Launceston, Tasmania

Launceston, Tasmania

Infobox Australian Place
type = city
name = Launceston
state = tas

imagesize = 270
caption = Launceston City
pop = 99,675
pop_footnotes = Census 2006 AUS | id = 61505 | name = Greater Launceston (Statistical Subdivision)|quick = on|accessdate=2007-12-18]
poprank = 17
density =
density_footnotes =
est = 1806
postcode = 7250
coordinates = coord|41|26|31|S|147|8|42|E|type:city_region:AU-TAS|display=inline,title
elevation =
elevation_footnotes =
area =
area_footnotes =
timezone = AEST
utc = +10
timezone-dst = AEDT
utc-dst = +11
propval =
mayor = Albert Van Zetten
dist1 = 198
dir1 =
location1 = Hobart
dist2 = 101
dir2 =
location2 = Devonport
dist3 = 63
dir3 =
location3 = Scottsdale
lga = City of Launceston
seat =
region =
landdistrict = Cornwall
parish =
stategov =
fedgov = Bass
fedgov2 = Lyons

logo_size =
url =
maxtemp = 18.4
mintemp = 7.2
rainfall = 668.4
near-nw = Exeter
near-n = Weymouth
near-ne = Lilydale
near-w = Deloraine
near-e = Mount Barrow
near-sw = Great Lake
near-s = Longford
near-se = Campbell Town

Launceston (Pron-en-au|ˈlɔnsəstən) (short first vowel, /ˈlɔːnsəstən/ is often incorrectly heard in other parts of Australia) [cite web|url=|title=Rotary Down Under Magazine May 2004|publisher=Rotary International|date=2004-05-01|accessdate=2007-12-26] [The Cornish Launceston is pronEng|ˈlɔːns(t)ən or IPA|/ˈlɑːns(t)ən/.] is a city in the north of the state of Tasmania, Australia, with a population (greater urban and statistical sub division) of 99,675, located at the juncture of the North Esk, South Esk, and Tamar rivers. It is the second largest city in Tasmania after the state capital Hobart. [cite web|url=|title=Living in Tasmania|publisher=The Department of Economic Development and Tourism|accessdate=2008-08-13]

Settled by Europeans in March 1806, Launceston is one of Australia's oldest cities and has many historical buildings and sights. [cite web|url=|title=A Walk Through Launceston's History|publisher=Gould Genealogy|accessdate=2008-08-16] Like many Australian places, it was named after a town in the United Kingdom — in this case, Launceston, Cornwall. [cite web|url=|title=Naming of Launceston — first paragraph|publisher=|accessdate=2008-06-23]


In 1798, George Bass and Matthew Flinders were sent to explore the possibility that there was a strait between Australia and Van Diemen's Land (now Tasmania). They named their landing place Port Dalrymple, now George Town, convert|40|km to the north-west. [ Launceston City Council] ]

The first significant colonial settlement in the region began in 1804 when the commandant of the British garrison Lt. Col. William Paterson and his men set up a camp where George Town now stands. A few weeks later, the settlement was moved across the river to York Town and a year later they finally settled in Launceston. [ Launceston City Council] ]

Initially the settlement was called Patersonia. Paterson later changed it to Launceston in honour of New South Wales Governor Captain Philip Gidley King who was born in the Cornish township of Launceston. [cite web|url=|title=Short Launceston History|accessdate=2008-08-28] The name has survived in the tiny hamlet of Patersonia convert|18|km north-west of Launceston. Paterson became Lieutenant-Governor of northern Van Diemen's Land from 1804 to 1808. [ Launceston City Council] ]

By 1827, Launceston's population had climbed to 2,000 and the town had become an export centre, mainly for the colony's northern pastoral industry. [ Launceston City Council] ] Tin was discovered at Mount Bischoff in 1871 in north western Tasmania starting a minerals boom. Gold mining commenced about 50km away in Beaconsfield in 1877. [ Launceston City Council] ]

During the following two decades Launceston grew from a small town into an urban centre. Launceston was declared Tasmania's second city after the state capital Hobart in 1889. [cite web|url=|title=Short Launceston History|accessdate=2008-08-29]


Launceston urban areas consist of mainly smaller suburbs distributed throughout the city. Invermay in close to the city centre and is served by many small shops along Invermay Road, and is home of Aurora Stadium and the Inveresk Precinct. [cite web |url= |title=2028.6 - Tasmanian Population Census Data: Launceston Suburbs, 2006|Publisher=Australian Bureau of Statistics|accessdate=2008-08-13]

King's Meadows is one of Launceston's southernmost suburbs, with more shops than any other suburb in Launceston. It is also home to the largest shopping centre in Launceston, housing 37 shops. [cite web |url= |title= Centro Meadow Mews: Publisher= Centro|accessdate=2008-09-07]

Prospect is in close proximity to Kings Meadows, being host to the Country Club Casino and many new property developments.

Government and politics

Federally, Launceston falls within the Division of Bass with the sitting member being Jodie Campbell for the Australian Labor Party.

The state seat Lower House seat is also called the Division of Bass and is one of the 5 electorates in the Tasmanian House of Assembly. Both federal and state seats share common boundaries. State Upper House seats which incorporate parts of Launceston are the Electoral Divisions of Paterson, Windermere and Rosevears.

Local government

A large portion of the city is part of the City of Launceston Local Government Area. Some outer suburbs are part of adjacent council districts; Riverside and Legana are part of the West Tamar Council; Prospect Vale and Blackstone Heights are part of the Meander Valley Council.

In 2002 Janie Dickenson became the youngest female elected mayor in Australia.


The Launceston flag design is based on the city's Coat of Arms granted by the College of Arms, London on 11 June 1957.cite web | title = Coat of Arms | publisher = Launceston City Council | url = | accessdate = 2008-08-16] The three intersecting lines represent the city's three rivers (North Esk, South Esk and Tamar) and the two rectangles in the lines represent tin ingots. The strip across the top with the jagged edge is green to represent the city's parks, gardens and surrounding countryside. Waratah flowers at the top symbolise all flowers and similar beauties of nature. The ingots are included because Launceston used to be a big tin smelting centre. The little circle at the river junction is Launceston.


Launceston is a major service centre for the north of the island of Tasmania.Fact|date=September 2008 The city is a "University town" Fact|date=August 2008 - housing a campus of the University of Tasmania including the Australian Maritime College. It also still has a fairly large minerals and manufacturing base, although this has been in decline, and the city is no longer the "mill town" it still was fifty years ago.Fact|date=September 2008

It is also a hub for a major agricultural and pastoral region. Historically this was mainly concerned with the growing of apples — in recent years the stress has moved to viticulture. Superfine wool remains an important part of the rural economy of North-East Tasmania, and wool sales in Launceston attract many international buyers. [cite web|url=|Publisher=Tasmanian Government|title=Tasmanian Economy Reports|accessdate=2008-08-28]


Launceston serves as the commercial hub for the north of the state and, like many parts of Tasmania, is become a major tourist centre. Visitors to the city have jumped immensely over the past few years. During 2004 Launceston attracted 412,800 visitors, up 51% from 2001. [cite web|url=|title=Retail Strategy for Launceston City|accessdate=2008-09-04]

The Cataract Gorge, a natural wonder of Tasmania and only five minutes walk from the city. Home to the longest single span chairlift in the world. [ [ Launceston City Council - Cataract Gorge Reserve] ] It includes the largest single span chairlift in the world. It stretches 308m from Basin 1 all the way to Basin 2. It's one of Launceston's largest tourist attractions. [cite web|url=|title=Cataract Gorge Reserve|accessdate=2008-09-02]

Located near the city centre is The City Park, which includes an enclosure for Japanese Macaque monkeys, a gift from the sister-city of Ikeda, Japan.

The Queen Victoria Museum and Art Gallery is the largest museum and art gallery in Australia located outside a capital city. Situated near Royal Park and at Inveresk, it includes the preserved interior of a Chinese Temple that once served the Chinese mining community and a Planetarium.

Many people in Launceston will be used to the GPO clock chime, as it chimes ring every quarter hour. The building dates back to the 1880s, with a clock tower added in the early years of the twentieth century. [ [ Launceston Post Office] ]


Launceston has many well-preserved Victorian and Georgian buildings and has the largest collection of 19th century buildings in Australia. It also has a diverse collection of art-deco architecture that includes the dominant art-deco landmark, Holyman House. [cite web|url=|title=Launceston City|accessdate=2008-09-17]

Launceston synagogue, is also a rare example of the Egyptian Revival style.

Unlike many cities in Australia, Launceston doesn't have any high rise buildings. Launceston's tallest building, is The Myer building located in the Brisbane Street Mall. At its highest point it's just 19m high.



Launceston has a public bus service operated by the Tasmanian government owned company Metro Tasmania.


Launceston is the hub of five of the state's major highways:
*The Midland Highway, the primary route to Hobart
*The Bass Highway, the primary route to Devonport and Burnie
*The Tasman Highway, the alternate scenic route to Hobart via Scottsdale and the east coast.
*The West Tamar Highway and East Tamar Highway, on either side of the Tamar River, joining the city to its port and seaside satellite towns.


The city is served by the small curfew-free Launceston Airport airport codes|LST|YMLT, convert|15|km south-east of the city. Hobart International Airport and Launceston Airport are the only two airports in Tasmania to reach one million passenger movements per year. It currently under re-development, and when complete will double the size of the terminal. Jetstar, Virgin Blue, Tiger Airways and Qantaslink are the current commerial airlines to use the airport. There are currently direct flights to and from Melbourne, Sydney and Brisbane.


Although the passenger rail system in Tasmania was closed some years ago, the main freight rail route links Burnie through Launceston (and up to Bell Bay) to Hobart.

Like many of the larger cities in Australia, Launceston operated a tramway system between 1911 and 1952, which consisted of 29 trams and was first planned in 1909 after observations of efficiently working systems in Melbourne and Adelaide. Fact|date=September 2008 For a decade before the tram system was abandoned, Launceston had begun converting to trolleybuses, especially for the hilly routes and operated one of the most extensive trolleybus networks in Australia. The network was finally ripped up in 1952 to make way for cars and buses and a single tramway museum in Inveresk is all that remains. Launceston's streets, most of which were planned in very early years of the nineteenth century, were probably always too narrow for trams to be fully successful, in many cases little of the roadway remained for other forms of transport. [cite web|url=|title= Preserved Tasmanian Tramcars |accessdate=2008-08-29]

Tamar River

The Tamar river is a navigable estuary and is still used for tourist cruises. For many years ocean going shipping used the river to obtain access to the Port of Launceston — located in the city centre. The Port of Launceston is now located at Bell Bay, some 40km by road from the city, on the east bank of the Tamar estuary, close to its mouth.


Launceston combines steep (originally heavily wooded) ridges and low-lying areas (originally wetlands - in fact parts of the suburbs of Inveresk and Invermay are below high-tide level). The topography of the area, and of the Tamar Valley generally are not conducive to the easy dispersion of airborne pollution, due to the phenomenon of thermal inversion. Much of Launceston is very swampy because from rivers running though and around Launceston. [cite web|url=|title=Launceston topography and meteorology|accessdate=2008-09-16] As a result, parts of Launceston are subject to landslip problems, while others are liable to poor drainage - not to mention periodic flooding. Fact|date=September 2008


Launceston has a mild temperate climate, with four distinct seasons. The highest recorded temperature in Launceston was 37.3°C at Launceston Airport on the 28th January 1943 and the lowest temperature was again recorded at Launceston Airport, with the temperature dropping as low as -7.1°C, also at Launceston Airport on 24th June 1972. Launceston has a yearly average of 7.0 hours of sunshine a day compared with Tasmanians capital Hobart which has 5.9. Although the mountains around Launceston regularly receive snow during the winter months, the Launceston area rarely receives snow. Along with Hobart, Launceston is one of the driest areas in Tasmania averaging a low of 31mm of rain in February and a high of 85mm of rain in August. During February 2003, no rain fell at all. The most rain Launceston has received in a year was 829.6mm in 1992, while the driest year was in 2006, when just 394.8mm fell. Averages suggest that it rains 89 days a year. Winter months are typically cool with an average of 16 frosts during this period, out of an average total of 26 in a year. There are around 50 clear days each year.

Becuase of low minimum temperatures, mornings can be rather cool with the average 9am temperature in July averaging just 5.2°C. While January mornings are statistically the warmest, averaging 16.6°C. cite web|url=|publisher=Bureau of Meteorology|title=Climate of Launceston|accessdate=2008-07-26]

The lowest Launceston maximum temperature was a 5.9°C on the 19th June 1992. [cite web|url=|title=Climate of Launceston|accessdate=2008-09-02]

There is an average of 50 clear days and 164 cloudy days each year for Launceston. [cite web|url=|title=Climate of Launceston|accessdate=2008-09-02]

During 2007, Launceston was the warmest town or city in Tasmania. The average maximum temperature was a record 19.2°C, the yearly minimum temperature was also a record 8.1°C for Launceston. cite web|url=|publisher=Bureau of Meteorology|title=Tasmania in 2007|accessdate=2008-07-28] Infobox Weather
metric_first= Yes
single_line= Yes
location = Launceston
Jan_Hi_°C = 24.1 |Jan_REC_Hi_°C = 35.4
Feb_Hi_°C = 24.4 |Feb_REC_Hi_°C = 34.4
Mar_Hi_°C = 22.4 |Mar_REC_Hi_°C = 32.9
Apr_Hi_°C = 18.8 |Apr_REC_Hi_°C = 27.7
May_Hi_°C = 15.8 |May_REC_Hi_°C = 22.0
Jun_Hi_°C = 13.0 |Jun_REC_Hi_°C = 18.4
Jul_Hi_°C = 12.5 |Jul_REC_Hi_°C = 17.6
Aug_Hi_°C = 13.7 |Aug_REC_Hi_°C = 20.3
Sep_Hi_°C = 15.5 |Sep_REC_Hi_°C = 24.8
Oct_Hi_°C = 17.9 |Oct_REC_Hi_°C = 28.7
Nov_Hi_°C = 20.3 |Nov_REC_Hi_°C = 30.7
Dec_Hi_°C = 22.4 |Dec_REC_Hi_°C = 33.8
Year_Hi_°C = 18.4 |Year_REC_Hi_°C = 35.4
Jan_Lo_°C = 12.2 |Jan_REC_Lo_°C = 2.5
Feb_Lo_°C = 12.0 |Feb_REC_Lo_°C = 3.4
Mar_Lo_°C = 10.0 |Mar_REC_Lo_°C = 0.5
Apr_Lo_°C = 7.4 |Apr_REC_Lo_°C = -1.5
May_Lo_°C = 5.1 |May_REC_Lo_°C = -3.0
Jun_Lo_°C = 2.8 |Jun_REC_Lo_°C = -4.9
Jul_Lo_°C = 2.2 |Jul_REC_Lo_°C = -5.2
Aug_Lo_°C = 3.6 |Aug_REC_Lo_°C = -3.5
Sep_Lo_°C = 5.1 |Sep_REC_Lo_°C = -2.4
Oct_Lo_°C = 6.9 |Oct_REC_Lo_°C = -1.4
Nov_Lo_°C = 8.8 |Nov_REC_Lo_°C = -2.0
Dec_Lo_°C = 10.6 |Dec_REC_Lo_°C = 2.0
Year_Lo_°C = 7.2 |Year_REC_Lo_°C = -5.2
Jan_Precip_cm = |Jan_Precip_mm = 47.6
Feb_Precip_cm = |Feb_Precip_mm = 30.7
Mar_Precip_cm = |Mar_Precip_mm = 32.8
Apr_Precip_cm = |Apr_Precip_mm = 50.7
May_Precip_cm = |May_Precip_mm = 64.0
Jun_Precip_cm = |Jun_Precip_mm = 65.5
Jul_Precip_cm = |Jul_Precip_mm = 75.8
Aug_Precip_cm = |Aug_Precip_mm = 84.8
Sep_Precip_cm = |Sep_Precip_mm = 65.8
Oct_Precip_cm = |Oct_Precip_mm = 53.3
Nov_Precip_cm = |Nov_Precip_mm = 47.9
Dec_Precip_cm = |Dec_Precip_mm = 46.0
Year_Precip_cm = |Year_Precip_mm = 666.4
source = Bureau of Meteorology cite web |url= |title=Climate Statistics for Launceston |accessmonthday=August 16 |accessyear=2008 |publisher= BOM|language=English]
accessdate = 16.08.2008
accessdate2 = -->


The June 2004 estimate for the population of Launceston (LGA) was 64,057. This was a little below the peak of 65,370 which occurred in 1991 and after which the population began a steady decline, falling to around 62,335 in 2001. Growth resumed between 2002 and 2003 at an estimated 1.3 per cent for the year, and a further 1.1 per cent between 2003 and 2004. This recent growth compares with 1 per cent at both junctures for Tasmania as a whole.

Most people living in Launceston were either born there or migrated from England or Ireland. [cite web |url= |title=Tasmanian Population Census Data: Launceston Suburbs, 2006 |accessdate=2008-09-17]

These figures only include the Local government Area (Further Information: Local Government Areas of Australia) , which doesn't include Launceston suburbs, located just out of the city, which are; Blackstone Heights, Hadspen, Legana, Prospect Vale, Riverside and Travellers Rest, along with Greater Launceston suburbs and towns.


Australia's oldest bookshop. A.W. Birchall & Sons (Birchalls) opened its doors in 1844 at its current site in Brisbane Street. [cite web |url= |title=Birchalls — About us |accessdate=2007-03-25]


From 1999 to 2003, Launceston was the home of three of the four Gone South music festivals. Since 2006 it has also been the host of MS Fest, a music festival held at the Inveresk Show grounds to raise funds for multiple sclerosis research. [cite web|url=|title=MS Fest|accessdate=2008-08-29]


As with most places in Australia; the majority of Launceston people are passionate about sport, with Cricket and Australian rules football being the most popular.

The current Australian cricket captain Ricky Ponting and retired cricketing icon David Boon both hail from Launceston.Launceston is the home of York Park (Aurora Stadium), which is the state's only first-class sports ground equipped with lights for evening games. The Melbourne team Hawthorn (and previously St Kilda) have played a small number of AFL (Australian football) games there each year. The state government has signed a $15 million deal with Hawthorn, to get them to play four AFL matches and one NAB Cup matches a year at Aurora Stadium until at least 2011. [cite web|url=|title= AFL in Tasmania|accessdate=2008-08-29] Launceston holds the record attendance for a VFL/AFL crowd in Tasmania (20,961) set on June 18, 2006 when Hawthorn played Richmond Football Club. [cite news|url=|title=Hawks confirm Tasmanian deal|date=2006-09-01|publisher=The Age|accessdate=2008-06-10] [cite news|url=|title=Lifeline to the big time|date=2006-09-04|accessdate=2008-06-10|publisher=ABC (Australia)]

The first first-class cricket match played in Australia was played at the Northern Tasmania Cricket Association Ground between the Melbourne Cricket Club and the Launceston Cricket Club in 1851. See Intercolonial cricket in Australia [cite web|url=|title= Tasmania V Victoria|accessdate=2008-08-28]

The city was also one of the venues for the 2003 Rugby World Cup, attracting a record crowd of 15,891 for the sport of rugby union in Tasmania to a game between Romania and Namibia at York Park. [cite news|url=|title=Namibia — Romania|date=2003-10-30|accessdate=2008-08-28|publisher=2003 Rugby World Cup]

Launceston is the only city in Tasmania to have hosted national association football (soccer) matches. A National Soccer League game was held at Aurora Stadium in 2002 between Perth Glory and Melbourne Knights, attracting 5,324 fans. [cite web|url=|title=NSL 2001-02, Round 20||accessdate=2008-06-10] A-League pre-season cup games have been held at the same venue between Melbourne Victory and Adelaide United each year since 2006. The record crowd is 8,061. [cite news|url=|title=Football spreads its reach|date=2008-05-02|publisher=A-League website|accessdate=2008-06-10]

Since 2004, the V8 Supercars (Tasmanian Challenge) has been annually held at the recently re-developed Symmons Plains Raceway. [cite web|url=|title= V8 Tasmanian Challenge|accessdate=2008-08-29]

Inveresk cultural precinct

The Inveresk cultural precinct, on the grounds of the former railway station and rail yards, hosts the newer part of the Queen Victoria Museum and Art Gallery in buildings largely converted from the former Railway Workshops. [cite news|url=|title=Tribute's for Launceston's mayor|date=2001-11-26|publisher=ABC News|accessdate=2008-07-27]

The latest addition to the precinct is the new Launceston Tramway Museum. Included in the museum is the fully restored No. 29 tram, the fully restored 'Mary St' shelter shed and a host of memorabilia. The restoration has taken place over a number of years and the museum is run entirely by volunteers. [ Tram No 29 Inveresk 2004]

The state's largest preservation railway, Don River Railway, has a carriage rebuilding workshop on the site.

Other facilities

Launceston General Hospital is the major public hospital in the city, with St Lukes Private Hospital and St Vincent's Hospital being the major private facilities. Launceston also had the first use of anaesthesia in the Southern Hemisphere.

Launceston is also the hub for the state's medical retrieval service. The Royal Flying Doctor Service is serviced by the state's ambulance service, and doctors from the Launceston General Hospital. It flies to all airports throughout Australia. [cite web|url=|title= Royal Flying Doctor Service|accessdate=2008-09-10]

Just out of the CBD, the Launceston Aquatic Centre is being built, replacing the old Launceston Swimming pool at a cost of $26.3 million. The new building area is set to span approximately 6000m2 and approximately 450m2 of the existing Launceston Swimming Pool Building, will be renovated. The project is expected to be completed in March 2009. [cite web|url=|title= Launceston Aquatic Centre|accessdate=2008-09-10]

For cycling events, major sales and other events, the "Silverdome" is an indoor sporting and entertainment venue completed in 1984. It was originally built in Prospect for use as a cycling track. [cite web|url=|title= About The Venue|accessdate=2008-09-10]

The Country Club Casino is a hotel, casino and golf course complex, and is also located in the southern suburb of Prospect. It was the second casino to be built in Tasmania. [cite web|url=|title= Country Club Casino|accessdate=2008-09-10]


The education system in Launceston comprises of two tertiary education institutions; the government runs a Kindergarden to grade 12 schooling system, and there are also numerous religious based private schools and colleges.Launceston is home to the campus of the University of Tasmania, situated in Newnham. Launceston also has Launceston College, Newstead College and Scotch Oakburn College.

With numbers at the University of Tasmania growing rapidly, a new $36 million Uni Village will be built next to the site. [cite web|url=|title= Current Projects|accessdate=2008-09-10] [cite web|url=|title= Uni Village|accessdate=2008-09-10]



Launceston's major newspaper is "The Examiner", which was founded by James Aikenhead in 1842 and has been continually published ever since.


Five free-to-air television channels service Launceston. Commercial television channels are provided by Southern Cross Tasmania, Tasmanian Digital Television (TDT) and WIN Television. Other stations include ABC1 and SBS TV. There is also free to air digital ABC2.

All stations commenced digital broadcasting during 2003, and in December 2003, a fifth station, TDT, began broadcasting. TDT is a joint venture between Southern Cross and WIN. Many programs that Channel 10 on the mainland show, are shown on TDT. In March 2005, ABC2 came on-line.


Radio stations aired around Launceston are; 7LA - Grant Broadcasters, TOTE Sport Radio (7EX) - Racing Radio, Triple J - ABC, ABC Northern Tasmania - ABC, ABC NewsRadio - ABC, ABC Classic FM - ABC, Radio National - ABC, City Park Radio - Community Radio, SBS Radio - SBS, Way FM — Christian Radio and 7RPH which is a relay of 864am from Hobart

Sister cities

Launceston has four sister cities, listed by year of pairing.
* Ikeda, Japan, 1965
* Seremban, Malyasia, 1976
* Napa, United States, 1988
* Taiyuan, China, 1995 [cite web|url=|title= Sister Cities|accessdate=2008-09-17]

Notable people

Notable people from Launceston.
*Marcos Ambrose (racing car driver)
*Simon Baker (actor)
*David Boon (cricket player)
*Hudson Fysh (aviator)
*Daniel Geale (boxer)
*Tim Lane (sports commentator)
*Graeme Murphy (choreographer)
*Peter Sculthorpe (composer)
*Ricky Ponting (cricket player)
*Allan Stone (tennis player)
*Rachael Taylor (actress)
*Allan Salisbury (cartoonist best known for Snake Tales)
*Andrew Dunkley (Sydney Swans AFL player)
*Tom Bellchambers (Essendon Bombers AFL player)
*Brad Green (Melbourne Demons AFL player)
*Sam Lonergan (Essendon Bombers AFL player)

Launceston Firsts

Launceston was the home of several notable firsts:
* It was the first Australian city to have underground sewers [ Launceston City Council] ]
* In 1895 it became the first city in the southern hemisphere to be lit by hydroelectric power. (see Duck Reach Power Station)

See also

*Tasmanian wine
*List of Launceston Mayors


External links

* [ Launceston City Council]

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