications, may have dangerous effects, such as increased chance of acetaminophen poisoning. Excessive fasting for calorie restrictive purposes, accompanied by intense fears of becoming overweight are associated with mental disturbances, including anorexia nervosa.
Buddhist monks and nuns following the Vinaya rules commonly do not eat each day after the noon meal. This is not considered a fast but rather a disciplined regimen aiding in meditation and good health.Once when the Buddha was touring in the region of Kasi together with a large sangha of monks he addressed them saying: 'I, monks, do not eat a meal in the evening. Not eating a meal in the evening I, monks, am aware of good health and of being without illness and of buoyancy and strength and living in comfort. Come, do you too, monks, not eat a meal in the evening. Not eating a meal in the evening you too, monks, will be aware of good health and..... and living in comfort.'
Fasting is not practiced by lay Buddhists because it is seen as a deviation from the Middle Path. This is because prior to attaining Buddhahood, prince Siddhartha practiced a regime of six years of strict austerity during which he consumed very little food. Henceforth, prince Siddhartha practiced moderation in eating which he later advocated for his disciples. However, on Uposatha days (roughly once a week) lay Buddhists are instructed to observe the eight precepts which includes refraining from eating after noon till the following morning. This eight precepts closely resemble the ten vinaya precepts for novice monks and nuns. The novice precepts are the same with the prohibition against handling money.
The Vajrayana practice of Nyung Ne is based on the tantric practice of Chenrezig. It is said that Chenrezig appeared to an Indian nun who had contracted leprosy and was on the verge of death. Chenrezig taught her the method of Nyung Ne in which one keeps the eight precepts on the first day, then refrains from both food and water on the second. Although seemingly against the Middle Way, this practice is to experience the negative karma of both oneself and all other sentient beings and, as such is seen to be of benefit. Other self-inflicted harm is discouraged.
The "acceptable fast" is discussed in the biblical Book of Isaiah, chapter 58:3-7. In essence, it means afflict the soul through abstaining from fulfilling the needs or wants of the flesh. The opening chapter of the Book of Daniel, vv. 8-16, describes a partial fast and its effects on the health of its observers.
Some denominations do not practice it, considering it an external observance, but many individual believers choose to observe fasts at various times at their own behest. The Lenten fast observed in the Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church is a forty-day partial fast to commemorate the fast observed by Christ during his temptation in the desert. This is similar to the partial fasting within the Ethiopian Orthodox Church (abstaining from meat and milk) which takes place during certain times of the year and lasts for weeks. The Bible sets aside one whole day a year for fasting, The Day of Atonement. Leviticus 23:27, 32 (CEV) says "Everyone must go without eating from the evening of the ninth to the evening of the tenth on the seventh month which is the Day of Atonement."
- Moses fasted for forty days and forty nights, twice back-to-back, without food or water; the first, immediately before he received the tablets on the mountain with God. And the second, after coming down, seeing the Israelites practicing idolatry, and breaking the tablets in anger. (Deuteronomy 9:7-21)
- King David fasted when the son of his adulterous union with Bathsheba was struck sick by God, in punishment for the adultery and for David's murder of Bathsheba's husband, Uriah the Hittite. Nevertheless, the son died, upon which David broke his fast (2 Samuel 12:15-25).
- David used fasting as an act of humbling his soul (Psalm 35:13).
- King Jehoshaphat proclaimed a fast throughout Judah for victory over the Moabites and Ammonites who were attacking them (2 Chronicles 20:3).
- The prophet Joel called for a fast to avert the judgment of God. (Book of Joel 1:14,2:12, 15)
- The people of Nineveh, in response to Jonah's prophecy, fasted to avert the judgment of God (Jonah 3:7).
- The Jews of Persia, following Mordechai's example, fasted because of the genocidal decree of Haman. Queen Esther declared a three-day fast for all the Jews prior to risking her life in visiting King Ahasuerus uninvited (Esther 4).
- The prophetess Anna, who proclaimed the baby Jesus to be the Messiah, prayed and fasted regularly in the Temple (Luke 2:37).
- Jesus fasted for forty days and forty nights while in the desert, being tempted by Satan to turn stones into bread and eat them, among other temptations. (Matthew 4:2, Luke 4:2).
- Jesus teaches on the outward appearance and demeanor of a fasting person (Matthew 6:16). It is also an assumed action of the believer (see: "And when you pray..." Matthew 6:5 - "When you fast..." Matthew 6:16)
- Saul, better known by the Greek variant of his name, Paul, did not eat or drink anything for three days after he converted on the road to Damascus. (Book of Acts 9:9)
- The church in Antioch were worshipping the Lord and fasting when the Holy Spirit told them to send Barnabas and Paul for work (Acts 13:2).
- Paul and Barnabus appointed elders with prayer and fasting (Acts 14:23).
- There are indications in the New Testament as well as from the Didache that members of an Early Christian Church fasted regularly.
- The prophet Isaiah chastised the Israelites in Isaiah 58 for the unrighteous methods and motives of their fasting. He clarified some of the best reasons for fasting and listed both physical and spiritual benefits that would result (Isaiah 58:3-13).
- Jesus warned his followers against fasting only to make others admire them. He provided practical steps on how to fast in private. (Matthew 6:16–18).
- The Pharisees and John's disciples in Jesus' time fasted regularly and asked Jesus why his disciples did not. Jesus answered them using a parable (Matthew 9:14-15, Mark 2:18-20, Luke 5:33-39, see also Mark 2).
- In some manuscripts Jesus ascribes the Disciples' inability to cast out spirits to a lack of prayer and fasting.9:29 These, however, are later manuscripts and the words "and fasting" are omitted from many modern translations.
For Roman Catholics, fasting is the reduction of one's intake of food to one full meal (which may not contain meat during Fridays in Lent) and two small meals (known liturgically as collations, taken in the morning and the evening), both of which together should not equal the large meal. Eating solid food between meals is not permitted. Fasting is required of the faithful between the ages of 18 and 59 on specified days. Complete abstinence, required of those 14 and older, is the avoidance of meat for the entire day. Partial abstinence prescribes that meat be taken only once during the course of the day.
Pope Pius XII had initially relaxed some of the regulations concerning fasting in 1956. In 1966, Pope Paul VI in his apostolic constitution Paenitemini, changed the strictly regulated Roman Catholic fasting requirements. He recommended that fasting be appropriate to the local economic situation, and that all Catholics voluntarily fast and abstain. In the United States, there are only two obligatory days of fast - Ash Wednesday and Good Friday. The Fridays of Lent are days of abstinence: eating meat is not allowed. Pastoral teachings since 1966 have urged voluntary fasting during Lent and voluntary abstinence on the other Fridays of the year. The regulations concerning such activities do not apply when the ability to work or the health of a person would be negatively affected.
Prior to the changes made by Pius XII and Paul VI, fasting and abstinence were more strictly regulated. The church had prescribed that Roman Catholics observe fasting and/or abstinence on a number of days throughout the year.
In addition to the fasts mentioned above, Roman Catholics must also observe the Eucharistic Fast, which involves taking nothing but water and medicines into the body for one hour before receiving the Eucharist. The ancient practice was to fast from midnight until Mass that day, but as Masses after noon and in the evening became common, this was soon modified to fasting for three hours. Current law requires merely one hour of eucharistic fast, although some Roman Catholics still abide by the older rules.
The Catholic Church has also promoted a Black Fast, in which in addition to water, bread is consumed. Typically, this form of fasting was only used by monks and other religious individuals who practice mortifications and asceticism, but all Catholics are invited to take part in it with the advice and consent of their Spiritual Director.
The Book of Common Prayer prescribes certain days as days for fasting and abstinence, but since the separation of the Church of England from the Roman Catholic Church, there have been no regulations prescribing the mode of observance for these days, nor is any distinction made between fasting and abstinence. Observance of fast days declined until the 19th century, when under the influence of the Oxford Movement many Anglicans began once again taking the prescribed fast days more seriously.
The Book of Common Prayer sets out the prescribed days as follows:
A Table of the Vigils, Fasts, and Days of Abstinence, to be Observed in the Year.
- The Evens or Vigils before:
- Note: if any of these Fast-Days fall upon a Monday, then the Vigil or Fast-Day shall be kept upon the Saturday, and not upon the Sunday next before it.
- Days of Fasting, or Abstinence.
- I. The Forty Days of Lent.
- II. The Ember-Days at the Four Seasons, being the Wednesday, Friday, and Saturday after the First Sunday in Lent, the Feast of Pentecost, September 14, and December 13.
- III. The Three Rogation Days, being the Monday, Tuesday, and Wednesday, before Holy Thursday, or the Ascension of our Lord.
- IV. All the Fridays in the Year, except Christmas Day.
In the process of revising the Book of Common Prayer in various parts of the Anglican Communion the specification of abstinence or fast for certain days has been retained, though because each province is free to set its own calendar, there is no universal Anglican rule for which days are fast days. Generally Lent and Fridays are set aside, though Fridays during the Easter season are sometimes avoided. Often the Ember Days or Rogation Days are also specified, and the eves of certain feasts.
Individual Anglicans are free to determine for themselves what particular measures of abstinence they will follow in the observance of these days, though certain parishes and dioceses are more encouraging of fasting than others. The Anglican Diocese of Sydney discourages its people from fasting during Lent.
Eastern Orthodoxy and Greek-Catholicism
For Eastern Orthodox and Greek-Catholic Christians, fasting is an important spiritual discipline, found in both the Old Testament and the New, and is tied to the principle in Orthodox theology of the synergy between the body (Greek: soma) and the soul (pnevma). That is to say, Orthodox Christians do not see a dichotomy between the body and the soul but rather consider them as a united whole, and they believe that what happens to one affects the other (this is known as the psychosomatic union between the body and the soul). Saint Gregory Palamas argued that man's body is not an enemy but a partner and collaborator with the soul. Christ, by taking a human body at the Incarnation, has made the flesh an inexhaustible source of sanctification. This same concept is also found in the much earlier homilies of Saint Macarius the Great.
Fasting can take up a significant portion of the calendar year. The purpose of fasting is not to suffer, but according to Sacred Tradition to guard against gluttony and impure thoughts, deeds and words. Fasting must always be accompanied by increased prayer and almsgiving (donating to a local charity, or directly to the poor, depending on circumstances). To engage in fasting without them is considered useless or even spiritually harmful. To repent of one's sins and to reach out in love to others is part and parcel of true fasting.
There are four fasting seasons, which include:
- Great Lent (40 days) and Holy Week (7 days),
- Nativity Fast (40 days),
- Apostles' Fast (variable length), and
- Dormition Fast (2 weeks)
Wednesdays and Fridays are also fast days throughout the year (with the exception of fast-free periods). In some Orthodox monasteries, Mondays are also observed as fast days (Mondays are dedicated to the Angels, and monasticism is called the "angelic life").
Other days occur which are always observed as fast days:
- The paramony or Eve of Christmas and of Theophany (Epiphany)
- Beheading of John the Baptist
- Exaltation of the Cross
Fasting during these times includes abstention from:
- animal products, all dairy products, and—with the exception of some specific days—fish,
- oil (interpreted variously as abstention from olive oil only, or as abstention from all cooking oils in general), and
- red wine (which is often interpreted as including all wine or alcoholic beverages)
- sexual activity (where fasting is pre-communion)
When a feast day occurs on a fast day, the fast is often mitigated (lessened) to some degree (though meat and dairy are never consumed on any fast day). For example the Feast of the Annunciation almost always occurs within the Great Lent in the Orthodox calendar: in this case fish (traditionally haddock fried in olive oil) is the main meal of the day.
There are two degrees of mitigation: allowance of wine and oil; and allowance of fish, wine and oil. The very young and very old, nursing mothers, the infirm, as well as those for whom fasting could endanger their health somehow, are exempt from the strictest fasting rules.
On weekdays of the first week of Great Lent, fasting is particularly severe, and many observe it by abstaining from all food for some period of time. According to strict observance, on the first five days (Monday through Friday) there are only two meals eaten, one on Wednesday and the other on Friday, both after the Presanctified Liturgy. Those who are unable to follow the strict observance may eat on Tuesday and Thursday (but not, if possible, on Monday) in the evening after Vespers, when they may take bread and water, or perhaps tea or fruit juice, but not a cooked meal. The same strict abstention is observed during Holy Week, except that a vegan meal with wine and oil is allowed on Great Thursday.
On Wednesday and Friday of the first week of Great Lent the meals which are taken consist of xerophagy (literally, "dry eating") i.e. boiled or raw vegetables, fruit, and nuts. In a number of monasteries, and in the homes of more devout laypeople, xerophagy is observed on every weekday (Monday through Friday) of Great Lent, except when wine and oil are allowed.
Those desiring to receive Holy Communion keep a total fast from all food and drink from midnight the night before (see Eucharistic discipline). The sole exception is the Communion offered at the Easter Sunday midnight liturgy, when all are expressly invited and encouraged to receive the Eucharist, regardless of whether they have kept the prescribed fast.
During certain festal times the rules of fasting are done away with entirely, and everyone in the church is encouraged to feast with due moderation, even on Wednesday and Friday. Fast-free days are as follows:
- Bright Week-the period from Pascha (Easter Sunday) through Thomas Sunday (the Sunday after Pascha), inclusive.
- The Afterfeast of Pentecost-the period from Pentecost Sunday until the Sunday of All Saints, inclusive.
- The period from the Nativity of the Lord until (but not including) the eve of the Theophany (Epiphany).
- The day of Theophany.
Oriental Orthodox Churches
With exception of the fifty days following Easter in the Coptic Orthodox Church fish is not allowed during Lent, or on Wednesdays, Fridays, and Baramon days. Other than that fish and shellfish are allowed during fasting days.
The discipline of fasting entails that, apart from Saturdays, Sundays, and holy feasts, one should keep a total fast from all food and drink from midnight the night before to a certain time in the day usually three o'clock in the afternoon (the hour Jesus died on the Cross). Also, it is preferred that one reduce one's daily intake of food (typically, by eating only one full meal a day).
The Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church has an especially rigorous fasting calendar.
Fasting in the Ethiopian Church implies abstention from food and drink. No animal products are consumed, including dairy, eggs, meat, and utensils that have touched such products must be washed before touching the strictly vegan foods that are consumed on fast days. During fast periods, Holy Liturgy (Mass) is held at noon (except on Saturdays and Sundays), and because no food can be consumed before communion, it is traditional for people to abstain from food until mass is over (around 2 to 3 in the afternoon). Every Wednesday and Friday are days of fasting because Wednesday is the day that the Lord was condemned and Friday is the day he was crucified (the Wednesdays and Fridays between Easter Sunday and Pentecost Sunday are an exception as well as when Christmas or Epiphany fall on a Wednesday or a Friday ). The fasts that are ordained in the canon of the Church of Ethiopia are:
- 1. Lent including Holy Week and the 10 day Fast of the Cross proclaimed by Byzantine Emperor Hereaclus (known as Hudadi, Abiye Tsom or Tsome Eyesus), 56 days.
- 2. Fast of the Apostles, 10–40 days, which the Apostles kept after they had received the Holy Spirit. It begins after Pentecost (known as Tsome Hwariat).
- 3. The fast of Assumption of the Holy Virgin, 16 days in August (known as Tsome Filseta).
- 4. Christmas Eve (Gahad ze Lidet) and The Eve of Epiphany, (Gahad ze Timket).
- 5. Advent, 40 days (Known as Tsome Gena that begin with "Sibket" on 15th Hedar and ends on Christmas Eve).
- 6. The fast of Nineveh, commemorating the preaching of Jonah. (On the Monday, Tuesday and Wednesday of the third week before Lent.
- 7. All Wednesdays and Fridays of the year except the ones that fall between Easter Sunday and Pentecost Sunday.
In addition to these, there is the fast of repentance which a person keeps after committing sin, it being imposed as a penance by the priest for seven days, forty days or one year. There is also a fast which a bishop keeps at the time he is consecrated. Also there are fasts that are widely observed but which have not been included in the canon of the church and which are therefore considered strictly optional such as the "Tsige Tsom" or Spring Fast, also known as "Kweskwam Tsom" which marks the exile of the Holy Family in Egypt.
Monks and nuns observe additional fast days not required of the laity. All persons above the age of 13 are expected to observe the church fasts. Most children over age 7 are expected to observe at least the Fast of the Assumption of the Holy Virgin. Dispensations are granted to those who are ill.
The total number of fasting days amounts to about 250 a year. While many observe the Coptic churches allowance for fish during the longer fasts, it has increasingly become practice in the Ethiopian Church to abstain from fish during all fasts.
In Protestantism, the continental reformers criticized fasting as a purely external observance that can never gain a person salvation. The Swiss Reformation of the "Third Reformer" Huldrych Zwingli began with an ostentatious public sausage-eating during Lent—though Zwingli himself did not partake of the sausage.
Other Protestants consider fasting, usually accompanied by prayer, to be an important part of their personal spiritual experience, apart from any liturgical tradition. The United Methodist Church fasts according to John Wesley's way of sundown to sundown on Mondays to Tuesdays and Thursdays to Fridays to promote discipline among Christ's followers.
The Lutheran Church strongly encourages fasting (similar to the Roman Catholic teaching). Fasting during Lent is encouraged in some Lutheran communities, specifically on Friday when food is limited to only one meal that day. It is also considered to be an appropriate physical preparation for partaking of the Eucharist, but fasting is not necessary for receiving the sacrament. Martin Luther wrote in his Small Catechism "Fasting and bodily preparation are certainly fine outward training, but a person who has faith in these words, 'given for you' and 'shed for you for the forgiveness of sin' is really worthy and well prepared.".
Classical Pentecostalism does not have set days of abstinence and lent, but individuals in the movement may feel they are being directed by the Holy Spirit to undertake either short or extended fasts. Although Pentecostalism has not classified different types of fasting, certain writers within the movement have done so. Arthur Wallis writes about the "Normal Fast" in which pure water alone is consumed. The "Black Fast" in which nothing, not even water, is consumed is also mentioned. Dr. Curtis Ward claims that undertaking a black fast beyond three days may lead to dehydration, may irreparably damage the kidneys, and result in possible death. He further notes that nowhere in the New Testament is it recorded that anyone ever undertook a black fast beyond three days and that one should follow this biblical guideline. Dr. Herbert Shelton advises that one should drink water according to natural thirst. In addition to the Normal Fast and the Black Fast, some undertake what is referred to as the Daniel Fast (or Partial Fast) in which only one type of food (e.g., fruit or fruit and non-starchy vegetables) is consumed. In a Daniel Fast, meat is almost always avoided, in following the example of Daniel and his friends' refusal to eat the meat of Gentiles, which had been offered to idols and not slaughtered in a kosher manner. In some circles of Pentecostals, the term "fast" is simply used, and the decision to drink water is determined on an individual basis. In other circles profuse amounts of pure water is advised to be consumed during the fasting period to aid the cleansing of internal toxins. Most Pentecostal writers on fasting concur with Dr. Mark Mattson who says that sensible intermittent fasting with a sensible water intake can strengthen the organism and assist thwarting degenerative diseases.
For Charismatic Christians fasting is undertaken at the leading of God. Fasting is done in order to seek a closer intimacy with God, as well as an act of petition. Some take up a regular fast of one or two days each week as a spiritual observance. Holiness movements, such as those started by John Wesley, Charles Wesley, and George Whitefield in the early days of Methodism, often practice such regular fasts as part of their regimen.
For members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, fasting is total abstinence from food and drink accompanied by prayer. Members are encouraged to fast on the first Sunday of each month, designated as Fast Sunday. During Fast Sunday, members fast for two consecutive meals for a total of 24 hours. The money saved by not having to purchase and prepare meals is donated to the church as a fast offering, which is then used to help people in need. The late LDS President Gordon B. Hinckley asked: “What would happen if the principles of fast day and the fast offering were observed throughout the world[?] The hungry would be fed, the naked clothed, the homeless sheltered. ... A new measure of concern and unselfishness would grow in the hearts of people everywhere.”
Fasting is also encouraged for members any time they desire to grow closer to Father in Heaven and to show self-mastery of spirit over body. Members may also implement personal, family or group fasts any time they desire to solicit special blessings from God, including health or comfort for themselves and/or others.
Individuals can also use fasting as a part of their repentance process or to show gratitude towards God.
Fasting is a very integral part of the Hindu religion. Individuals observe different kinds of fasts based on personal beliefs and local customs. Some are listed below.
- Some Hindus fast on certain days of the month such as Ekadasi, Pradosha, or Purnima.
- Certain days of the week are also set aside for fasting depending on personal belief and favorite deity. For example, devotees of Shiva tend to fast on Mondays, while devotees of Vishnu tend to fast on Thursdays.
- Tuesday fasting is common in southern India as well as northwestern India. In the south, it is believed that Tuesday is dedicated to Goddess Mariamman, a form of Goddess Shakti. Devotees eat before sunrise and drink only liquids between sunrise and sunset. In the North, Tuesday is dedicated to Lord Hanuman and devotees are allowed only to consume milk and fruit between sunrise and sunset.
- Thursday fasting is common among the Hindus of northern India. On Thursdays devotees listen to a story before opening their fast. On the Thursday fasters also worship Vrihaspati Mahadeva. They wear yellow clothes, and meals with yellow colour are preferred. Women worship the banana tree and water it. Food items are made with yellow-coloured ghee. Thursday is also dedicated to Guru and many Hindus who follow a guru will fast on this day.
- Fasting during religious festivals is also very common. Common examples are Maha Shivaratri (Most people conduct a strict fast on Maha Shivratri, not even consuming a drop of water ), or the nine days of Navratri (which occurs twice a year in the months of April and October/November during Vijayadashami just before Diwali, as per the Hindu calendar). Karwa Chauth is a form of fasting practiced in some parts of India where married women undertake a fast for the well-being, prosperity, and longevity of their husbands. The fast is broken after the wife views the moon through a sieve.
- In the state of Andhra Pradesh, the month of Kaarthika, which begins with the day after Deepavali is often a period of frequent (though not necessarily continuous) fasting for some people, especially women. Common occasions for fasting during this month include Mondays (for Lord Shiva), the full-moon day of Karthika and the occasion of Naagula Chaviti.
Methods of fasting also vary widely and cover a broad spectrum. If followed strictly, the person fasting does not partake any food or water from the previous day's sunset until 48 minutes after the following day's sunrise. Fasting can also mean limiting oneself to one meal during the day and/or abstaining from eating certain food types and/or eating only certain food types. In any case, even if the fasting Hindu is non-vegetarian, he/she is not supposed to eat or even touch any animal products (i.e., meat, eggs) on a day of fasting. (Milk is an exception for animal products).
In Sri Vidya, one is forbidden to fast because the Devi is within them, and starving would in return starve the god. The only exception in Srividya for fasting is on the anniversary of the day one's parents died.
Mahatma Gandhi employed fasting as a tool in "Satyagraha". In attempt to avoid elements of self and egoism Gandhi developed very clear rules of fasting. In essence, fasts were an expression of "suffering love". According to Bhikhu Parekh, in his book in the Past Masters series, Gandhi’s reasons for fasting were essentially fourfold:
- It was his way of expressing his own deep sense of sorrow at the way those he loved had disappointed him.
- It was his way, as their Leader, for atoning for their misdeeds.
- It was his last attempt to stir deep spiritual feelings in others and to appeal to their moral sense.
- It was his way of bringing the quarreling parties together.
In some specific periods of time (like Caturmasya, Ekadashi fasting...) it is said that one who fast on these days and properly doing spiritual practice on these days like associating with devotees (sadhu-sangha), chanting holy names of Hari (Vishnu, Narayana, Rama, Krishna...) (kirtanam) and similar (shravanam, kirtanam vishno...) may be delivered from sins which s/he accumulated for hundreds of lifetimes. On days like Krishna Janmashtami it is also said: "One who fasts, follows the Janmastami vow, and keeps an all-night vigil on this day becomes freed from the sins of ten million births. Of this there is no doubt." However, one who doesn't follow such vows is also to be considered a great sinner. So it is strongly advised that one celebrate such days like Ekadashi, Caturmasya, Janmashtami and other vaishnava holidays: "One who eats on Lord Krishna’s birthday is lowest of mankind. .. His pious credits of ten million births are at once destroyed. .. he becomes a vulture for ten billion births, a pig for a hundred births, a dog for a hundred births, and a jackal for a hundred births."
In Islam, fasting for a month is an obligatory practice during the holy month of Ramadan, from fajr (dawn), until the maghrib (dusk). Muslims are prohibited from eating, drinking (including water), and engaging in sexual activity. They are also encouraged to temper negative emotions such as anger and addiction. Fasting in the month of Ramadan is one of the Pillars of Islam, and thus one of the most important acts of Islamic worship. By fasting, whether during Ramadan or other times, a Muslim draws closer to God by abandoning body pleasures, such as food and drink. This makes the sincerity of their faith and their devotion to God (Arabic: Allah) all the more evident.
The Qur'an states that fasting was prescribed for those before them (i.e., the Jews and Christians) and that by fasting a Muslim gains taqwa, which can be described in one word as 'Godconsciousness' or 'Godwariness'. Fasting is believed to help promote chastity and humility and prevent sin, the outburst of uncontrolled lusts and desires and far-fetched hopes. To Muslims, fasting acts as a shield with which the Muslim protects him/herself from jahannam (hell).
Muslims believe that fasting is more than abstaining from food and drink. Fasting also includes abstaining from any falsehood in speech and action, abstaining from any ignorant and indecent speech, and from arguing, fighting, and having lustful thoughts. Therefore, fasting strengthens control of impulses and helps develop good behavior. During the sacred month of Ramadan, believers strive to purify body and soul and increase their taqwa (good deeds and God-consciousness). This purification of body and soul harmonizes the inner and outer spheres of an individual. Muslims aim to improve their body by reducing food intake and maintaining a healthier lifestyle. Overindulgence in food is discouraged and eating only enough to silence the pain of hunger is encouraged. Muslims believe they should be active, tending to all their commitments and never falling short of any duty. On a moral level, believers strive to attain the most virtuous characteristics and apply them to their daily situations. They try to show compassion, generosity and mercy to others, exercise patience, and control their anger. In essence, Muslims are trying to improve what they believe to be good moral character and habits.
For Muslims, fasting also inculcates a sense of fraternity and solidarity, as Muslims believe they are feeling and experiencing what their needy and hungry brothers and sisters are feeling. Those who are already poor and hungry are often considered exempt from fasting, as their condition renders them effectively fasting all the time; however, many still refrain from eating during the day. Moreover, Ramadan is a month of giving charity and sharing meals to break the fast together.
The Siyam is intended to teach Muslims patience and self-control, and to remind them of the less fortunate in the world. The fast is also seen as a debt owed by the Muslim to God. Faithful observance of the Siyam is believed to atone for personal faults and misdeeds, at least in part, and to help earn a place in paradise. It is also believed to be beneficial for personal conduct, that is, to help control impulses, passions and temper. The fast is also meant to provide time for meditation and to strengthen one's faith.
While fasting in the month of Ramadan is considered Fard (obligatory), Islam also prescribes certain days for non-obligatory, voluntary fasting, such as:
- The 13th, 14th, and 15th of every lunar month
- Each Monday and Thursday of a week
- Six days in the month of Shawwal (the month following Ramadan)
- Every other day, also known as the fast of the prophet David
- The Day of Ashura, which is the tenth day of Muharram as well as either a day before, or a day after (while the Sunni majority take part in this, Shi'ites refrain due to their sect-specific regard for the day as one of mourning.)
Fasting is forbidden on these days:
- Eid Fitr (1st Shawwal) and Eid Adha (10th Dhulhijjah)
- Tashriq (11th, 12th, 13th Dhulhijjah) in accordance with Sunni Islam.
- Eid Al Adha (10th of Dhu al-Hijjah in the Hijri (Islamic calendar)). (Not necessarily the belief of all sects and schools of thought within the body of Shia Islam as various Shi'ite sects have opposing views)
Although fasting at Ramadan is fard (obligatory), exceptions are made for persons in particular circumstances:
- Prepubescent children; though some parents will encourage their children to fast earlier for shorter periods, so the children get used to fasting.
- Unconditional vomiting because the food leaves through an unintentional part of the gut.
- Serious illness; the days lost to illness will have to be made up after recovery.
- If one is traveling but one must make up any days missed upon arriving at one's destination.
- A woman during her menstrual period; although she must count the days she missed and make them up later but before arrival of the next Ramadan.
- A woman till forty days after giving birth to child or miscarriage. But she must count the day she missed in Ramadan and make up later but before the arrival of the next Ramadan.
- An ill person or old person who is not physically able to fast. They should donate the amount of a normal person's diet for each day missed if they are financially capable.
- A mentally ill person.
- For elders who will not be able to fast, a lunch meal (or an equivalent amount of money) is to be donated to the poor or needy for each day of missed fasting.
There are many types of fasting in Jainism. One is called Chauvihar Upwas, in which no food or water may be consumed until sunrise the next day. Another is called Tivihar Upwas, in which no food may be consumed, but boiled water is allowed. The main goal of any type of fasting in Jainism is to achieve complete Non-Violence (दया, ahimsa) during that period. Fasting is usually done during Paryushana but can be done during other times. If one fasts for the eight days of Paryushana, it is called Atthai, and when it is for one month, it is known as Maskhamana. Also, it is common for Jains not to fast but only to limit their intake of food. When a person only eats lentils and tasteless food with salt and pepper as the only spices, the person is said to do Ayambil. There are other types of fasting in which a Jain eats only one meal a day, which is known as Ekassana. Similarly, another fast, called Beasana, allows for two meals a day. The goal of all these fastings is to decrease desire and passion for the physical world, and attain spirituality by meditation.
Self-starvation by fasting is known as Santhara and is supposed to help shed karma according to Jain philosophy. The ritual can be carried out to voluntary death. Supporters of the practice believe that santhara cannot be considered suicide, but rather something one does with full knowledge and intent, while suicide is viewed as emotional and hasty. Due to the prolonged nature of Santhara, the individual is given ample time to reflect on his or her life. The vow of Santhara is taken when one feels that one's life has served its purpose. The goal of Santhara is to purify the body and, with this, the individual strives to abandon desire.
Fasting for Jews means completely abstaining from food and drink, including water. Traditionally observant Jews fast six days of the year. With the exception of Yom Kippur, fasting is never permitted on Shabbat, for the commandment of keeping Shabbat is biblically ordained and overrides the later rabbinically instituted fast days. (The fast of the 10th of Teveth would also override the Sabbath, but the current calendar system prevents this from ever occurring.)
Yom Kippur is considered to be the most important day of the Jewish year and fasting as a means of repentance is expected of every Jewish man or woman above the age of bar mitzvah and bat mitzvah respectively. It is so important to fast on this day, that only those who would be put in mortal danger by fasting are exempt, such as the ill or frail (endangering a life is against a core principle of Judaism). Those that do eat on this day are encouraged to eat as little as possible at a time and to avoid a full meal. For some, fasting on Yom Kippur is considered more important than the prayers of this holy day. If one fasts, even if one is at home in bed, one is considered as having participated in the full religious service.
The second major day of fasting is Tisha B'Av, the day approximately 2500 years ago on which the Babylonians destroyed the first Holy Temple in Jerusalem, as well as on which the Romans destroyed the second Holy Temple in Jerusalem about 2000 years ago, and the Jews were banished from their homeland. Tisha B'Av ends a three-week mourning period beginning with the fast of the 17th of Tammuz. This is also the day when observant Jews remember the many tragedies which have befallen the Jewish people, including the Holocaust. The atmosphere of this fast is serious and deeply sad (in contrast to Yom Kippur which is a day of atonement.
Tisha B'Av and Yom Kippur are the major fasts and are observed from sunset to the following day's dusk. The remaining four fasts are considered minor and fasting is only observed from sunrise to dusk. Both men and women are expected to observe them, but a rabbi may give a dispensation if the fast represents too much of a hardship to a sick or weak person, or pregnant or nursing woman.
The four other public but minor fast days are:
- The Fast of Gedaliah on the day after Rosh Hashana
- The Fast of the 10th of Tevet
- The Fast of the 17th of Tammuz
- The Fast of Esther, which takes place immediately before Purim
There are other minor fast days, but these are not universally observed, and they include:
- "Bahab," (literally an acronym for "Monday, Thursday, Monday") the first two Mondays and first Thursday of the months Marcheshvan and Iyar (postponed by a week if Monday is the first of the month)
- "Yom Kippur Koton," (literally "Little Yom Kippur") the day before every Rosh Chodesh, moved back to Thursday if that day is Saturday
- The Fast of the Firstborn, on the day before Passover, which applies only to first-born sons; this obligation is usually avoided by participating in a siyum and ritual meal that takes precedence over fasting.
It is an Ashkenazic tradition for a bride and groom to fast on their wedding day before the ceremony as the day represents a personal Yom Kippur. In some congregations, repentance prayers that are said on Yom Kippur service are included by the bride and groom in their private prayers before the wedding ceremony.
Aside from these official days of fasting, Jews may take upon themselves personal or communal fasts, often to seek repentance in the face of tragedy or some impending calamity. For example, a fast is sometimes observed if a sefer torah is dropped. The length of the fast varies, and some Jews will reduce the length of the fast through tzedakah, or charitable acts. Mondays and Thursdays are considered especially auspicious days for fasting. Traditionally, one also fasted upon awakening from an unexpected bad dream although this tradition is rarely kept nowadays. In the time of the Talmud, drought seems to have been a particularly frequent inspiration for fasts. In modern times as well the Israeli Chief Rabbinate has occasionally declared fasts in periods of drought.
Judaism views three essential potential purposes of fasting, and a combination of some or all of these could apply to any given fast. One purpose in fasting is the achievement of atonement for sins and omissions in divine service. Fasting is not considered the primary means of acquiring atonement; rather, sincere regret for and rectification of a wrongdoing is key (see Isaiah, 58:1-13, which appropriately is read as the haftorah on Yom Kippur).
Nevertheless, fasting is conducive to atonement, for it tends to precipitate contrition (see Joel, 2:12-18). This is why the Bible requires fasting (literally self affliction) on Yom Kippur (see Leviticus, 23:27, 29,32; Numbers, 29:7; Tractate Yoma, 8:1; ibid. (Babylonian Talmud), 81a). Because, according to the Hebrew Bible, hardship and calamitous circumstances can occur as a result of wrongdoing (see, for example, Leviticus, 26:14-41), fasting is often undertaken by the community or by individuals to achieve atonement and avert catastrophe (see, for example, Esther 4:3,16; Jonah 3:7). Most of the Talmud's Tractate Ta'anit ("Fast[s]") is dedicated to the protocol involved in declaring and observing fast days.
The second purpose in fasting is commemorative mourning. Indeed, most communal fast days that are set permanently in the Jewish calendar fulfil this purpose. These fasts include: Tisha B'Av, Seventeenth of Tammuz, Tenth of Tevet (all of the three dedicated to mourning the loss of the destroyed Temple in Jerusalem), and the Fast of Gedaliah. The purpose of a fast of mourning is the demonstration that those fasting are impacted by and distraught over earlier loss. This serves to heighten appreciation of that which was lost. This is in line with Isaiah (66:10), who indicates that mourning over a loss leads to increased happiness upon return of the loss:
- Be glad with Jerusalem, and exult in her, all those who love her; rejoice with her in celebration, all those [who were] mourners over her.
The third purpose in fasting is commemorative gratitude. Since food and drink are corporeal needs, abstinence from them serves to provide a unique opportunity for focus on the spiritual. Indeed, the Midrash explains that fasting can potentially elevate one to the exalted level of the Mal'achay HaShareyt (ministering angels) (Pirkei d'Rabbi Eliezer, 46). This dedication is considered appropriate gratitude to God for providing salvation. Additionally, by refraining from such basic physical indulgence, one can more greatly appreciate the dependence of humanity on God, leading to appreciation of God's beneficence in sustaining His creations. Indeed, Jewish philosophy considers this appreciation one of the fundamental reasons for which God endowed mankind with such basic physical needs as food and drink. This is seen from the text of the blessing customarily recited after consuming snacks or drinks:
- You, Eternal One, are the Source of all blessing, our God, King of the universe, Creator of many souls, who gave needs for to all who You created, to give life through [fulfilling those needs] to every living soul. Blessed is the Life-giver to the universe.
In the Bahá'í Faith, fasting is observed from sunrise to sunset during the Bahá'í month of `Ala' (March 2-March 20). Bahá'u'lláh established the guidelines in the Kitáb-i-Aqdas. It is the complete abstaining from both food and drink during daylight hours(including abstaining from smoking). Consumption of prescribed medications is not restricted. Observing the fast is an individual obligation and is binding on Bahá'ís between 15 years (considered the age of maturity) and 70 years old. Exceptions to fasting include individuals younger than 15 or older than 70; those suffering illness; women who are pregnant, nursing, or menstruating; travellers who meet specific criteria; and individuals whose profession involves heavy labor and those who are very sick where fasting would be considered dangerous. For those involved in heavy labor, they are advised to eat in private and generally to have simpler and/or smaller meals than are normal.
Along with obligatory prayer, it is one of the greatest obligations of a Bahá'í. The guardian of the Bahá'í Faith, Shoghi Effendi, explains: "It is essentially a period of meditation and prayer, of spiritual recuperation, during which the believer must strive to make the necessary readjustments in his inner life, and to refresh and reinvigorate the spiritual forces latent in his soul. Its significance and purpose are, therefore, fundamentally spiritual in character. Fasting is symbolic, and a reminder of abstinence from selfish and carnal desires."
Sikhism does not promote fasting except for medical reasons. The Sikh Gurus discourage the devotee from engaging in this ritual as it "brings no spiritual benefit to the person". The Sikh holy Scripture, Sri Guru Granth Sahib tell us: "Fasting, daily rituals, and austere self-discipline - those who keep the practice of these, are rewarded with less than a shell." (Guru Granth Sahib page 216).
- The Bridegroom Fast - This fast was initiated by the leaders of the International House of Prayer, and is observed on the first Monday, Tuesday, and Wednesday of each month. Based on Matthew 9:15, its focus is intimacy with Christ, who is described in the Bible as the bridegroom of the Church. The fast is accompanied by services in Kansas City, which are freely accessible by webcast. It is observed largely in charismatic circles.
- Jeûne genevois (lit. "fast of Geneva") is a public holiday and day of fasting in the canton of Geneva, Switzerland, occurring on the Thursday following the first Sunday of September.
- Rael teaches fasting for one 24-hour period per week, to give rest to the digestive system.
Fasting is often indicated prior to surgery or other procedures that require general anesthetics, because of the risk of pulmonary aspiration of gastric contents after induction of anesthesia (i.e., vomiting and inhaling the vomit, causing life-threatening aspiration pneumonia). Additionally, certain medical tests, such as cholesterol testing (lipid panel) or certain blood glucose measurements require fasting for several hours so that a baseline can be established. In the case of cholesterol, fail to fast for a full 12 hours (including vitamins) will guarantee an elevated triglyceride measurement.
People near the end of their lives sometimes consciously refuse food and/or water. The term in the medical literature is patient refusal of nutrition and hydration.
Prolonged fasting also has a long, albeit controversial, history as a form of medical treatment. Since the 1900s, hundreds of thousands of human fasts have been supervised and recorded.
It has been shown in many empirical, scientific studies that fasting can improve health and help to eliminate a variety of diseases. Although some fasting methods use juice or various amounts of food, the health of such methods is questionable, according to Dr. Joel Fuhrman. A true fast, he contends, consists of an intake solely of water, and can last (healthily) for extended periods of time when undertaken with the correct knowledge. Any fasts of such nature should be preceded and followed by a healthy diet, and should also be supervised by a knowledgeable physician to make sure that deficiencies of any nutrients do not take place and detract from the healthful benefits of such a fast 
There are also recent studies on mice that show that fasting every other day while eating double the normal amount of food on non-fasting days can lead to improved insulin and blood sugar control, neuronal resistance to injury, and general health indicators. Punctuated fasting diets produced superior improvements compared with mice on 40% calorie restricted diets. Alternate-day calorie restriction may prolong lifespan and attenuate diseases associated with inflammation, oxidative stress and aging. Fasting has been shown to be an effective treatment for hypertension.
Many fasting protocols are used by integrative medicine practitioners as part of alleged detoxification or cleansing diets.
Fasting can be dangerous when the body is not able to perform gluconeogenesis. If the body is not in ketosis, then the brain and vital organs (which can burn either glucose or ketones) need 800 calories a day to have ample glucose. If less than 800 calories a day are consumed, the brain and vital organs are deprived of necessary glucose, causing damage and in some cases, death. Ideally these diets should be supervised by health care practitioners who are experienced with therapeutic fasts.
Fasting is often used as a tool to make a political statement, to protest, or to bring awareness to a cause. A hunger strike is a method of non-violent resistance in which participants fast as an act of political protest, or to provoke feelings of guilt, or to achieve a goal such as a policy change. A spiritual fast incorporates personal spiritual beliefs with the desire to express personal principles, commonly in the context of a social injustice.
Activists have also used fasting to bring attention to a cause and to pressure authority or government to act. For example, Canadian medical doctor and politician David Swann launched a seven-day fast in December 2007 to bring attention to the world's inaction on the humanitarian crisis in Darfur. On April 27, 2009, Mia Farrow began fasting for as long as possible to raise awareness about the crisis in Darfur; after 12 days she was advised to stop immediately by doctors. Richard Branson agreed to continue in her place, taking a 3 day fast. Congressman Donald M. Payne and recording artist and Switchfoot frontman Jon Foreman took on the fast after Branson finished on May 11.
In Northern Ireland in 1981, a prisoner, Bobby Sands, was part of the 1981 Irish hunger strike, protesting for better rights in prison. Sands had just been elected to the British Parliament and died after 66 days of not eating. His funeral was attended by 100,000 people and the strike ended only after 9 other men died. In all, ten men survived without food for 46 to 73 days, taking only water and salt.
In British India, the political and religious leader Mahatma Gandhi undertook several long fasts as political and social protests. Gandhi's fasts had a significant impact on the British Raj and the Indian population generally.
César Chávez undertook a number of spiritual fasts, including a 25 day fast in 1968 promoting the principle of nonviolence, and a fast of 'thanksgiving and hope' to prepare for pre-arranged civil disobedience by farm workers. Chávez regarded a spiritual fast as "a personal spiritual transformation". Other progressive campaigns have adopted the tactic. Anna Hazare also fasted sucessfully to reduce corruption in India and to bring lokpal bill. His fast was very succesful and got huge support from all parts of india. It was victory for Anna Hazare and a triumph for people's power at Delhi's historic Ramlila Maidan. When Union minister Vilasrao Deshmukh handed over a letter from Prime Minister Manmohan Singh conveying Parliament's resolution on Hazare's demands to him, history was made.
Twelve days after he began his hunger strike, the anti-corruption crusader announced he would call off his fast at 10 am on Sunday, but he added that the battle was only half won. He said what had happened in Parliament on Saturday was a victory of the people. He said this after Deshmukh read out the letter appealing to him to end his fast.
Hazare, flanked by his team, said the struggle will go on till the Lokpal becomes a reality. But for now, he said the people who had stood by his campaign should celebrate.
Hazare hailed the people of India, who supported him "day in day out" for 12 days in course of his fight against corruption. He also thanked all the MPs for passing the resolution on the Lokpal Bill.
"This is a victory of the people," Hazare said, adding, he would end his fast on Sunday in the presence of the people, "but with your permission".
He appealed to the people across the nation to celebrate the great moment in India's democratic history "peacefully". "Jashna manana hai magar shanti se (celebrate with soberity)," he said.
Team Anna asked people to come to Ramlila Maidan in large numbers to celebrate the occasion when he breaks his fast on Sunday.
- Anorexia mirabilis
- Anorexia nervosa
- Black Fast
- Break fast
- Calorie restriction
- Famine response
- Hunger strike
- Intermittent fasting
- Juice fasting
- Simple living
- Taboo food and drink
- Vegetarianism and religion
- ^ "Video of Olivia Cohen on the 1st day of first of three consecutive 40 day fasts". http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bY9_Qviei7g.
- ^ "Video of Olivia Cohen on the final day of 3rd of three consecutive 40 day fasts". http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jxX76bwgc08.
- ^ "Every Other Day Fasting May Reduce Cancer Risk". WorldHealth.net. 2005-03-23. http://www.worldhealth.net/news/every_other_day_fasting_may_reduce_cance. Retrieved 2010-10-18.
- ^ Woods, Michael (April 29, 2003). "Mice live longer fasting; How about humans?". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. http://www.post-gazette.com/healthscience/20030429lifehealthp2.asp.
- ^ "On-off fasting helps obese adults shed pounds". Reuters. November 12, 2009. http://www.reuters.com/article/healthNews/idUSTRE5AB4HM20091112.
- ^ USA (2002-10-18). "Intermittent fasting dissociates beneficial effects of dietary restriction on glucose metabolism and neuronal resistance to injury from calorie intake". Pubmedcentral.nih.gov. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=156352. Retrieved 2010-10-18.
- ^ "Study: Fasting improves health as much as cutting calories". USA Today. April 28, 2003. http://www.usatoday.com/news/health/2003-04-28-fasting_x.htm. Retrieved May 2, 2010.
- ^ "Alternate-day fasting in nonobese subjects". Ajcn.org. http://www.ajcn.org/cgi/content/full/81/1/69?ck=nck. Retrieved 2010-10-18.
- ^ Sarri, Katerina O. et al.. "Effects of Greek orthodox Christian church fasting on serum lipids and obesity". http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2458/3/16/. Retrieved 8 July 2007.
- ^ For example this increases the likelihood of acetaminophen poisoning, possibly because of depletion of hepatic glutathione reserves. Whitcomb, DC; Block, GD. (1994). "Association of acetaminophen hepatotoxicity with fasting and ethanol use". JAMA 272 (23): 1845–50.
- ^ "The Buddhist Monk's Discipline: Some Points Explained for Laypeople". Accesstoinsight.org. 2010-08-23. http://www.accesstoinsight.org/lib/authors/khantipalo/wheel130.html#food. Retrieved 2010-10-18.
- ^ "Kitagiri Sutta-Majjhima Nikaya". Urbandharma.org. http://www.urbandharma.org/udharma3/eating.html. Retrieved 2011-03-12.
- ^ a b Rudy Harderwijk (2011-02-06). "The Eight Mahayana Precepts". Viewonbuddhism.org. http://viewonbuddhism.org/resources/8_mahayana_precepts.html. Retrieved 2011-03-12.
- ^ For further information, see The Way to Buddhahood: Instructions from a Modern Chinese Master by Venerable Yin-shun.
- ^ a b c "Nyung Ne". Drepung.org. http://www.drepung.org/changing/retreats/nyung-ne-2009.htm. Retrieved 2011-03-12.
- ^ "Nyungne Retreat with Lama Dudjom Dorjee". Ktcdallas.org. http://www.ktcdallas.org/news/body/triple/triple.htm. Retrieved 2011-03-12.
- ^ Essential Nyung-Ne FAQ's and Handy hints[dead link]
- ^ [|Bhikkhu, Thanissaro] (2010-06-05). "Questions of Skill". Access to Insight. John T. Bullitt. http://www.accesstoinsight.org/lib/authors/thanissaro/questions.html. Retrieved 2011-06-07. "Each time you're about to act, ask yourself: "This action that I want to do: would it lead to self-harm, to the harm of others, or to both? Is it an unskillful action, with painful consequences, painful results?" If you foresee harm, don't follow through with it."
- ^ [|Harris, Elizabeth J.] (2010-06-07). "Violence and Disruption in Society: A Study of the Early Buddhist Texts". Access to Insight. John T. Bullitt. http://www.accesstoinsight.org/lib/authors/harris/wheel392.html. Retrieved 2011-06-07. "If you, Rahula, are desirous of doing a deed with the body, you should reflect on the deed with the body, thus: "That deed which I am desirous of doing with the body is a deed of the body that might conduce to the harm of self and that might conduce to the harm of others and that might conduce to the harm of both; this deed of body is unskilled (akusala), its yield is anguish, its result is anguish."
- ^ David Grumett and Rachel Muers, Theology on the Menu: Asceticism, Meat and Christian Diet (Routledge, 2010).
- ^ a b c d e Kallistos (Ware), Bishop; Mary, Mother (1978). The Lenten Triodion. South Canaan PA: St. Tikhon's Seminary Press (published 2002). pp. 35ff. ISBN 1-878997-51-3
- ^ a b Kallistos (Ware), Bishop (1964). The Orthodox Church. London: Penguin Books. pp. 75–77, 306ff. ISBN 0-14-020592-6
- ^ Gregory Palamas, Letter 234, I (Migne, Patrologia Graecae, 1361C)
- ^ Old Orthodox Prayer Book (2nd ed.). Erie PA: Russian Orthodox Church of the Nativity of Christ (Old Rite). 2001. pp. 349ff
- ^ Kallistos, Hieromonk Meditations and Directions Concerning Holy Communion http://www.stjamesok.org August 1991 retrieved 19 July 2010
- ^ [dead link]
- ^ ELCA Fasting. Retrieved 2010-02-03.
- ^ What is the holiest season of the Church Year?. Retrieved 2010-02-03.
- ^ An explanation of Luther's Small Catechism: The Sacrament of the Eucharist, section IV: Who receives the Sacrament worthily? (LCMS). Retrieved 2009-10-15.
- ^ a b Wallis, Arthur, God's Chosen Fast, Christian Literature Crusade (June 1986)
- ^ Johnson, William, The Fasting Movement, Bethesda Books, 2003
- ^ Shelton, Herbert, The Science and Fine Art of Fasting, American Natural Hygiene Society, Incorporate; 5th edition (August 1978)
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- ^ Janmastami One who fasts, follows the Janmastami vow, and keeps an all-night vigil on this day becomes freed from the sins of ten million births. Of this there is no doubt.
- ^ Janmastami One who eats on Lord Krishna’s birthday is lowest of mankind. His sinful reaction is like that of having raped his mother and murdered a hundred brahmanas. His pious credits of ten million births are at once destroyed. He become impure. He becomes unfit to worship the demigods or the pitas. At the end of his life he enters the hell called Kalasutra (the rope of time). As long as the sun and moon shine in the sky he is repeatedly (with constant new rebirths) devoured by giant worms with teeth sharp like spears. When his time in hell is over he rises to the earth, where he repeatedly becomes a worm in stool for sixty thousand years. Then he becomes a vulture for ten billion births, a pig for a hundred births, a dog for a hundred births, and a jackal for a hundred births. Then he becomes a snake for seven births and then a row for seven births. Then he takes birth as a human being, where he is unable to speak and where he becomes a leper, always suffering. Then he becomes a butcher and then a hunter of wild beasts. At the end he becomes a thief and a murderer, a man with no scruples. Then he becomes a washerman, then an oil-merchant, and then a professional brahmana, always impure at heart.
- ^ http://www.ramadan.co.uk/resources.php
- ^ Ismail Kamus (1993). Hidup Bertaqwa (2nd ed.). Kuala Lumpur: At Tafkir Enterprise. ISBN 9-839990-20-9.
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- ^ a b c Smith, Peter (2000). "fasting". A concise encyclopedia of the Bahá'í Faith. Oxford: Oneworld Publications. pp. 157. ISBN 1-85168-184-1.
- ^ Effendi, Shoghi (1973). Directives from the Guardian. Hawaii Bahá'í Publishing Trust. p. 28. http://reference.bahai.org/en/t/se/DG/dg-71.html#pg28.
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