Transport in Melbourne

Transport in Melbourne
Chart of Melbourne's Metropolitan Transport Usage between 2000-2009 based on official state government figures.[1]

Transport in Melbourne consists of extensive networks and a wide variety of transport services in the city of Melbourne, Australia, including:

  • The world's largest tram network.
  • Bus (which consist of 323 routes) and coach services
  • The metro railway network (consisting of 16 lines, the second largest in Australia)
  • Inter-city railway services
  • Interstate railway services
  • The largest freeway network in any Australian city[2]
  • Two major passenger airports (including Tullamarine, the second busiest in Australia)
  • Port of Melbourne (Australia's busiest port for containerised and general cargo)
  • Multiple taxi, hire car and other small commercial passenger vehicle services
  • Public bike-hire system (since mid 2010)

As of 2009, the share of public transport measured in passenger kilometres is around 11%, with private motor vehicle accounting for 89%.[3] Melbourne has more roadspace per capita than any Australian city and its network of freeways is comparable with cities including Los Angeles and Atlanta.[4], and the city is also home to much of Australia's Automotive industry. In 2002, the state government set an "aspirational goal" as part of Melbourne 2030 for this mode share to decrease to 80%, however the Eddington Report released in 2008 concluded that the mode share of private vehicles is likely to stay the same (or increase) to over 90% in 2005.[5] This is despite booming figures for public transport growth in recent years[6] and despite studies into road congestion in 2008, official Vicroads figures showed no growth in car travel on Melbourne's roads,[7] possibly due to roads reaching full capacity.


Public transport

Trams pass trains on the Flinders Street Viaduct in the Melbourne CBD

Melbourne is served by a public transport system integrating rail, tram and bus services. Its extensive tram network is the largest in the world, integrated into both bus and train networks. Almost 300 bus routes and a train system comprising 16 lines service Melbourne, Greater Melbourne and suburban regions. Metropolitan, rural and interstate railway networks link together at Southern Cross Station, in Melbourne's WCBD (Western Central Business District).

A Space Syntax Approach Multiple Centrality Analysis of Melbourne's public transport network (excluding buses which were deemed too inefficient) in 2009, found that approximately 8.8% of the greater urban area and approximately 448,000 residents were serviced within 30 minutes of anywhere in the greater Melbourne area. This concluded that only 10-15% of the residents in Melbourne are serviced by appropriate and timely public transport.

The public transport system in Melbourne carries 7% of all trips within the metropolitan area.[8] In early 2009 this figure increased to 9%, with the share measured in passenger kilometres increasing to 11%.[3]

Since World War II, Melbourne urban form changed to a dispersed city, car-oriented pattern which caused a decline in public transport use by commuters.[9] Yet the old pattern of transport still reflected the Melbourne’s urban form.[9]

In 1999, operation of the city's public transport system was franchised with Government through a dedicated statutory office, the Director of Public Transport, contracting out operation of rail and tram services. In 2006, franchising was estimated to have cost taxpayers $1.2 billion more than if the system had remained publicly operated. With the franchise extensions in 2009, taxpayers will pay an estimated $2.1 billion more by 2010.[10]

Melbourne has an integrated public transport ticketing system through Metcard and myki. Metcard enables passengers to buy one ticket for use on suburban bus, train and tram services for a specified time period. The other ticketing system is designed to replace Metcard and is called myki. myki is a contactless smartcard currently operating on all of Melbourne's trains, trams and buses. The rollout for myki began on Tuesday 29 December 2009, beginning with Melbourne's metropolitan railway network, and progressively onto trams and buses. myki is currently fully operational in the Melbourne metropolitan area, however no date has been announced for its operation on regional train and bus services.[11]

A public bike-hire system came into service in mid 2010. Due to laws requiring all bike users to wear helmets (or face a fine of AU$176), usage on the system has been lower than seen in other cities with similar systems. An attempt by the government has been made to rectify this by having helmet vending machines at some of the major bike stations, allowing spur-of-the-moment travel without risking a fine. The success of this is disputed. Public debate about the helmet laws remains ongoing.

Melbourne transit is unique in the way that the stations are considerably closer to each other than are other similar train services. Melbourne is also unique in the fact that most of the forms of mass transport in the city would actually be considered hybrids if not a class of their own. The tramway is, by definition (exculding station distances), a tramway/light rail hybrid[12]. Similary, the Melbourne trains are commuter rails/heavy rails hybrids[13]. Passenger trains in Victoria do, however, have regional rail and inter-city rail (non-hybrid).


D1 class tram operated by Yarra Trams

Melbourne has the world's largest tram network, consisting of 245 kilometres of track, nearly 500 trams on 28 routes, and 1,813 tram stops. Two light-rail routes are also a part of the tram network. The tram network is a part of the Metlink network and a part of the Metcard ticketing system.

The tram network is operated by KDR Melbourne, a private company trading as Yarra Trams. Trams operate on many of the major roads in the inner suburbs, but only some trams operate on roads in middle and outer suburbs.

Heritage trams operate on the free City Circle route, intended for visitors to Melbourne, and privately-run Colonial Tramcar Restaurant trams travel through the city during the evening.

Mass Transit Railway

X'Trapolis 100 train operated by Connex Melbourne, the previous operator

Melbourne's metro train network is operated by Metro Trains Melbourne, a private company, which took over from Connex Melbourne on 30 November 2009.[14] The rail network consists of 16 railway lines and is a part of the Metlink network and a part of the Metcard ticketing system. Several sections of lines which are part of the V/Line network and which fall into the metropolitan area are also covered by Metcard.[15]

With the exception of the Stony Point line and the greater metropolitan lines served by V/Line, the rest of the suburban railway network is electrified and services are operated by a fleet of 326 EMU trains.


National Bus Company operated bus

The bus network is run by several bus companies (approximately 50) under a franchise from the State Government. There are approximately 300 routes in operation with a varying range of service frequencies. A NightRider bus system operates on Friday and Saturday nights, and a Smart Bus orbital bus network is being set up, which is intended to facilitate cross city travel, while the current network is predominantly a radial network. Most of the bus network is a part of the Metlink network and a part of the Metcard ticketing system. The Skybus Super Shuttle is a non-Metcard based airport bus service. In addition, several local government councils operate free local community bus services within their local areas.

Regional rail

V/Line operated VLocity diesel train

Melbourne is the centre of a state-wide railway network, consisting of various lines used for both freight and passenger services.

Intrastate passenger services are operated by V/Line and a fleet of locomotive hauled trains and Diesel Multiple Units. There are seven passenger railway lines connecting Melbourne to various towns and cities in Victoria. Four of these lines were upgraded as part of the Regional Fast Rail project. The centre of the regional passenger railway network is Southern Cross Station located in the Melbourne CBD.

Melbourne is also connected to Sydney by the CountryLink XPT and Adelaide by Great Southern Railway's The Overland.

Passenger Mode share

Sign displaying the free Melbourne tourist shuttle bus
Melbourne metropolitan trips in 2008[16]
Public Transport 9%
Car 91%
Trips to Melbourne CBD in 2006[17][dubious ]
Public transport 80%
Car 20%
Passenger trips by motorised mode[1][18]
Mode Million trips
Private Car (driver or passenger) 2190
Metro Train 201.2
Tram 170
Bus 91.3

Rail freight

Pacific National locomotive at the Melbourne Steel Terminal

The Port of Melbourne is Australia's largest container and general cargo port.[19] Regular shipping lines operate to around 300 cities around the world and 3200 ships visit the port each year. The Port of Melbourne is located in the inner west of Melbourne, near the junction of the Maribyrnong and Yarra rivers.

Container crane and ship at Swanson Dock East

On 8 February 2008 the Port Phillip Channel Deepening Project, a dredging project to deepen Melbourne's shipping channels, began.

Melbourne also has an extensive network of railway lines and yards to serve freight traffic. The lines are of two gauges - 5 ft 3 in (1,600 mm) broad gauge and 4 ft 8 12 in (1,435 mm) standard gauge, and are not electrified. In the inner western suburbs of the city, freight trains have their own lines to operate upon, but in other areas trains are required to share the tracks with Metro Trains Melbourne and V/Line passenger services. The majority of freight terminals are located in the inner suburbs about the Port of Melbourne, located between the Melbourne CBD and Footscray.

Until the 1980s a number of suburban stations had their own goods yards, with freight trains running over the suburban network, often with the E or L class electric locomotives.


Melbourne Airport

Melbourne Airport, located in the north-western suburb of Tullamarine, is the nation's second busiest airport. Over 30 airlines and 22 million international and domestic passengers are served and service there each year.[20] The airport is a hub for passenger airlines Qantas, Jetstar Airways, Tiger Airways Australia and Virgin Australia; and cargo airlines Australian air Express and Toll Priority.

Melbourne's second major passenger airport, Avalon Airport (Melbourne Avalon), is south-west of Melbourne, and north-east of Geelong. Avalon Airport is primarily used by Jetstar and operates flights to Brisbane, Sydney and Perth. AirAsia X was expected to commence flights from Avalon to Kuala Lumpur in October 2009, providing a low-cost service. This provides Melbourne with a second international airport, unique among all capital cities in Australia.

Melbourne's first major airport, Essendon Airport, is no longer used for scheduled international flights. Although a small number of regional airline flights operate from there it caters mainly to general aviation. The airport is also home to the state's Air Ambulance service.

Moorabbin Airport is located to the south of Melbourne, and is primarily used for recreational flying and for flying lessons. Moorabbin is also used for a small number of regional airline services, most notably to King Island, Tasmania. Moorabbin is a GAAP airport and its code is YMMB.

Airbase RAAF Point Cook, where the Royal Australian Air Force originated, is located near the city's south-western limits.

Eastern Freeway, looking towards the City

Motor vehicles are the predominate travel mode, as a result the freeways and roads in Melbourne are critically congested during peak hours. Many residents are car dependent due to minimal public transport outside of the inner city - the city is one of the most car-dependent cities in the world. The freeway network is the largest of any Australian city,[2] with an extensive grid of arterial roads; the locations of which date back to the initial surveying of the city.

The total urban road area in Melbourne is 21,381 kilometres.[21]

The beginnings of the freeway network was the 1969 Melbourne Transportation Plan, which included a grid of freeways that would cover the entire metropolitan area. In 1973 these plans were reviewed, with a large number of inner city projects deleted.[22]

Freeways that were built throughout the 1960s and '70s included the South Eastern Arterial (now part of the Monash Freeway), the Tullamarine Freeway, the Lower Yarra Freeway (now West Gate Freeway) and the Eastern Freeway.

Further expansion occurred over the next thirty years, with the 'missing links' [23] between the existing freeways built - completion of the Monash Freeway, CityLink, and the Western Ring Road. This period also saw further freeway expansion into suburbia with the Mornington Peninsula Freeway, Eastern Freeway extension, and the South Gippsland Freeway being constructed.

2008 saw the construction and opening of the EastLink radial freeway, as well as further extensions of existing freeways.

Despite government figures slowed growth in road travel since 2006 and zero growth in 2008/09[24] and the government's goal to reduce road use to 80% of all motorised trips, the State government announced a massive road infrastructure investment, continuing to complete some of the road projects from the 1969 Transport plan including Peninsula Link and North-East Link.


Melbourne Bike Share station on Macarthur St

Melbourne has an extensive network of bicycle paths and bicycle lanes on roads. These paths are used for both recreation and for commuting.

Around two per cent of all journeys in Melbourne are made by bicycle.[citation needed]

On 31 May 2010 the first public bicycle sharing system in Australia was launched in Melbourne.[25] On completion the system will consist of 50 docking stations with 600 bikes, situated around the Melbourne CBD.[26]


Trams and taxis in Melbourne

Taxis in Melbourne are regulated by the State government through the Department of Transport and an operating branch of the Director of Public Transport, the Victorian Taxi Directorate.[27] They are required to be painted canary yellow, but since October 2008 those that can operate only at peak times only, at night and special events must have green tops. Taxis operate and charge on a meter. There are 3,774 licensed taxis in Melbourne (including 235 wheelchair-accessible taxis).[28] Taxi licenses are estimated to be valued at around $464,000, at October 2008.[29]

Taxi availability and service is currently a major issue in Melbourne and Victoria. On 28 March 2011, the Premier Ted Baillieu announced a major inquiry into the taxi sector - the Taxi Industry Inquiry - which is being conducted by the Taxi Services Commission being headed by Professor Allan Fels. Legislation was passed by the Victorian Parliament in late June 2011 to create the Commission[30] which commenced operation on 19 July. The inquiry is expected to result in major reforms to Victoria's taxi industry and have far reaching impacts on taxi services in Melbourne and beyond.

Station Pier in Port Phillip Bay is where cruise ships and ferries dock; the Spirit of Tasmania which crosses Bass Strait to Tasmania docks here. Ferries and cruises travel from Southbank along the Yarra River and around the bay to Williamstown, and also across Port Phillip Bay.

Transport Integration Act

The prime transport statute in Victoria is the Transport Integration Act. The Act establishes and sets the charters of the state agencies charged with providing transport services and managing the state's transport system. The Department of Transport is the agency responsible for the integration and coordination of Victoria's transport system and decision makers. The other key state agencies are -

Likely future organisational developments

A new Victorian Government was elected in late November 2010 under Premier Ted Baillieu. There are a number of current organisational proposals being promoted by the new Government which are likely to require substantial changes to the Transport Integration Act.

Public Transport Development Authority

A key policy of the Government leading into the election was to create a Public Transport Development Authority (PTDA). The Government has positioned the VTDA as an agency which will be independent and which will coordinate all aspects of public transport in Victoria.[32] [33] The Government has indicated that the authority will plan, co-ordinate, manage and administer metropolitan trams, buses and trains, regional trains and buses, replacing the current structure of multiple agencies. The body is expected to be fully established in mid 2011.[34] Planning for the Melbourne Airport, Rowville and Doncaster rail lines may be overseen by the new transport authority.[35][36]

Taxi Services Commission

The Government announced a Taxi Industry Inquiry and the establishment of a Taxi Services Commission (TSC).[37] The inquiry is headed by Professor Allan Fels and has commenced. The agency conducting the inquiry, the TSC, was announced as the eventual successor to the current taxi industry regulator, the Victorian Taxi Directorate (part of the office of the Director of Public Transport which in turn forms part of the Department of Transport), with the change of power to occur once the inquiry has concluded. The Government introduced special legislation to empower the inquiry - the Transport Legislation Amendment (Taxi Services Reform and Other Matters) Act 2011 - which was enacted in late June 2011. The TSC was formally established on 19 July 2011 when relevant parts of the Act commenced.

Port of Hastings Development Authority

The Government is taking action to reverse the merger of the Port of Melbourne Corporation (PMC) and the Port of Hastings Corporation which occurred in late 2010. Ports Minister, Dr Dennis Napthine, has announced that a new agency, a Port of Hastings Development Authority, will be established to oversee the development of the port of Hastings as a competitor in container trade to the PMC.[38] Legislation for this purpose is close to passage through the Victorian Parliament[39].

Safety regulation and investigation

Rail Safety

The safety of rail operations in Melbourne is regulated by the Rail Safety Act 2006 which applies to all commercial passenger and freight operations as well as tourist and heritage railways.[40] The Act creates a framework containing safety duties for all rail industry participants and requires rail operators who manage infrastructure and rolling stock to obtain accreditation prior to commencing operations. Accredited rail operators are also required to have a safety management system to guide their operations. Sanctions applying to the safety scheme established under the Rail Safety Act are contained in the Transport (Compliance and Miscellaneous) Act 1983.[41]

Bus and marine safety

Safety regulation of the bus and marine sectors is also overseen by the Director, Transport Safety under the Bus Safety Act 2009 and the Marine Act 1988 respectively. These sectors are also subject to no blame safety investigations conducted by the Chief Investigator, Transport Safety.

Safety regulator

The safety regulator for the rail, bus and marine systems in Melbourne is the Director, Transport Safety (trading as Transport Safety Victoria). The Director's office is established under the Transport Integration Act 2010.

Safety investigations

Rail, bus and marine operators in Victoria can also be the subject of no blame investigations conducted by the Chief Investigator, Transport Safety or the Australian Transport Safety Bureau(ATSB). The Chief Investigator is charged by the Transport Integration Act[42] with conducting investigations into rail, bus and marine safety matters including incidents and trends. ATSB, on the other hand, has jurisdiction over rail matters only where they occur on the Designated Interstate Rail Network, marine matters if the ships are under Commonwealth or AMSA regulation and bus safety matters by invitation of the jurisdiction.

Ticketing and conduct requirements

Ticketing requirements for rail, tram and buses services in Victoria are mainly contained in the Transport (Ticketing) Regulations 2006[43] and the Victorian Fares and Ticketing Manual.[44] Rules about safe and fair behaviour on trains and trams in Victoria are generally contained in the Transport (Compliance and Miscellaneous) Act 1983[45] and the Transport (Conduct) Regulations 2005.[46] Conduct requirements for buses are set out in the same Act as well as the Transport (Passenger Vehicles) Regulations 2005.

During Melbourne's history, the transport system and infrastructure has been subject to strategic planning at several levels of government.

  • Hoddle grid is laid out, forming Melbourne's first street system which is used almost solely for horse and cart transport and pedestrians.
  • Melbourne's principal streets are paved.
  • Princes Bridge reopened as a free bridge.
  • Flinders Street railway station opened
  • First railway opened to Sandridge (Port Melbourne)
  • Spencer Street Station built connecting Melbourne to regional Victoria.
First electric tram.
  • Doncaster railway line first proposed.
  • Flinders Street station declared the busiest in the world.
  • Ashworth Improvement Plan details proposed improvements to the number of improvements to suburban railways in the inner city.
  • St Kilda Junction remodelled and Queens Way underpass created, much cutting and demolition to create way for new highways at Dandenong Road and Punt Road.
  • West Gate Bridge collapses.
  • Melbourne Underground Rail Loop Authority established.
  • First section of Eastern Freeway opened with land reserved for a Doncaster railway line
  • $202 million West Gate Bridge opened, with tolls
  • Hoddle Highway created from widening of Hoddle Street by 4 lanes and demolishing buildings on eastern side of Hoddle Street.
  • Lonie Report recommends closing half of tram system and replacing it with buses. This is rejected.
  • Transport Bill introduced into the Victorian Parliament.
  • New Government elected in October 1992 under Premier Jeff Kennett. Alan Brown appointed as Minister for Public Transport and Bill Baxter as Minister for Roads and Ports.
  • Ministry of Transport abolished and replaced by the Department of Transport.
  • various transport administration functions transferred from the Public Transport Corporation to the Secretary of the Department of Transport.
  • Construction of $2 billion CityLink tollway begins.
  • Rail Corporations Act passed by Parliament.
  • Design of the franchising of the public transport network commences.
  • Legislation passed to establish a new statutory office to manage public transport services - the Director of Public Transport - and a new statutory authority, VicTrack, to hold ownership of public transport land and assets
  • Opening of Western Ring Road
  • Opening of the Bolte Bridge forming the second major roadway over the Yarra River.
  • State government commissions the Linking Victoria study and allocates $510 of budget toward the initiatives.[47]
  • Franchising of services commences as do new governance arrangements, i.e. start up of the Director of Public Transport and VicTrack
  • Transport Minister Peter Batchelor announced that Airport rail link to Tullamarine not viable for another 10 years. Commits to upgrading Skybus Super Shuttle services to the airport.[48]
  • State government commissions Melbourne 2030 planning report aimed at addressing population growth of up to a million new residents also contained recommendations for transport including the expansion major activity centres such as Dandenong and Camberwell with access to public transport and the triplication of the Dandenong line. The document contained a controversial aim of 20% of trips in Melbourne made by public transport by 2020.
  • $23 million Box Hill tram/light rail extension opened.[49]
  • Linking Melbourne: Metropolitan Transport Plan released. The report summarised findings from the Inner West Integrated Transport Study, North East Integrated Transport Study, Outer Western Suburbs Transport Strategy, Whittlesea Strategic Transport Infrastructure Study and Northern Central City Corridor Strategy and recommended investment to the tune of $1.5 billion. Much subsequent infrastructure investment. The Southern Cross Station redevelopment (which ran late and over budget), Docklands light rail extension and the Regional Fast Train system were aimed for the Commonwealth Games. The Eastlink freeway was also not in this report.
  • $30.5 million Vermont South tram extension begins.[50]
  • $2.5 billion EastLink Freeway project begins.
  • State government released a $10 billion plan to improve both public transport and roads, Meeting our Transport Challenges. It included the "Think Tram" project aimed at speeding up tram travel times and contained recommendations for a new SmartBus system for the outer eastern suburbs. The Smartbus system had several delays.
  • Rail Safety Act - Victoria's first dedicated rail safety statute passed by State Parliament - commences on 1 August.
  • new ticketing laws, Transport (Ticketing) Regulations 2006, made and commenced.
  • State's first independent rail and bus safety regulator established, Director, Public Transport Safety (Public Transport Safety, Victoria) as of 1 August (office later renamed Director, Transport Safety, in 2010).
  • State's first independent rail, bus and marine safety investigator established, Chief Investigator, Public Transport and Marine Safety Investigations, as of 1 August (office later renamed, Chief Investigator, Transport Safety, in 2010).
  • A new public transport ticketing system - Myki was to be launched. The project experienced several technical complications and was significantly delayed and over budget.
  • State government commissions East-West transport plan.
  • Public transport ticketing Zone 3 abolished.
  • Taxi industry accreditation scheme commences on 1 July.
  • New commercial passenger vehicle driver accreditation scheme commences on 1 July.
  • First "Copenhagen style" cycleways in Australia implemented in Swanston Street, Carlton.[51]
  • Tim Pallas rejects Melbourne City Council plan for Copenhagen style cycleway on St Kilda Road.[52]
  • Accident Towing Services Act passed by Parliament.
  • The Port Phillip Channel Deepening Project, a dredging project to deepen Melbourne's shipping channels, begins.
  • Release of the $18 billion Eddington Transport Report, commissioned by the government in 2007 due to revised population growth estimates and increasing congestion problems. The report was aimed at reducing traffic congestion, particularly focused on East-West routes and included a controversial 18 kilometre road tunnel and 17 kilometre rail tunnel and a new rail line from Werribee to Deer Park, Victoria but did not address greenhouse emissions.[53]
  • Eastlink freeway tunnel opened.
  • Monash-CityLink-West Gate freeway upgrade begins.
  • Department of Transport established in place of the Department of Infrastructure
  • Australian Greens Victoria party transport plan, The People Plan, released.
  • Public Transport minister Lynne Kosky pushes back Airport link by another 20 years.[54]
  • Victorian Transport Plan unveiled - the State Government's fourth "long-term" transport statement since 2002.[55]
  • New Melbourne Lord Mayor Robert Doyle proposes returning vehicle traffic to Swanston Street.
  • Accident Towing Services Act commences on 1 January.
  • Transport Integration Bill (later the Transport Integration Act) introduced into the Victorian Parliament on 10 December.
  • Myki officially in late December to meet a State Government election promise, however it was launched to operate on suburban trains only
  • Major Transport Projects Facilitation Act 2009 passed by Parliament and commences on 1 September.
  • Transport Integration Act passed by the Victorian Parliament in February and commences on 1 July.
  • A public bike-hire service is planned to be introduced by mid year.
  • the Transport Act 1983 is renamed the Transport (Compliance and Miscellaneous) Act 1983 on 1 July
  • Independent public transport and marine safety regulators merged to create new office of the Director, Transport Safety (Transport Safety, Victoria)
  • Port corporations (Port of Melbourne Corporation and Victorian Regional Channels Authority) brought under the Transport Integration Act and Port of Hastings Corporation merged with the Port of Melbourne Corporation on 1 September.
  • New State Government (when in Opposition) promises to create a new Public Transport Development Authority to plan and manage public transport services in Victoria and Melbourne.
  • Tourist and Heritage Railways Act 2010 passed by Parliament.
  • Marine Safety Act 2010 passed by Parliament.
  • New State Government elected on 27 November under Premier Ted Baillieu. Terry Mulder sworn in as Minister for Public Transport and Minister for Roads. Dr Denis Napthine sworn in as Minister for Ports.
  • Bus Safety Act commences on 31 December 2010.
  • Public Transport Minister Terry Mulder announces the Government's intention to hold a major inquiry into the taxi industry - the Taxi Industry Inquiry - the inquiry commences in late May headed by Allan Fels.
  • Transport Legislation Amendment (Taxi Services Reform and Other Matters) Act 2011 passed by Victorian Parliament on 29 June thereby empowering the Taxi Industry Inquiry and creating the Taxi Services Commission.
  • Taxi Services Commission commences operations on 19 July.

Between 2001 and 2006 - census data shows that Melbourne has had:

  • 7.6% population growth
  • 8.6% employment growth
  • 15% increase in the number of passenger vehicles on the road
  • 6% increase in the total number of kilometres driven by those vehicles
  • 7.3% increase in CO2 emissions from passenger vehicles
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  21. ^ "Urban Australia: Where most of us live". Retrieved 2011-05-23. 
  22. ^ "DoI - Northern Central City Corridor Study" (PDF). Archived from the original on September 11, 2006.$FILE/Issues+and+Trends+part+3.pdf. Retrieved 2007-07-26. 
  23. ^ "East-West Link Needs Assessment Submission" (PDF).$UNIDS+for+Web+Display/E8638DEF1187D440CA2572F800091E4E/$FILE/East-West%20Submission%20Macquarie%20Bank.pdf. Retrieved 2007-07-26. 
  24. ^ Lucas, Clay (2009-03-17). "Hard times just the ticket for public transport". The Age (Melbourne). 
  25. ^ ABC: Melbourne bike share not a sure thing. Retrieved 7 June 2010.
  26. ^ Clay Lucas: Share scheme out of the blocks for city cyclists in The Age 1 June 2010. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
  27. ^ "Taxis and hire vehicles - Structure of the taxi industry". Retrieved 2010-12-11. 
  28. ^ "Taxis and hire vehicles - Taxi industry statistics". Retrieved 2010-12-11. 
  29. ^ "DoI - Structure of the taxi industry". Retrieved 2007-07-26. 
  30. ^ Transport Legislation Amendment (Taxi Services Reform and Other Matters) Act 2011.
  31. ^ "Date" (PDF). Retrieved 2011-05-23. 
  32. ^ "Date" (PDF). Retrieved 2011-05-23. 
  33. ^ Lucas, Clay (15 November 2010). "Baillieu revives airport rail link". The Age (Melbourne). 
  34. ^ "Hoddle Street expressway plan ditched". Herald Sun. 2011-03-21. Retrieved 2011-05-23. 
  35. ^ Lucas, Clay (15 November 2010). "Baillieu revives airport rail link". The Age (Melbourne). 
  36. ^ Rolfe, Peter; Campbell, James (24 April 2011). "$20Mil For New Rail Links". Sunday Herald Sun. 
  37. ^ Premier of Victoria, media release, 28 March 2011.
  38. ^ Dr Denis Napthine, Minister for Ports, press release, "Big Plans for Port of Hastings", 30th March 2011.
  39. ^ The Transport Legislation Amendment (Port of Hastings Development Authority) Bill 2011 has passed the lower house the Legislative Assembly, and is expected to be passed by the upper house, the Legislative Council, by mid to late August.
  40. ^ Official copy of the Rail Safety Act from the Victorian Government legislation web site -$FILE/06-9a016.pdf
  41. ^ See Part 7 of the Act. Official copy of the Transport (Compliance and Miscellaneous) Act 1983 from the official Victorian Government legislation site -$FILE/83-9921a153.pdf
  42. ^ Transport Integration Act 2010, Part 7.
  43. ^ "Transport (Ticketing) Regulations 2006" (PDF).$FILE/06-86sr004.pdf. Retrieved 2011-05-23. 
  44. ^ Your guide to public transport in Melbourne and Victoria. "Victorian Fares and Ticketing Manual - Metlink - Your guide to public transport in Melbourne and Victoria". Retrieved 2011-05-23. 
  45. ^ "Victorian Law Today Act".!OpenDocument. Retrieved 2011-05-23. 
  46. ^ "Victorian Law Today Statutory Rule".!OpenDocument. Retrieved 2011-05-23. 
  47. ^!OpenDocument
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  50. ^ "Media Release: Vermont South Tram Extension One Step Closer". 2004-01-29.!OpenDocument. Retrieved 2011-05-23. 
  51. ^ "Inner: Swanston RMIT to Melbourne University — Bicycle Victoria". 2008-04-29. Retrieved 2011-05-23. 
  52. ^ Lucas, Clay; Millar, Royce (2007-03-03). "Minister runs down cycle plan". The Age (Melbourne). 
  53. ^ Millar, Royce; Lucas, Clay; Rood, David; Morton, Adam (2008-04-03). "$18 billion to link east and west". Melbourne: Retrieved 2011-05-23. 
  54. ^ Rail link way down the track from
  55. ^ Clay Lucas, Jason Dowling and Ben Schneiders (September 15, 2008). "Strategy to ease the squeeze". The Age (Melbourne). Retrieved 2008-09-15. 
  • Dodson, Jago; Sipe, Neil (December 2005), Oil Vulnerability in the Australian City, Australia: Urban Research Program, Griffith University, ISBN 1 920952 50 0 

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