Melbourne montage six frame infobox jpg.jpg
(From top left to bottom right) Melbourne city centre, Flinders Street Station, Shrine of Remembrance, Federation Square, Melbourne Cricket Ground, Royal Exhibition Building.
Melbourne is located in Australia
Population: 4,077,036(Metropolitan area)[1] (2nd)
Density: 1566/km² (4,055.9/sq mi) (Urban area; 2006)[2]
Established: 30 August 1835
Coordinates: 37°48′49″S 144°57′47″E / 37.81361°S 144.96306°E / -37.81361; 144.96306Coordinates: 37°48′49″S 144°57′47″E / 37.81361°S 144.96306°E / -37.81361; 144.96306
Elevation: 31 m (102 ft)
Area: 8806 km² (3,400.0 sq mi) (LGAs total)
Time zone:

 • Summer (DST)



LGA: 31 Municipalities across Greater Melbourne
County: Grant, Bourke, Mornington
State District: 54 electoral districts and regions
Federal Division: 23 Divisions
Mean max temp Mean min temp Annual rainfall
19.8 °C
68 °F
10.2 °C
50 °F
646.9 mm
25.5 in

Melbourne ([ˈmelbən, -bn̩], rhotically play /ˈmɛlbərn/[3][4]) is the capital and most populous city in the state of Victoria, and the second most populous city in Australia.[2] The Melbourne City Centre is the hub of the greater metropolitan area and the Census statistical division—of which "Melbourne" is the common name. As of June 2009, the greater geographical area had an approximate population of four million.[1][5] Inhabitants of Melbourne are called Melburnians.[6]

The metropolis is located on the large natural bay known as Port Phillip, with the city centre positioned at the estuary of the Yarra River (at the northern-most point of the bay).[7] The metropolitan area then extends south from the city centre, along the eastern and western shorelines of Port Phillip, and expands into the hinterland. The city centre is situated in the municipality known as the City of Melbourne, and the metropolitan area consists of a further 30 municipalities.[8]

Melbourne was founded in 1835 (47 years after the European settlement of Australia) by settlers from Van Diemen's Land.[9] It was named by governor Richard Bourke in 1837, in honour of William Lamb—the 2nd Viscount Melbourne.[9] Melbourne was officially declared a city by Queen Victoria in 1847.[10] In 1851, it became the capital city of the newly created colony of Victoria.[10] During the Victorian gold rush of the 1850s, it was transformed into one of the world's largest and wealthiest cities.[11] After the federation of Australia in 1901, it then served as the interim seat of government of the newly created nation of Australia until 1927.[12]

Melbourne is the birthplace of cultural institutions such as Australian film (as well as the world's first feature film),[13][14] Australian television,[15] Australian rules football,[16] the Australian impressionist art movement (known as the Heidelberg School)[17] and Australian dance styles such as New Vogue and the Melbourne Shuffle.[18][19] It is also a major centre for contemporary and traditional Australian music.[18] It is often referred to as the "cultural capital of Australia".[20] Melbourne was ranked as the world's most liveable city in the World's Most Livable Cities ratings by the Economist Group's Intelligence Unit in August, 2011.[21][22][23][24] It was also ranked in the top 10 Global University Cities by RMIT's Global University Cities Index (since 2006)[25][26][27] and the top 20 Global Innovation Cities by the 2thinknow Global Innovation Agency (since 2007).[28][29][30][31] The metropolis is also home to the world's largest tram network.[32] The main airport serving Melbourne is Melbourne Airport.


Early history and foundation

Melbourne Landing, 1840; watercolour by W. Liardet (1840)

Before the arrival of European settlers, the area was occupied for an estimated 31,000 to 40,000 years[33] by under 20,000[34] hunter-gatherers from three indigenous regional tribes: the Wurundjeri, Boonwurrung and Wathaurong.[35] The area was an important meeting place for the clans of the Kulin nation alliance, as well as a vital source of food and water.[36][37] The first European settlement in Victoria was established in 1803 on Sullivan Bay, near present-day Sorrento, but this settlement was abandoned due to a perceived lack of resources. It would be 30 years before another settlement was attempted.[38]

In May and June 1835, the area which is now central and northern Melbourne was explored by John Batman, a leading member of the Port Phillip Association in Van Diemen's Land (now called Tasmania), who negotiated a purchase of 600,000 acres (2,400 km2) with eight Wurundjeri elders.[36][37] Batman selected a site on the northern bank of the Yarra River, declaring that "this will be the place for a village".[citation needed] Batman then returned to Launceston in Tasmania. By the time a settlement party from the association arrived to set up the new village, a separate group organised and financed by John Pascoe Fawkner had already arrived (on 30 August 1835) aboard his ship the Enterprize and had established a settlement at the same location. The two groups ultimately agreed to share the settlement.

Batman's Treaty with the Aborigines was annulled by the New South Wales government (which at the time governed all of eastern mainland Australia), which compensated the association.[36] No compensation was ever provided to the prior Aboriginal land-owners of the Port Phillip District for the theft of their land and resources. Although this meant the settlers were now trespassing on Crown land, the government reluctantly accepted the settlers' fait accompli and allowed the town (known at first by various names, including "Batmania" and "Dutergalla"[39][40]) to remain. In 1836, Governor Bourke declared the city the administrative capital of the Port Phillip District of New South Wales, and commissioned the first plan for the city, the Hoddle Grid, in 1837.[41]

Later that year the settlement was named "Melbourne" after the British Prime Minister, William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne, whose seat was Melbourne Hall in the market town of Melbourne, Derbyshire. On 13 April 1837, the settlement's general post office was officially opened with that name.[42]

Between 1836 and 1842, Victorian Aboriginal groups were largely dispossessed of territory bigger than England.[43] By January 1844, there were said to be 675 Aborigines resident in squalid camps in Melbourne.[44] Although the British Colonial Office appointed 5 "Aboriginal Protectors" for the entire Aboriginal population of Victoria, arriving in Melbourne in 1839, they worked ". . . within a land policy that nullified their work, and there was no political will to change this".[45] "It was government policy to encourage squatters to take possession of whatever [Aboriginal] land they chose, . . . that largely explains why almost all the original inhabitants of Port Phillip's vast grasslands were dead so soon after 1835".[46] By 1845, fewer than 240 wealthy Europeans held all the pastoral licences then issued in Victoria and became the patriarchs " . . . that were to wield so much political and economic power in Victoria for generations to come".[47]

Melbourne was declared a city by letters patent of Queen Victoria, issued on 25 June 1847.[10] The Port Phillip District became the separate Colony of Victoria in 1851, with Melbourne as its capital. With the Aboriginal population dispossessed of their lands and their management of fire having been disrupted for almost 15 years, the Colony experienced for the first time its largest-ever bushfires, burning about 25% of the land area of Victoria on Black Thursday (1851) on 6 February 1851.

Victorian gold rush

"Canvas Town", South Melbourne in the 1850s. Temporary accommodation for the thousands who poured into Melbourne each week during the gold rush.
Lithograph of the Royal Exhibition Building (now a World Heritage site) built to host the World's Fair of 1880
The Federal Coffee Palace; one of many temperance hotels erected in the late 19th century

The discovery of gold in Victoria in 1851 led to the Victorian gold rush, and Melbourne, which served as the major port and provided most services for the region, experienced rapid growth. Within months, the city's population had increased by nearly three-quarters, from 25,000 to 40,000 inhabitants.[48] Thereafter, growth was exponential and by 1865, Melbourne had overtaken Sydney as Australia's most populous city.[49]

An influx of interstate and overseas migrants, particularly Irish, German and Chinese, saw the development of slums including a temporary "tent city" established on the southern banks of the Yarra. Chinese migrants founded a Chinatown in 1851, which remains the longest continuous Chinese settlement in the Western World.[50] In the aftermath of the Eureka Rebellion, mass public support for the plight of the miners in Melbourne resulted in major political changes to the colony. The various nationalities involved in the Eureka Stockade revolt and Burke and Wills expedition give some indication of migration flows in the second half of the nineteenth century.[51]

The population growth and flow of gold into the city helped stimulate a program of grand civic building beginning with the design and construction of many of Melbourne's surviving institutional buildings including Parliament House, the Treasury Building and Treasury Reserve, the Old Melbourne Gaol, Victoria Barracks, the State Library, Supreme Court, University, General Post Office, Government House, Customs House the Melbourne Town Hall, St Paul's, St Patrick's cathedrals and several major markets including the surviving Queen Victoria Market. The city's inner suburbs were planned, to be linked by boulevards and gardens. Melbourne had become a major finance centre, home to several banks, the Royal Mint to Australia's first stock exchange in 1861.[52] Grand private buildings also were built in this era, including the Athenaeum Hall and several large hotels.

Before the arrival of white settlers, the indigenous population in the district was estimated at 15,000, but following settlement the number had fallen to less than 800,[53] and continued to decline with an estimated 80% decrease by 1863, due primarily to introduced diseases, particularly smallpox,[34] frontier violence and dispossession from their lands.

Land boom and bust

The economic boom of the Victorian gold rush peaked during the 1880s, by which time Melbourne had become the richest city in the world,[11] and the largest after London in the British Empire.[54] Melbourne hosted two international exhibitions at the large purpose-built Exhibition Building between 1880 and 1890, spurring the construction of several prestigious hotels including the Menzies, Federal and the Grand (Windsor).

During a visit in 1885 English journalist George Augustus Henry Sala coined the phrase "Marvellous Melbourne", which stuck long into the twentieth century and is still used today by Melburnians.[55] Growing building activity culminated in a "land boom" which, in 1888, reached a peak of speculative development fuelled by consumer confidence and escalating land value.[56] As a result of the boom, large commercial buildings, coffee palaces, terrace housing and palatial mansions proliferated in the city.[56]

The establishment of a hydraulic facility in 1887 allowed for the local manufacture of elevators, resulting in the first construction of high-rise buildings;[57] most notably 1889's APA (The Australian) Building, the world's tallest office building upon completion and Melbourne's tallest for over half a century.[56] This period also saw the expansion of a major radial rail-based transport network.[58]

A brash boosterism that had typified Melbourne during this time ended in 1891 with a severe depression of the city's economy, sending the local finance and property industries into a period of chaos[56][59] during which 16 small banks and building societies collapsed and 133 limited companies went into liquidation. The Melbourne financial crisis was a contributing factor in the Australian economic depression of the 1890s and the Australian banking crisis of 1893. The effects of the depression on the city were profound, although it recovered enough to grow slowly during the early twentieth century.[60][61]

Federation of Australia

The Big Picture, the opening of the first Parliament of Australia on 9 May 1901, painted by Tom Roberts

At the time of Australia's federation on 1 January 1901, Melbourne became the seat of government of the federation. The first federal parliament was convened on 9 May 1901 in the Royal Exhibition Building, where it was located until 1927, when it was moved to Canberra. The Governor-General of Australia resided at Government House in Melbourne until 1930 and many major national institutions remained in Melbourne well into the twentieth century.[62] Flinders Street Station was the world's busiest passenger station in 1927 and Melbourne's tram network overtook Sydney's to become the world's largest in the 1940s.

Post-war period

In the immediate years after World War II, Melbourne expanded rapidly, its growth boosted by Post war immigration to Australia, primarily from Southern Europe and the Mediterranean.[63] While the "Paris End" of Collins Street began Melbourne's boutique shopping and open air cafe cultures,[64] the city centre was seen by many as stale, the dreary domain of office workers, something expressed by John Brack in his famous painting Collins St., 5 pm (1955).[65]

Height limits in the Melbourne CBD were lifted after the construction ICI House, transforming the city's skyline with the introduction of skyscrapers. The eyes of the world were on the city when it hosted the 1956 Summer Olympics. Suburban expansion then intensified, serviced by new indoor malls beginning with Chadstone Shopping Centre.[66] The post-war period also saw a major renewal of the CBD and St Kilda Road which significantly modernised the city.[67] New fire regulations and redevelopment saw most of the taller pre-war CBD buildings either demolished or partially retained through a policy of facadism. Many of the larger suburban mansions from the boom era were also either demolished or subdivided.

Melbourne features an extensive juxtaposition of modern and Victoria era buildings.

To counter the trend towards low-density suburban residential growth, the government began a series of controversial public housing projects in the inner city by the Housing Commission of Victoria, which resulted in demolition of many neighbourhoods and a proliferation of high-rise towers.[68] In later years, with the rapid rise of motor vehicle ownership, the investment in freeway and highway developments greatly accelerated the outward suburban sprawl and declining inner city population. The Bolte government sought to rapidly accelerate the modernisation of Melbourne. Major road projects including the remodelling of St Kilda Junction, the widening of Hoddle Street and then the extensive 1969 Melbourne Transportation Plan changed the face of the city into a car-dominated environment.[69]

Australia's financial and mining booms between 1969 and 1970 resulted in establishment of the headquarters of many major companies (BHP Billiton and Rio Tinto, among others) in the city. Nauru's then booming economy resulted in several ambitious investments in Melbourne, such as Nauru House.[citation needed] Melbourne remained Australia's main business and financial centre until the late 1970s, when it began to lose this primacy to Sydney.[70]

As the centre of Australia's "rust belt", Melbourne experienced an economic downturn between 1989 to 1992, following the collapse of several local financial institutions. In 1992 the newly elected Kennett government began a campaign to revive the economy with an aggressive development campaign of public works coupled with the promotion of the city as a tourist destination with a focus on major events and sports tourism.[71]

During this period the Australian Grand Prix moved to Melbourne from Adelaide. Major projects included the construction of a new facility for the Melbourne Museum, Federation Square, the Melbourne Exhibition and Convention Centre, Crown Casino and the CityLink tollway. Other strategies included the privatisation of some of Melbourne's services, including power and public transport, and a reduction in funding to public services such as health, education and public transport infrastructure.[72]

Contemporary Melbourne

Since the mid-1990s, Melbourne has maintained significant population and employment growth. There has been substantial international investment in the city's industries and property market. Major inner-city urban renewal has occurred in areas such as Southbank, Port Melbourne, Melbourne Docklands and more recently, South Wharf. According to the Australian Bureau of Statistics, Melbourne sustained the highest population increase and economic growth rate of any Australian capital city in the three years ended June 2004.[73] These factors have led to population growth and further suburban expansion through the 2000s.

Melbourne Docklands at night, 2005

From 2006, the growth of the city extended into "green wedges" and beyond the city's urban growth boundary. Predictions of the city's population reaching 5 million people pushed the state government to review the growth boundary in 2008 as part of its Melbourne @ Five Million strategy.[74] Melbourne survived the financial crisis of 2007–2010 better than any other Australian city. In 2009, more new jobs were created in Melbourne than any other Australian capital—almost as many as the next two fastest growing cities, Brisbane and Perth, combined.[75] and Melbourne's property market remained strong,[76] resulting in historically high property prices and widespread rent increases.[77]



Map of greater Melbourne and Geelong

Melbourne is located in the south-eastern part of mainland Australia, within the state of Victoria. Geologically, it is built on the confluence of Quaternary lava flows to the west, Silurian mudstones to the east, and Holocene sand accumulation to the southeast along Port Phillip. The southeastern suburbs are situated on the Selwyn fault which transects Mount Martha and Cranbourne.

Melbourne extends along the Yarra River towards the Yarra Valley and the Dandenong Ranges to the east. It extends northward through the undulating bushland valleys of the Yarra's tributaries—Moonee Ponds Creek (toward Tullamarine Airport), Merri Creek, Darebin Creek and Plenty River—to the outer suburban growth corridors of Craigieburn and Whittlesea.

The city sprawls south-east through Dandenong to the growth corridor of Pakenham towards West Gippsland, and southward through the Dandenong Creek valley, the Mornington Peninsula and the city of Frankston taking in the peaks of Olivers Hill, Mount Martha and Arthurs Seat, extending along the shores of Port Phillip as a single conurbation to reach the exclusive suburb of Portsea and Point Nepean. In the west, it extends along the Maribyrnong River and its tributaries north towards Sunbury and the foothills of the Macedon Ranges, and along the flat volcanic plain country towards Melton in the west, Werribee at the foothills of the You Yangs granite ridge and Geelong as part of the greater metropolitan area to the south-west.

Melbourne's major bayside beaches are located in the south-eastern suburbs along the shores of Port Phillip Bay, in areas like Port Melbourne, Albert Park, St Kilda, Elwood, Brighton, Sandringham, Mentone and Frankston although there are beaches in the western suburbs of Altona and Williamstown. The nearest surf beaches are located 85 kilometres (53 mi) south-east of the Melbourne CBD in the back-beaches of Rye, Sorrento and Portsea.[78][79]


Autumn in suburban Canterbury
Climate chart (explanation)
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: Bureau of Meteorology."[80]

Melbourne has a moderate oceanic climate (Köppen climate classification Cfb)[81][82] and is well known for its changeable weather conditions. This is mainly due to Melbourne's location situated on the boundary of the very hot inland areas and the cold southern ocean. This temperature differential is most pronounced in the spring and summer months and can cause very strong cold fronts to form. These cold fronts can be responsible for all sorts of severe weather from gales to severe thunderstorms and hail, large temperature drops, and heavy rain.

Port Phillip is often warmer than the surrounding oceans and/or the land mass, particularly in spring and autumn; this can set up a "bay effect" similar to the "lake effect" seen in the United States where showers are intensified leeward of the bay. Relatively narrow streams of heavy showers can often affect the same places (usually the eastern suburbs) for an extended period of time, whilst the rest of Melbourne and surrounds stays dry.

Melbourne is also prone to isolated convective showers forming when a cold pool crosses the state, especially if there is considerable daytime heating. These showers are often heavy and can contain hail and squalls and significant drops in temperature, but they pass through very quickly at times with a rapid clearing trend to sunny and relatively calm weather and the temperature rising back to what it was before the shower. This occurs often in the space of minutes and can be repeated many times in a day, giving Melbourne a reputation for having "four seasons in one day",[80] a phrase that is part of local popular culture and familiar to many visitors to the city.[83]

Melbourne is colder than other mainland Australian state capital cities in the winter. The lowest temperature on record is −2.8 °C (27.0 °F), on 4 July 1901.[84] However, snowfalls are rare: the most recent occurrence of sleet in the CBD was on 25 July 1986 and the most recent snowfalls in the outer eastern suburbs and Mount Dandenong were on 10 August 2005.[85][86] More commonly, Melbourne experiences frosts and fog in winter. Melbourne summers are notable for occasional days of extreme heat.[citation needed] The highest temperature recorded was 46.4 °C (115.5 °F), on 7 February 2009.

Climate data for Melbourne
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 45.6
Average high °C (°F) 25.9
Average low °C (°F) 14.3
Record low °C (°F) 5.5
Precipitation mm (inches) 47.6
Avg. precipitation days 8.3 7.4 9.3 11.4 13.9 14.1 15.1 15.6 14.7 14.1 11.7 10.4 146
Sunshine hours 310 328.8 270.8 228 214.9 168 144.7 185.7 191 210.3 250 282.5 2,784.7
Source: Bureau of Meteorology."[80]

Urban structure

A 180 degree panoramic image of Melbourne's CBD: with the Hoddle Grid (left) and Southbank (right), as seen from the Rialto Observation Deck (2008)

The centre of Melbourne's central business district is formed by the Hoddle Grid (dimensions of 1 by 0.5 miles (1.6 by 0.80 km)). The grid's southern edge fronts onto the Yarra River. Office, commercial and public developments in the adjoining districts of Southbank and Docklands have made these redeveloped areas into extensions of the CBD in all but name. The city centre is well known for its historic and attractive lanes and arcades (the most notable of which are Block Place and Royal Arcade) which contain a variety of shops and cafés[87] and are a byproduct of the city's layout.[88]

Melbourne is known for the "laneway culture" of its extensive network of lively city lanes which include Centre Place (pictured).
Melbourne's urban structure features large parks and gardens and wide avenues.

Melbourne's CBD, compared with other Australian cities, has comparatively unrestricted height limits and as a result of waves of post-war development contains five of the six tallest buildings in Australia, the tallest of which is the Eureka Tower, situated in Southbank. It has an observation deck near the top from where you can see above all of Melbourne's structures.[89] The Rialto tower, the city's second tallest, remains the tallest building in the old CBD; its observation deck for visitors has recently closed.[90]

The CBD and surrounds also contain many significant historic buildings such as the Royal Exhibition Building, the Melbourne Town Hall and Parliament House.[91][92] Although the area is described as the centre, it is not actually the demographic centre of Melbourne at all, due to an urban sprawl to the south east, the demographic centre being located at Glen Iris.[93]

Melbourne is typical of Australian capital cities in that after the turn of the 20th century, it expanded with the underlying notion of a 'quarter acre home and garden' for every family, often referred to locally as the Australian Dream. This, coupled with the popularity of the private automobile after 1945, led to the auto-centric urban structure now present today in the middle and outer suburbs. Much of metropolitan Melbourne is accordingly characterised by low density sprawl, whilst its inner city areas feature predominantly medium-density, transit-oriented urban forms. The city centre, Docklands, St. Kilda Road and Southbank areas feature high-density forms.

Melbourne is often referred to as Australia's garden city, and the state of Victoria was once known as the garden state.[94][95][96] There is an abundance of parks and gardens in Melbourne,[97] many close to the CBD with a variety of common and rare plant species amid landscaped vistas, pedestrian pathways and tree-lined avenues. There are also many parks in the surrounding suburbs of Melbourne, such as in the municipalities of Stonnington, Boroondara and Port Phillip, south east of the central business district. The extensive area covered by urban Melbourne is formally divided into hundreds of suburbs (for addressing and postal purposes), and administered as local government areas[98] 31 of which are located within the metropolitan area.[99]


Pin Oak Court, Vermont South (famous as the fictional "Ramsay Street" in the cult soap opera Neighbours) is typical of the majority of suburban Melbourne.
"Melbourne Style" Victorian terrace houses are common in the inner suburbs and have been the subject of gentrification.

Housing in Melbourne is characterised by minimal and lack of public housing and high demand for, and largely unaffordable, rental housing.[100][101][102] Public housing is usually provided by the Housing Commission of Victoria and operates within the framework of the Commonwealth-State Housing Agreement, by which funding for public housing is provided by both federal and state governments.[citation needed]

At present, Melbourne is experiencing high population growth, generating high demand for housing. This has created a housing boom, pushing housing prices up and having an effect on rental prices as well as availability of all types of housing. Subdivision regularly occurs in the far outer areas of Melbourne with Display homes from numerous developers offering house and land packages.


Like many urban environments, Melbourne faces some significant environmental issues, many of them relating to the city's large urban footprint and urban sprawl and the demand for infrastructure and services. One such issue is water usage, drought and low rainfall. Drought in Victoria, low rainfalls and high temperatures deplete Melbourne water supplies and climate change may have a long-term impact on the water supplies of Melbourne.[103] Melbourne has been in a drought since 1997.[104] In response to low water supplies and low rainfall due to drought, the government implemented water restrictions and a range of other options including: water recycling schemes for the city, incentives for household water tanks, greywater systems, water consumption awareness initiatives, and other water saving and reuse initiatives; also, in June 2007, the Bracks Government announced that a $3.1 billion Wonthaggi desalination plant would be built on Victoria's south-east coast, capable of treating 150 billion litres of water per year,[105] as well as a 70 km (43 mi) pipeline from the Goulburn area in Victoria's north to Melbourne and a new water pipeline linking Melbourne and Geelong. Both projects are being conducted under controversial Public-Private Partnerships and a multitude of independent reports have found that neither project is required to supply water to the city and that Sustainable Water Management is the best solution. In the meantime, the drought must be weathered.[106]

In response to Attribution of recent climate change, the City of Melbourne, in 2002, set a target to reduce carbon emissions to net zero by 2020[107] and Moreland City Council established the Zero Moreland program, however not all metropolitan municipalities have followed, with the City of Glen Eira notably deciding in 2009 not to become carbon neutral.[108] Melbourne has one of the largest urban footprints in the world due to its low density housing, resulting in a vast suburban sprawl, with a high level of car dependence and minimal public transport outside of inner areas.[109] Much of the vegetation within the city are non-native species, most of European origin, and in many cases plays host to invasive species and noxious weeds.[110] Significant introduced urban pests include the Common Myna,[111] Feral Pigeon,[112] Brown Rat,[113][114] European Wasp,[115] Common Starling and Red Fox.[116] Many outlying suburbs, particularly towards the Yarra Valley and the hills to the north-east and east, have gone for extended periods without regenerative fires leading to a lack of saplings and undergrowth in urbanised native bushland. The Department of Sustainability and Environment partially addresses this problem by regularly burning off.[117][118] Several national parks have been designated around the urban area of Melbourne, including the Mornington Peninsula National Park, Port Phillip Heads Marine National Park and Point Nepean National Park in the south east, Organ Pipes National Park to the north and Dandenong Ranges National Park to the east. There are also a number of significant state parks just outside Melbourne.[119][120] Responsibility for regulating pollution falls under the jurisdiction of the EPA Victoria and several local councils. Air pollution, by world standards, is classified as being good. Summer and autumn are the worst times of year for atmospheric haze in the urban area.[94][121]

Another recent environmental issue in Melbourne was the Victorian government project of channel deepening Melbourne Ports by dredging Port Phillip Bay—the Port Phillip Channel Deepening Project. It was subject to controversy and strict regulations among fears that beaches and marine wildlife could be affected by the disturbance of heavy metals and other industrial sediments.[79][122] Other major pollution problems in Melbourne include levels of bacteria including E. coli in the Yarra River and its tributaries caused by septic systems,[123] as well as litter. Up to 350,000 cigarette butts enter the storm water runoff every day.[124] Several programs are being implemented to minimise beach and river pollution.[79][125] In February 2010, The Transition Decade, an initiative to transition human society, economics and environment towards sustainability, was launched in Melbourne.[126]


La Trobe Reading Room in the State Library of Victoria
Coops Shot Tower located beneath the world's biggest glass cone in Melbourne Central
The stained glass ceiling of the Great Hall of the National Gallery of Victoria

Melbourne is an international cultural centre, with cultural endeavours spanning major events and festivals, drama, musicals, comedy, music, art, architecture, literature, film and television. It was the second city after Edinburgh to be named a UNESCO City of Literature[127] and has thrice shared top position in a survey by The Economist of the world's most liveable cities on the basis of a number of attributes which include its broad cultural offerings.[128]

The city celebrates a wide variety of annual cultural events and festivals of all types, including the Melbourne International Arts Festival, Melbourne International Film Festival, Melbourne International Comedy Festival and the Melbourne Fringe Festival. The Australian Ballet is based in Melbourne, as is the Melbourne Symphony Orchestra. Melbourne is the second home of Opera Australia after it merged with "Victoria State Opera" in 1996. The Victorian Opera had its inaugural season in 2006 and operates out of various venues in Melbourne.

Notable theatres and performance venues include: The Victorian Arts Centre (which includes the State Theatre, Hamer Hall, the Playhouse and the fairfax Studio), Melbourne Recital Centre, Sidney Myer Music Bowl, Princess Theatre, Regent Theatre, Forum Theatre, Palace Theatre, Comedy Theatre, Athenaeum Theatre, Her Majesty's Theatre, Capitol Theatre, Palais Theatre and the Australian Centre for Contemporary Art. There are more than 100 galleries in Melbourne.[129] Most notably it is home to Australia’s oldest and largest art gallery, the National Gallery of Victoria.[130]

Melbourne is the birthplace of television in Australia,[15] Australian rules football,[16] Australian impressionist art movement known as the Heidelberg School,[131] and Australian contemporary dance (including the Melbourne Shuffle and New Vogue styles).[132] The city has an extensive cinematic history. Indeed, the world's first feature films were produced in Melbourne and its outer suburbs. Limelight Department's 1900 Soldiers of the Cross, the world's first religious epic,[133] anticipated the early 1900s golden age of Melbourne film production—an era marked by the exploration of local history and Australia's emerging identity. The 1854 civil insurrection of Ballarat was brought to life on the screen in Eureka Stockade, and The Story of the Kelly Gang (the world's first feature length narrative film and precedent of the "Bushranging drama"[134]) followed the escapades of Ned Kelly and his gang of outlaws. Melbourne filmmakers continued to produce bushranger and convict films, such as 1907's Robbery Under Arms and 1908's For the Term of His Natural Life, up until 1912, when Victorian politicians banned the screening of bushranger films for what they perceived as the promotion of crime.[134]

Melbourne's and Australia's film industries declined soon after and came to a virtual stop in the 1960s. A notable film shot and set in Melbourne during this lull is 1959's On the Beach. The 1970s saw a major renaissance of Australian film, giving rise to the Australian New Wave, as well as the Ocker and Ozploitation genres, instigated by Melbourne-based productions Stork and Alvin Purple respectively. Other 70s Melbourne films, such as Picnic at Hanging Rock and Mad Max, would achieve worldwide acclaim. 2004 saw the construction of Melbourne's largest film and television studio complex, Docklands Studios Melbourne, which has hosted many domestic films and television shows, as well as international features Ghost Rider, Knowing, Charlotte's Web, Nightmares and Dreamscapes and Where the Wild Things Are, among others.[135] Melbourne is also home to the headquarters of Village Roadshow Pictures, Australia's largest film production company. Famous modern day actors from Melbourne include Cate Blanchett, Rachel Griffiths, Guy Pearce and Eric Bana. Artist Banksy, from the United Kingdom, hailed street art in Melbourne as "[Australia]'s most significant contribution to the arts since the Aborigines' pencils were stolen".[136] The city is often placed alongside New York and Berlin as one of the world's great street art meccas,[137][138] and its extensive street art-laden laneways, alleys and arcades were voted by Lonely Planet readers as Australia's top cultural attraction.[136]The Melbourne Shuffle is a rave and club dance that originated in the late 1980s in the underground rave music scene in Melbourne, and has since grown in popularity.[139] The city is also admired for its exciting mix of vigorous modern architecture which intersects with an impressive range of nineteenth and early twentieth century buildings.[140]


Large cricket crowd at the Melbourne Cricket Ground
Docklands Stadium (aka Etihad Stadium) has a retractable roof

Melbourne is a notable sporting location as the host city for the 1956 Summer Olympics games (the first Olympic Games ever held in the southern hemisphere), along with the 2006 Commonwealth Games. The city is home to three major annual international sporting events: the Australian Open (one of the four Grand Slam tennis tournaments), the Melbourne Cup (horse racing), and the Australian Grand Prix (Formula One). In recent years, the city has claimed the SportsBusiness title "World's Ultimate Sports City".[141] The city is home to the National Sports Museum, which until 2003 was located outside the members pavilion at the Melbourne Cricket Ground and reopened in 2008 in the Olympic Stand.[142]

Australian rules football and cricket are the most popular sports in Melbourne and also the spiritual home of these two sports in Australia and both are mostly played in the same stadiums in the city and its suburbs. The first ever official cricket Test match was played at the Melbourne Cricket Ground in March 1877. The first Australian rules football matches were played in Melbourne in 1859 and the Australian Football League is headquartered at Docklands Stadium. Nine of its teams are based in the Melbourne metropolitan area and the five Melbourne AFL matches per week attract an average 40,000 people per game.[143] Additionally, the city annually hosts the AFL Grand Final.

The city is also home to several professional franchises/teams in national competitions including Cricket clubs Melbourne Stars, Melbourne Renegades and Victorian Bushrangers who play in the Big Bash League and other domestic cricket competitions, Football (Soccer) clubs Melbourne Victory and Melbourne Heart who play in the A-league competition, the rugby league club Melbourne Storm[144] who play in the NRL competition, the rugby union club Melbourne Rebels who play in the Super Rugby competition, the netball club Melbourne Vixens who play in the trans-Tasman trophy ANZ Championship, and the basketball club Melbourne Tigers who play in the NBL competition and the Bulleen Boomers and Dandenong Rangers who play in the WNBL and the baseball club Melbourne Aces who play in the Australian Baseball League. A second Melbourne-based NBL team may be established for the 2011–2012 season.[145] In November 2008, it was announced that the Victorian Major Events Company had informed the Australian Olympic Committee that Melbourne was considering making bids for either the 2024 or 2028 Summer Olympics.[146]


Melbourne's entertainment and conference precinct (Crown Casino and Convention Centre) make substantial annual contributions to the Victorian economy ($2 billion[147] and $3 billion respectively)
The Australian Synchrotron in Melbourne is an important scientific research tool that enhances the research and development abilities of Australia's industries.

Melbourne has a highly diversified economy with particular strengths in finance, manufacturing, research, IT, education, logistics and transportation, conventions and tourism. Melbourne is headquarters for many of Australia's largest corporations, including five of the ten largest in the country (based on revenue), and five of the largest six in the country (based on market capitalisation)[148] (ANZ, BHP Billiton (the world's largest mining company), the National Australia Bank, Rio Tinto and Telstra); as well as such representative bodies and thinktanks as the Business Council of Australia and the Australian Council of Trade Unions. The city is home to Australia's largest and busiest seaport which handles more than $75 billion in trade every year and 39% of the nation's container trade.[96][149][150] Melbourne Airport provides an entry point for national and international visitors, and is Australia's second busiest airport.

Melbourne is also an important financial centre. Two of the big four banks, NAB and ANZ, are headquartered in Melbourne. The city has carved out a niche as Australia’s leading centre for superannuation (pension) funds, with 40% of the total, and 65% of industry super-funds including the $40 billion-dollar Federal Government Future Fund. The city was rated 34th within the top 50 financial cities as surveyed by the Mastercard Worldwide Centers of Commerce Index (2007),[151] between Barcelona and Geneva, and second only to Sydney (14th) in Australia.

Melbourne is Australia's industrial centre. It is the centre of Australia's automotive industry, which includes Ford and Toyota manufacturing facilities, and the engine manufacturing facility of Holden and parts suppliers. It has the Australian automotive headquarters and design centres. It is also home to a very wide variety of other manufacturers, ranging from petrochemicals, aircraft parts and pharmaceuticals to fashion garments, paper manufacturing and food processing.[152]

It is a major international centre for biotechnology, and is the base of such companies as CSL and Biota. Melbourne has an important ICT industry that employs over 60,000 people (one third of Australia's ICT workforce), with a turnover of $19.8 billion and export revenues of $615 million. In addition, tourism also plays an important role in Melbourne's economy, with approximately 7.6 million domestic visitors and 1.88 million international visitors in 2004[153] In 2008, Melbourne overtook Sydney with the amount of money that domestic tourists spent in the city.[154] accounting for around $15.8 billion annually[155] Melbourne has been attracting an increasing share of domestic and international conference markets. Construction began in February 2006 of a $1 billion 5000-seat international convention centre, Hilton Hotel and commercial precinct adjacent to the Melbourne Exhibition and Convention Centre to link development along the Yarra River with the Southbank precinct and multi-billion dollar Docklands redevelopment.[156]


Melbourne is a diverse and multicultural city. In 2006, 35.8% of its population was born overseas, exceeding the national average of 23.1%. In concordance with national data, Britain is the most commonly reported overseas place of birth, with 4.7%, followed by Italy (2.1%), Croatia (1.7%), Vietnam (1.6%), China (1.5%), and New Zealand (1.5%).[157] Melbourne has the world's third largest Greek-speaking population after Athens and Thessaloniki (Melbourne's Greek sister city), and the Vietnamese surname Nguyen is the second most common in Melbourne's phone book.[158] The city also features substantial Indian, Sri Lankan, and Malaysian-born communities, in addition to recent South African and Sudanese influxes. The cultural diversity is reflected in the city's restaurants serving various international cuisines.

Over two-thirds of Melburnians speak only English at home (68.1%). Chinese (mainly Cantonese and Mandarin) is the second-most-common language spoken at home (3.6%), with Greek third, Italian fourth and Vietnamese fifth, each with more than 100,000 speakers.[157] Although Victoria's net interstate migration has fluctuated, the Melbourne statistical division has grown by approximately 50,000 people a year since 2003. Melbourne has now attracted the largest proportion of international overseas immigrants (48,000) finding it outpacing Sydney's international migrant intake on percentage, along with having strong interstate migration from Sydney and other capitals due to more affordable housing and cost of living, which have been two recent key factors driving Melbourne's growth.[159]

In recent years, Melton, Wyndham and Casey, part of the Melbourne statistical division, have recorded the highest growth rate of all local government areas in Australia. Despite a demographic study stating that Melbourne could overtake Sydney in population by 2028,[160] the ABS has projected in two scenarios that Sydney will remain larger than Melbourne beyond 2056, albeit by a margin of less than 3% compared to a margin of 12% today. However, the first scenario projects that Melbourne's population overtakes Sydney in 2039, primarily due to larger levels of internal migration losses assumed for Sydney.[161]

After a trend of declining population density since World War II, the city has seen increased density in the inner and western suburbs aided in part by Victorian Government planning blueprints, such as Postcode 3000 and Melbourne 2030 which have aimed to curtail the urban sprawl.[162] [163]


Melbourne was ranked the world's fourth top university city in 2008 after London, Boston and Tokyo in a poll commissioned by the Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology.[164] Melbourne is the home of the University of Melbourne, as well as Monash University, the largest university in Australia. The University of Melbourne is the second oldest university in Australia.[165] It was ranked first among Australian universities in the 2010 THES international rankings.[166]

The Times Higher Education Supplement ranked the University of Melbourne as the 36th best university in the world. Monash University was ranked the 178th best university in the world. Both universities are members of the Group of Eight.

Other universities located in Melbourne include La Trobe University, RMIT University, Swinburne University of Technology, based in the inner city Melbourne suburb of Hawthorn, Victoria University, which has nine campuses across Melbourne's western region, including three in the heart of Melbourne's Central Business District (CBD) and another four within ten kilometres of the CBD, and the St Patrick's campus of the Australian Catholic University. Deakin University maintains two major campuses in Melbourne and Geelong, and is the third largest university in Victoria. In recent years, the number of international students at Melbourne's universities has risen rapidly, a result of an increasing number of places being made available to full fee paying students.[167]


Three daily newspapers serve Melbourne: the Herald Sun (tabloid), The Age (broadsheet) and The Australian (national broadsheet). The free mX is also distributed weekday afternoon at railway stations and on the streets of central Melbourne.[168] Five television networks and a community television station serve Melbourne: HSV-7, which broadcasts from the Melbourne Docklands precinct; GTV-9, which broadcasts from their new Docklands studios; and ATV-10, which broadcasts from the Como Complex in South Yarra. National stations that broadcast into Melbourne include ABV-2 (branded ABC1) from the Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC). The ABC has two studios, one at Ripponlea and another at Southbank. SBS One from the Special Broadcasting Service (SBS), broadcasts from their studios at Federation Square in central Melbourne.

New digital-only channels available in addition to ABC1, HSV-7 (Seven), GTV-9 (Nine), ATV-10 (Ten) and SBS One include One HD, Eleven, ABC2, ABC3, ABC News 24, SBS Two, 7Two, 7mate, GEM HD and GO!. C31 Melbourne is the only local community television station in Melbourne, and its broadcast range also branches out to regional centre Geelong. Melbourne also receives Pay TV, largely through cable and satellite services. Foxtel and Optus are the main Pay TV providers. Various television programs are produced in Melbourne, notably Neighbours, Kath & Kim, Hey Hey It's Saturday, Blue Heelers, Rush and Underbelly.

A long list of AM and FM radio stations broadcast to greater Melbourne. These include "public" (i.e. state owned ABC & SBS) and community stations. Many commercial stations are networked-owned: DMG has Nova 100 and Classic Rock; ARN controls Gold and Mix; and Southern Cross Austereo runs both Fox and Triple M. Stations from towns in regional Victoria may also be heard (e.g. 93.9 Bay FM, Geelong ). Youth alternatives include ABC Triple J and youth run SYN. Triple J, and similarly PBS and Triple R, strive to play under represented music. JOY caters for gay and lesbian audiences. For fans of classical music there are 3MBS and ABC Classic FM. Light FM is a contemporary Christian station. AM stations include ABC: 774, Radio National, and News Radio; also Fairfax affiliates 3AW (talk) and Magic (easy listening); and also MTR (talk). For sport fans and enthusiasts there is SEN 1116. Melbourne has many community run stations that serve alternative interests, such as 3CR and 3KND (Indigenous). Many suburbs have low powered community run stations serving local audiences.[169]


St Paul's Anglican Cathedral

Melbourne is home to a wide range of religious faiths, the most widely held faith of which is Christian (58.9%) with a large Catholic population (28.3%).[157] The large Christian population is signified by the city's two large cathedrals—St Patrick's (Roman Catholic), and St Paul's (Anglican). Both were built in the Victorian era and are of considerable heritage significance as major landmarks of the city.[170]

Other categories include no religion (20.0%), Anglican (12.1%), Eastern Orthodox (5.9%) and the Uniting Church (4.0%).[157] Buddhists, Muslims, Jews, Hindus and Sikhs collectively account for 9.2% of the population.[171]

Melbourne has the largest Jewish population in Australia, the community currently numbering approximately 60,000. The city is also home to the largest number of Holocaust survivors of any Australian city,[172] indeed the highest per capita concentration outside Israel itself.[173] Reflecting this vibrant and growing community, Melbourne has a plethora of Jewish cultural, religious and educational institutions, including over 40 synagogues and 7 full-time parochial day schools,[174] along with a local Jewish newspaper.[175]


The governance of Melbourne is split between the government of Victoria and the 26 cities and five shires which comprise the metropolitan area. There is no ceremonial or political head of Melbourne; however, the Lord Mayor of the City of Melbourne often fulfils such a role as a first amongst equals,[176] particularly when interstate or overseas.

The local councils are responsible for providing the functions set out in the Local Government Act 1989[177] such as urban planning and waste management. Most other government services are provided or regulated by the Victorian state government, which governs from Parliament House in Spring Street. These include services which are associated with local government in other countries and include public transport, main roads, traffic control, policing, education above preschool level, health and planning of major infrastructure projects. The state government retains the right to override certain local government decisions, including urban planning, and Melburnian issues often feature prominently in state election.



The Government of Victoria's Department of Health oversees approximately 30 public hospitals in the Melbourne metropolitan region, and 13 health services organisations.[178]

There are many major medical, neuroscience and biotechnology research institutions located in Melbourne: St. Vincent's Institute of Medical Research, Australian Stem Cell Centre, the Burnet Institute, Australian Regenerative Medicine Institute, Victorian Institute of Chemical Sciences, Brain Research Institute, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, the Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, and the Melbourne Neuropsychiatry Centre.

Other institutions include the Howard Florey Institute, the Murdoch Children's Research Institute, Baker IDI Heart and Diabetes Institute and the Australian Synchrotron.[179] Many of these institutions are associated with and are located near universities.

Among Australian capital cities, Melbourne ties equal 1st with Canberra for the highest male life expectancy (80.0 years) and ranks second behind Perth in female life expectancy (84.1 years).[180]


The Bolte Bridge is part of the CityLink tollway system.

Melbourne has a very high dependency on the automobile for transport[181] particularly in the outer suburban areas where the largest number of cars are bought[182] with a total of 3.6 million private vehicles using 22,320 km (13,870 mi) of road, and one of the highest lengths of road per capita in the world.[181] The early 20th century saw an increase in popularity of the automobiles, resulting in large scale suburban expansion[183] and today it has an extensive network of freeways and arterial roadways used by private vehicles including freight as well as public transport systems including bus and taxis. Major highways feeding into the city include the Eastern Freeway, Monash Freeway and West Gate Freeway (which spans the large Westgate Bridge), whilst other freeways circumnavigate the city or lead to other major cities, including CityLink (which spans the large Bolte Bridge), Eastlink, the Western Ring Road, Calder Freeway, Tullamarine Freeway (main airport link) and the Hume Freeway which links Melbourne and Sydney.[184]

Southern Cross Station, Melbourne's main inter-urban train and bus interchange
A C2 class Melbourne tram in Transdev TSL livery on La Trobe Street

Melbourne has an integrated public transport system based around extensive train, tram, bus and taxi systems. In the 1940s 25% of travellers used public transport but by 2003 it had declined to just 7.6%.[185] The public transport system was privatised in 1999, symbolising the peak of the decline.[186] Despite privatisation and successive governments persisting with auto-centric urban development into the 21st century,[187] there has since been large increases in public transport patronage with the mode share for commuters increasing to 14.8% and 8.4% of all trips.[188] A target of 20% public transport mode share for Melbourne by 2020 was set by the state government in 2006.[189] Since 2006 public transport patronage has grown by over 20%.[189]


The Melbourne rail network has its origins in privately built lines from the 1850s gold rush era and today the suburban network consists of 200 suburban stations on 16 lines which radiate from the City Loop, a partially underground metro section of the network beneath the Central Business District (Hoddle Grid). Flinders Street Station is Melbourne's busiest railway station, and was the world's busiest passenger station in 1926. It remains a prominent Melbourne landmark and meeting place.[190] The city has rail connections with regional Victorian cities, as well as direct interstate rail services to Sydney and Adelaide and beyond which depart from Melbourne's other major rail terminus, Southern Cross Station in Spencer Street. In the 2008–2009 financial year, the Melbourne rail network recorded 213.9 million passenger trips, the highest in its history.[191] Many rail lines, along with dedicated lines and rail yards are also used for freight.

Melbourne Metro[192]

Melbourne Metro Project, would be 2 Metro lines installed in Stages.

Stage 1 connects from Arden Metro (Dynon Rd) to Parkville Metro, to CBD North Metro (Carlton) to CBD South, to Domain (St Kilda)

Stage 2 connects from Domain to Caulfield.


Melbourne has the largest tram network in the world[32][193] which had its origins in the city's 1880s land boom. In the 2010-2011 year 182.7 million passenger trips were made by tram.[194] Melbourne's is Australia's only tram network to comprise more than a single line and consists of consisted of 250 km (155.3 mi) of track, 487 trams, 28 routes, and 1,773 tram stops.[195] Sections of the tram network are on roads,[195] while others are separated or are light rail routes.[196] Melbourne's trams are recognised as iconic cultural assets and a tourist attraction. Heritage trams operate on the free City Circle route, intended for visitors to Melbourne, and heritage restaurant trams travel through the city during the evening.[197]


Melbourne's bus network consists of almost 300 routes which mainly service the outer suburbs fill the gaps in the network between rail and light rail services.[197][198] 86.7 million passenger trips were recorded on Melbourne’s buses in 2007.[199]


Ship transport is an important component of Melbourne's transport system. The Port of Melbourne is Australia's largest container and general cargo port and also its busiest. The port handled two million shipping containers in a 12 month period during 2007, making it one of the top five ports in the Southern Hemisphere.[149] Station Pier on Port Phillip Bay is the main passenger ship terminal with cruise ships and the Spirit of Tasmania ferries which cross Bass Strait to Tasmania docking there.[200] Ferries and water taxis run from berths along the Yarra River as far upstream as South Yarra and across Port Phillip Bay.


Melbourne has four airports. Melbourne Airport, at Tullamarine, is the city's main international and domestic gateway and second busiest in Australia. The airport is home base for passenger airlines Jetstar Airways and Tiger Airways Australia and cargo airlines Australian air Express and Toll Priority; and is a major hub for Qantas and Virgin Australia. Avalon Airport, located between Melbourne and Geelong, is a secondary hub of Jetstar. It is also used as a freight and maintenance facility. Buses and taxis are the only forms of public transport currently available to and from the city's main airports. Air Ambulance facilities are available for domestic and international transportation of patients.[201] Melbourne also has a significant general aviation airport, Moorabbin Airport in the city's south east as well as handling a limited number of passenger flights. Essendon Airport, which was once the city's main airport also handles passenger flights, general aviation and some cargo flights.[202]


Melbourne has a bicycle sharing system established in 2010[203] utilising an extensive network of marked road lanes and segregated cycle facilities.


Sugarloaf Reservoir (in 2007) at Christmas Hills in the metropolitan area is one of Melbourne's closest water supplies.

Water storage and supply for Melbourne is managed by Melbourne Water, which is owned by the Victorian Government. The organisation is also responsible for management of sewerage and the major water catchments in the region and will be responsible for the Wonthaggi desalination plant and North–South Pipeline. Water is stored in a series of reservoirs located within and outside the Greater Melbourne area. The largest dam, the Thomson River Dam, located in the Victorian Alps, is capable of holding around 60% of Melbourne's water capacity,[204] while smaller dams such as the Upper Yarra Dam and the Cardinia Reservoir carry secondary supplies.

Gas is provided state wide by SP Ausnet. Electricity is provided by 5 distribution companies:

  • Citipower which provides power to Melbourne's CBD, and some inner suburbs
  • Powercor which provides power to the outer western suburbs as well as all of western Victoria (Citipower and Powercor are owned by the same entity)
  • Jemena which provides power to the northern and inner western suburbs
  • United Energy which provides power to the inner eastern, south-eastern suburbs and the Mornington Peninsula
  • SP AusNet which provides power to the outer eastern suburbs and all of the north and east of Victoria.

Numerous telecommunications companies provide Melbourne with terrestrial and mobile telecommunications services and wireless internet services.

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Further reading

  • Bell, Agnes Paton (1965). Melbourne: John Batman's Village. Melbourne, Vic: Cassell Australia,. p. 178. 
  • Boldrewood, Rolf (1896). Old Melbourne Memories. Macmillan and Co. pp. 259 pages. 
  • Borthwick, John Stephen; David McGonigal (1990). Insight Guide: Melbourne. Prentice Hall Travel. p. 247. ISBN 0134677137, 9780134677132. 
  • Briggs, John Joseph (1852). The History of Melbourne, in the County of Derby: Including Biographical Notices of the Coke, Melbourne, and Hardinge Families. Bemrose & Son. p. 205. 
  • Brown-May, Andrew; Shurlee Swain (2005). The Encyclopedia of Melbourne. Melbourne, Vic: Cambridge University Press. p. 820. 
  • Carroll, Brian (1972). Melbourne: An Illustrated History. Lansdowne. p. 128. ISBN 0701801956, 9780701801953. 
  • Cecil, David (1954). Melbourne. Bobbs-Merrill. p. 450. 
  • Collins, Jock; Letizia Mondello; John Breheney; Tim Childs (1990), Cosmopolitan Melbourne. Explore the world in one city, Big Box Publishing, Rhodes, New South Wales. ISBN 0-9579624-0-1
  • Coote, Maree (2009,2003). The Melbourne Book: A History of Now. Melbournestyle Books. p. 356. ISBN 9780975704745. 
  • Davidson, Jim (ed.)(1986), The Sydney-Melbourne Book, Allen and Unwin, North Sydney, New South Wales. ISBN 0-86861-819-5
  • Lewis, Miles Bannatyne; Philip Goad, Alan Mayne (1994). Melbourne: The City's History and Development (2nd ed.). City of Melbourne. ISBN 0949624713, 9780949624710. 
  • McClymont, David; Mark Armstrong (2000). Lonely Planet Melbourne. Lonely Planet. pp. 200 pages. ISBN 1864501243, 9781864501247. 
  • Newnham, William Henry (1956). Melbourne: The Biography of a City. F. W. Cheshire. pp. 225 pages. 
  • O'Hanlon, Seamus and Tanja Luckins (eds)(2005), Go! Melbourne. Melbourne in the Sixties, Melbourne Publishing Group, Beaconsfield, Victoria. ISBN 0-9757802-0-4
  • Priestley, Susan (1995). South Melbourne: A History. Melbourne University Press. p. 455. ISBN 0522846645, 9780522846645. 
  • Tout-Smith, Deborah (ed.) (2009). Melbourne: A city of stories. Museum Victoria. pp. 114 pages. ISBN 9780980381375. 

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