- Environmental issues in Australia
As with other countries there are a number of environmental issues in Australia.
conservation issuesinclude the protection of Australian habitat from invasive species, soil salinity and the effects of mining and land clearing on the environment. The protection of wetlands and other unique habitats is becoming increasingly important to Australia. Other major environmental issues in Australia include the preservation of biodiversity especially in rainforests, and the protection of the Great Barrier Reeffrom environmental threats.
The culling of wild horses and
kangaroos are two of the more controversial environmental issues in Australia. Recognising the problem and dealing with climate change in Australiawhile formulating an appropriate energy policy have been key environmental issues for the current Australian Government.Fact|date=April 2008 The protection of waterways in Murray-Darling Basinand more generally the sustainability of irrigation in Australiaare also major issues.
Climate change has become a major issue in Australia in recent years. Much of the country's population appears to be losing its traditional water sources due to persistent drought even as most of the
outbackreceives large increases in rainfall. At the same time, Australiacontinues to have the highest per capita greenhouse gasemissions and academic studies have clearly shown the influence of fossil fueland light metal( aluminiumand titanium) industry lobby groups on the country's political system to be both strongly established and highly extensive.
All federal and state governments have explicitly recognised that climate change is being caused by greenhouse gas emissions. Sectors of the population are actively campaigning against new coal mines and coal fired power stations because of their concern about the effects of global warming on Australia. Other sectors of the population, however, believe it is still too early to tell whether or not there has actually been human induced climate change and believe the natural variability of Australia's climate too high for panic. After publication of the Garnaut draft report and the Green Paper on the proposed
Carbon Pollution Reduction Schememembers of this group are increasingly viewed as "climate sceptics".
There is expected to be a net benefit to Australia of stabilising greenhouse gases in the atmosphere at 450ppm CO2 eq [ cite web | url= http://www.garnautreview.org.au/CA25734E0016A131/WebObj/GarnautClimateChangeReviewInterimReport-Feb08/$File/Garnaut%20Climate%20Change%20Review%20Interim%20Report%20-%20Feb%2008.pdf | format=PDF | title= Garnaut Climate Change Review Interim Report to the Commonwealth, State and Territory Governments of Australia | work= | accessdate=2008-04-27 | date=February 2007 | publisher=
Garnaut Climate Change Review| last= | first= | coauthors= | pages=63pp | quote=These glimpses suggest that it is in Australia’s interest to seek the strongest feasible global mitigation outcomes – 450 ppm as currently recommended by the science advisers to the UNFCCC and accepted by the European Union. ] although vested interests such as the coal industry argue this proposition.
Conservation in Australia is an issue of state and federal policy. Australia is one of the most biologically diverse countries in the world, with a large portion of species endemic to Australia. Preserving this wealth of
biodiversityis important for future generations.
A key conservation issue is the preservation of biodiversity, especially by protecting the remaining rainforests. The destruction of habitat by human activities, including land clearing, remains the major cause of biodiversity loss in Australia. The importance of the Australian rainforests to the conservation movement is very high. Australia is the only western country to have large areas of rainforest intact. Forests provide timber, drugs, and food and should be managed to maximize the possible uses. Currently, there are a number of environmental movements and campaigners advocating for action on saving the environment, one such campaign is the Big Switch.
Land management issues including clearance of native vegetation, reafforestation of once-cleared areas, control of exotic weeds and pests, expansion of dryland salinity, and changed fire regimes. Intensification of resource use in sectors such as forestry, fisheries, and agriculture are widely reported to contribute to biodiversity loss in Australia. Coastal and marine environments also have reduced biodiversity from reduced water quality caused by pollution and sediments arising from human settlements and agriculture. In central New South Wales where there are large plains of grassland, problems have risen from—unusual to say—lack of land clearing.
Daintree Rainforest, a tropical rainforest near Daintree, Queenslandcovering around 1200 square kilometers, is threatened by logging, development, mining and the effects of the high tourist numbers.
Australia's geographical isolation has resulted in the evolution of many delicate ecological relationships that are sensitive to foreign invaders and in many instances provided no natural predators for many of the species subsequently introduced. Introduced plants that have caused widepread problems are
lantanaand the prickly pearbush. The introduction and spread of animals such as the cane toador rabbitcan disrupt the existing balances between populations and develop into environmental problems. The introduction of cattleinto Australia and to a lesser extant the dingo, are other examples of species that have changed the landscape. In some cases the introduction of new species can lead to plagues and the extinction of endeminic species.
prehistory of Australiathe indigenous Australiansused fire to clear land for the hunting of game and encouraging new growth. With colonisation the majority of cleared land in Australia has been developed for cattle, cotton and wheat production. The extinction of 20 different mammal, 9 bird and 97 plant species have been partially attributed to land clearing. Land clearing is a major source of Australia’s greenhouse gas emissions, and contributed to approximately 12 percent of Australia’s total emissions in 1998.
Consequences of land clearing is
dryland salinityand soil erosion. Since European settlement a total of 13% of native vegetation cover has been lost.
old growth forests is continuing in parts of Australia.
One of the natable issues with
marine conservationin Australis is the protection of the Great Barrier Reef. The Great Barrier Reef's environmental pressures include water quality from runoff, climate change and mass coral bleaching, cyclic outbreaks of the crown-of-thorns starfish, overfishing, and shipping accidents.
Australia is a major exporter and user of coal, the burning of which creates CO2. Consequently, in 2000 Australia was the highest emitter of
greenhouse gasesper capita in the developed world irrespective of whether or not emissions from land clearing were included. [ List of countries by greenhouse gas emissions per capita] It is also one of the countries most at risk from climate changeaccording to the Stern report.
Soil salinityaffects 50,000 km² of Australia and is predominantly due to land clearance.
Australia has the largest reserves of
uraniumin the world and there has been a number of enquiries on uranium mining. The anti-nuclear movement in Australiais actively opposing mining as well as preventing the construction of nuclear power plants.
Whalingin Australia took place from colonisation in 1788. In 1979 Australia terminated whaling and committed to whale protection. The main varieties hunted were Humpback, Blue, Right and Sperm Whales.cite journal | last = Suter | first = Keith D. | year = 1982 | month = October | title = Australia's new whaling policy : Formulation and implementation | journal = Marine Policy | volume = 6 | issue = 4 | pages = 287–302 | doi = 10.1016/0308-597X(82)90004-5]
List of environmental issues
* [http://www.envirotalk.com.au/ Envirotalk] - Australia's largest environmental discussion forum]
[Category:Environmental issues in Australia| ]
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