Demographics of California

Demographics of California
California Population Density Map.

California is the most populous U.S. state. It has many people from a wide variety of ethnic, racial, national, and religious backgrounds. The state continues to attract significant numbers of immigrants, and continues to grow dramatically in overall size. Much of the population is in the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the San Francisco Bay Area, and the San Diego, Sacramento, and Fresno areas.



Historical populations
Census Pop.
1850 92,597
1860 379,994 310.4%
1870 560,247 47.4%
1880 864,694 54.3%
1890 1,213,398 40.3%
1900 1,485,053 22.4%
1910 2,377,549 60.1%
1920 3,426,861 44.1%
1930 5,677,251 65.7%
1940 6,907,387 21.7%
1950 10,586,223 53.3%
1960 15,717,204 48.5%
1970 19,953,134 27.0%
1980 23,667,902 18.6%
1990 29,760,021 25.7%
2000 33,871,648 13.8%
2010 37,253,956 10.0%
Sources: 1910-2010[1]

California is the most populous sub-national entity in North America. If it were an independent country, California would rank 34th in population in the world. Its population is one third larger than that of the next largest state, Texas.[2] California surpassed New York state to become the most populous state in 1962.[3]

As of 2006, California has an estimated population of 37,172,015, more than 12 percent of the U.S. population. This includes a natural increase since the last census of 1,557,112 people (that is 2,781,539 births minus 1,224,427 deaths) and an increase due to net migration of 751,419 people. Immigration resulted in a net increase of 1,415,879 people, and migration from within the U.S. produced a net increase of 564,100 people. California is the 13th fastest-growing state.

California has no majority ethnic group, making it a minority-majority state. Non-Hispanic whites make up 42.3% of the population.[4] Spanish is the state's second most spoken language, especially in the Los Angeles metropolitan area and the US-Mexico border counties of San Diego and Imperial. Nearly 43% of California residents speak a language other than English at home, a proportion far higher than any other state.[5]

Demographers have speculated that California will have a Hispanic majority sometime in the 21st century, due to large-scale immigration and the fact that birth rates of Hispanic immigrants are higher than non-Hispanic groups.[citation needed] However the birthrate gap between Latinos and whites continues to narrow as second and third generation Hispanics have less children than their first generation parents and grandparents. [6]

In fact, California birth rates in 2011 are the lowest since the Great Depression of the 1930s. [6]

The center of population of California is located in Kern County, in the town of Buttonwillow.[7]

Racial and ancestral makeup

According to 2010 US Census California's population was 40.1% Non-Hispanic White, 5.8% Black or African American, 12.8% Asian, 4% American Indian, 2% Pacific Islander and 2.6% from two or more races. 37.6% of the total population are Hispanics or Latinos of any race.

California has the largest population of White Americans in the U.S., an estimated 21,810,156 residents. The state has the fifth largest population of African Americans in the U.S., an estimated 2,260,648 residents. California's Asian population is estimated at 4.5 million, approximately one-third of the nation's estimated 15 million Asian Americans. California's Native American population of 376,093 is the most of any state; some estimates place the Native American population at one million.[citation needed]

As of 2006, California has the largest minority population in the United States, though whites make up 57% of the state population. Non-Hispanic whites decreased from about 92% of the state's population in 1960[8] to 43% in 2006.[9] While the population of minorities accounts for 100.7 million of 300 million U.S. residents, 20% of the national total live in California.[10][11]

New Mexico and Texas have higher percentages of Latinos, but California has the highest total number of Latinos of any U.S. state. Only Hawaii has a higher Asian American percentage than California.

The largest named ancestries in California are Mexican (25%), German (9%), Irish (7.7%), English (7.4%); there are 65 other ethnicities including Albanians, Haitians, Pakistanis, and Somalis. Both Los Angeles and San Francisco have large numbers of residents with French, Italian, Portuguese, Russian and Scandinavian ancestry.

Demographics of California (csv)
By race White Black AIAN* Asian NHPI*
2000 (total population) 79.75% 7.65% 1.99% 12.39% 0.69%
2000 (Hispanic only) 30.79% 0.61% 0.85% 0.45% 0.13%
2005 (total population) 79.07% 7.45% 1.93% 13.47% 0.71%
2005 (Hispanic only) 33.59% 0.67% 0.84% 0.47% 0.13%
Growth 2000–05 (total population) 5.76% 3.90% 3.58% 16.01% 10.13%
Growth 2000–05 (non-Hispanic only) -0.91% 2.80% 1.87% 16.18% 9.65%
Growth 2000–05 (Hispanic only) 16.36% 16.48% 5.87% 11.68% 12.29%
* AIAN is American Indian or Alaskan Native; NHPI is Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander

European and Middle Eastern Americans

California has the largest population of European Americans of any state, for example in 2000, California also had more Bulgarian Americans and Hungarian Americans than any other U.S. state. California is also home to 600,000 Armenian Americans, with many in Glendale north of Los Angeles, as well they formed a large community in Fresno. Los Angeles and San Francisco have large Russian American or Russian populations, as well a long history of Irish, Italian, Greek, Turkish, German, and Polish communities established by late 19th century immigrants. There are also many Scandinavian Americans, French Americans, English Americans, and Welsh Americans whose ancestors were 1848 California Gold Rush immigrants, as well as former Yugoslavian peoples such as Bosnians, Croatians, and Serbians.

California has over a million of Spanish American (Spain) and Portuguese descent, with communities in the Central coastal parts of the state like San Diego, Long Beach and Camarillo, the Santa Clara Valley (I.e. Cupertino, Gilroy and San Jose), the Salinas, Santa Maria and San Joaquin Valleys. A small wave of Danish, Dutch and Swedish immigrants founded towns like Lathrop and Artesia, and Kingsburg south of Fresno and Solvang north of Santa Barbara in the late 1800's.

About 500,000 Iranian Americans are in Southern California, including 20% of the population of Beverly Hills.[12] Iranian American communities also flourish in the San Fernando Valley, Orange County, San Diego, the Palm Springs area, and the San Joaquin Valley. The majority immigrated after the ouster of the pro-U.S. Shah regime of Iran in the late 1970s. Over 50,000 Afghan Americans are concentrated in the East Bay communities of Fremont and Hayward; Afghans also live throughout Alameda County and the state (esp. Orange County and Ventura County). About 20,000 Israeli Americans live in California, which are mostly concentrated in Southern California in the Los Angeles and San Diego area, are also found in the San Francisco are in Northern California.

The state also has over 715,000 Arab Americans, with large communities in Alameda, Fresno, Imperial, Kern, Orange, San Bernardino, San Diego, and Stanislaus counties. They represent all Arab and Middle Eastern nationalities, the most numerous being of Gaza and West Bank (see Palestinian Americans) followed by those from Syria (see Syrian Americans) and Lebanon (about half- 1.5 out of 3.1 million estimated- (see Lebanese Americans) live in California), Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Libya, Morocco, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates and Yemen. Arabs have resided in California since the 1920s, most notably in Orange County, Ca Little Arabia (Anaheim, California), Ceres and Turlock of Assyrian/Chaldean descent, as well in the Central Valley, Central Coast and the California Desert (i.e. the Coachella and Imperial valleys). San Diego has one of the largest concentrations of Chaldean immigrants in the United States.[13]

Hispanic or African Americans

Hispanics, mainly Mexican Americans, predominate in Southern California, especially in Los Angeles. The city itself is said to be the largest Mexican community in the United States. Census records kept track of the growth since 1850, but Mexican Americans came to L.A. since 1890. Latinos are the largest ethnic group in Los Angeles County at over 40 percent of the county's population. Latinos are predominantly concentrated in the older eastern and southern suburbs surrounding downtown L.A. and northern Long Beach, the southern/eastern San Fernando Valley and the Covina/Pomona Valleys. They also comprise sizable communities in Bakersfield, Fresno, El Monte, La Puente, Long Beach, Riverside, Sacramento, San Bernardino, San Diego, San José, Santa Barbara, Santa Maria, Stockton and Vallejo. In Santa Ana in Orange County, they became a majority to comprise 75 percent of the population. Nearby Anaheim is over half Latino, and Orange County's population is 30-35 percent Latino.

The Imperial Valley on the U.S.-Mexican border is about 70–75% Latino; Latino communities are also dominant in Riverside County, especially in its eastern end and Coachella Valley. The Central Valley has many Mexican American migrant farmworkers. Latinos are the majority in Colusa, Fresno, Kern, Kings, Madera, Merced, San Benito, Santa Cruz, Tulare and Yolo counties.

Latinos make up at least 20% of the San Francisco Bay Area. Many live in San Mateo, Alameda and Santa Clara counties, as well in San Francisco. The Napa Valley and Salinas Valley have predominantly Hispanic communities established by migrant farmworkers. San Jose is about 30-35 percent Latino, the largest Latino community in Northern California, while the Mission District, San Francisco and Lower/West Oakland has barrios established by Mexican and Latin American immigrants. The Mexican-American communities of East Los Angeles and Logan Heights, San Diego, as well the San Joaquin Valley are centers of historic Chicano and Latino cultures.

In Mariposa County, there is a very small community of Californios or Spanish American people as they identify themselves, that dates back before the U.S. annexation of California. The Californio culture is closely linked with Mexico and other Latin American nations. Spanish colonial/Mexican/Latino influences was always a minor part of California after it became part of the U.S. since 1848 and its' statehood in 1850.

Most of the state's Latinos have Mexican ancestry, but there are many Cuban Americans, Puerto Ricans, Guatemalan Americans, Honduran Americans, Salvadoran Americans, and Nicaraguan Americans, Chilean Americans, Colombian Americans, and Peruvian Americans. Los Angeles has the United States' largest Central American community, as well as the largest Mexican American community, since the 1910's. Demographers debated for decades since the 1970's on whether or not California will become a Latino majority state, which has happened in the city of Los Angeles in 2010, with both xenophobe and xenophile overtones.

Asian Americans

The state has a long history of established Asian communities, including Chinese since the 1850s, Japanese since the 1880s, and Filipinos for over a century. A large wave of Asian immigration since 1965 brought in more Chinese along with Koreans and Southeast Asians after the Vietnam war ended in the late 1970's. South Asians are a more recent but fast-growing group.

Filipino Americans, as of the 2010 US Census, have a collective population of 1,195,580 and are the second largest Asian American group in the state after the Chinese.[14] They are particularly numerous in Los Angeles, San Diego, San Francisco, San Mateo and Solano counties, and in southern California communities such as Artesia, Baldwin Park, Carson, Cerritos, Covina, West Covina, and the Eagle Rock district of Los Angeles. Around San Diego, many Filipinos live in the communities of Mira Mesa, National City, and Chula Vista. Delano near Bakersfield, other towns in the San Joaquin Valley, the Coachella Valley-Imperial Valley region, Salinas, Stockton and Lathrop, and the Santa Maria/San Luis Obispo area also have large Filipino American populations.

Chinese Americans are numerous in San Francisco, Oakland, the East Bay, South Bay, the Central Coast of California, Sacramento, San Diego, and the San Gabriel Valley region of Los Angeles County. The San Francisco Bay Area has a greater concentration of Cantonese-speaking Chinese than anywhere in the United States. The Mexican border community of Calexico, California in addition to Mexicali has large numbers of Mexicans by nationality of ethnic Chinese descent. Small Chinese neighborhoods can also be found in San Jacinto Valley, Lake Elsinore, and Victorville.

Southern California has perhaps the largest Taiwanese American community in the U.S., particularly in the San Gabriel Valley (i.e. Walnut and Diamond Bar), Buena Park, Cerritos, West Covina, Irvine, communities in the South Bay, Los Angeles and southern Orange County. Other non-Han Chinese minorities include Tibetans, Mongolians and Uygurs heavily concentrate in San Francisco, Oakland, San Jose, Orange County and Los Angeles/Long Beach.

Large Korean American communities exist in the Koreatown of Los Angeles, the eastern San Gabriel Valley, the San Fernando Valley, Cerritos/Long Beach, South Bay, Los Angeles, northern Orange County and San Diego area. There is another large Korean American population in the San Francisco bay area, and Koreans are growing in number in the suburban Inland Empire region, in cities such as Chino Hills, Corona, Desert Hot Springs and Loma Linda south of San Bernardino. Since 1990, the Korean population along with African-Americans relocated westward and northward in the Los Angeles area.

The South Bay area and Little Tokyo have a large Japanese American community. Japanese Americans, however, are also concentrated in San Francisco and across the Bay Area, San Jose, the Salinas Valley and Santa Cruz County; and smaller communities in the Sacramento, Fresno, Bakersfield, Anaheim, San Diego, San Bernardino, Santa Barbara and Stockton areas. Despite the presence of Japanese goods stores, media outlets and restaurants in the state, most "Little Tokyos" and "Japantowns" were evacuated during the forced relocation of Japanese Americans during World War II (see Japanese American Internment). As a result, most Japanese Americans in urban areas do not reside in historical Japanese communities.

California has the largest American population of Southeast Asians (esp. the Los Angeles-Long Beach and Sacramento areas), such as the Hmong and Vietnamese, including Chinese Vietnamese. Long Beach has one of the largest Cambodian American communities in the United States. The neighboring cities of Westminster and Garden Grove have the largest Vietnamese American community outside of Vietnam and are often dubbed "Little Saigon". Vietnamese and Cambodian immigrants also settled in the San Francisco Bay Area, especially San Jose, Santa Clara and Sunnyvale, as well across the San Joaquin Valley and in San Diego.

Over 6,000 Laotian Americans live in the Fresno area, including an even larger Hmong American community, the largest of its kind. Other Hmong colonies in the Central Valley of California and Northern California developed since the end of the Vietnam war (1975-79). California also has a large Thai American community (over 250,000), concentrated in Southern California with small Thai and Southeast Asian communities in Perris and Banning of the Inland Empire region. Los Angeles has the largest Thai population outside of Thailand and also home to the world's first and only Thai Town. About 150,000 Indonesians live in Southern California, primarily the Los Angeles and San Diego areas.

California has the largest Indian American population in the U.S. Most live in the Los Angeles Metropolitan Area, San Diego, and the San Francisco Bay Area. The Los Angeles suburbs of Artesia and Cerritos have large Indian communities. San Jose, Fremont, and other Silicon Valley cities have many Indian Americans who are employed in the high-tech industry. Many Indian Americans are in Central Valley cities such as Stockton, Bakersfield, Fresno, Yuba City, and the Imperial Valley. Most South Asians in California are Indian American, but there are also Pakistani Americans, Bangladeshi Americans, and Sri Lankan Americans (see Sinhalese and Tamils) esp. concentrated in the San Gabriel Valley (Covina Valley) of the Los Angeles area. Asian 4,861,007 Asian Indian 528,176 Chinese 1,253,102 Filipino 1,195,580 Japanese 272,528 Korean 451,892 1.2 Vietnamese 581,946 Other Asian [1] 577,783 Asian-American ethnic groups in United States by population and percentage (2010 Census):[15]

Ethnicity Population Percentage of all
Asians in United States
Percentage of the
United States population
Asian Indian 2,843,391 19.38% 0.9%
Chinese 3,347,229 22.8% 1.1%
Filipino 2,555,923 17.4% 0.8%
Japanese 763,325 5.2% 0.2%
Korean 1,423,784 9.7% 0.5%
Vietnamese 1,548,449 10.55% 0.5%
Other Asian (Cambodian, Thai, Laotian, Hmong, Pakistani, etc.) 2,192,151 14.94% 0.7%
Total Asian 14,674,252 ~100.0% 4.8%

Pacific Islanders

The state has 150,000 people of Pacific Islander ancestry. Most, 80,000, are Native Hawaiians of measurable Polynesian ancestry; most also have Asian, European, or other ancestries. There are also 25,000 Samoan Americans originally from American Samoa or Western Samoa. Most live in Long Beach and the Los Angeles suburbs of Carson, Artesia, Cerritos, and Redondo Beach, Oceanside, and Upland. About 10,000 Chamorros from Guam and Northern Mariana Islands live in northern California, the largest Micronesian community in the mainland United States. An estimated 10,000 Tahitians from French Polynesia live in southern California.

There are also many Palauans in southern California specifically in San Diego, esp. Vista and other cities. The Palauan community tend to also have Malay, Indonesian, and Melanesian descent in them, but most of them also have Japanese descent and some have Chinese, Korean, and Filipino descent. Many Chuukese or Trukese live in San Diego, while the original settlers on Truk Island are Spanish and German but most Truukese now are Japanese and Korean, then Filipino and some Chinese. Most of the Pacific Islanders in the west pacific are part Asian, because of World war II when the Japanese took over the Federated States of Micronesia, Marshall Islands, and the Northern Mariana Islands.[citation needed]

African Americans

California has an estimated 2.2 to 2.5 million African Americans, the largest population of Black or African Americans in the western U.S, and the 5th highest Black population in the United States. Large African American communities are in Compton, Fairfield, Inglewood, Los Angeles, Long Beach, Oakland, Pasadena, Richmond, Riverside, Sacramento, San Bernardino, and Vallejo. There are also sizable African American populations in Bakersfield, Berkeley, East Palo Alto, Fontana, Fresno, Indio, Marin City, Marysville, Modesto, Moreno Valley, Palm Springs, Perris, Rialto, San Diego, San Francisco, Stockton and Suisun City.

African Americans are approximately 7 percent of the state population. The state percentage of African Americans has dropped in the 1990s and 2000s. The black population of South-Central Los Angeles has greatly decreased as the black middle class relocates to nearby suburbs. Hundreds of thousands of African Americans have moved to the South, where their grandparents may have come from in the "Great Migration" of the mid 20th century.

Older working-class small towns and Suburban areas with many African Americans include the Inland Empire (Riverside-San Bernardino and Palm Springs areas), the High Desert north of Los Angeles (i.e. Lancaster-Palmdale and Victorville), and across the San Joaquin Valley (i.e. Stockton-Modesto, Merced, Fresno, Tulare and Bakersfield areas) plus Yuba City-Marysville and Yolo County in the Sacramento area.

Native Americans/American Indians

As of 2000, California's Native American population of 376,000 was the most of any state. It also has the most Native American tribes, indigenous to the state or not, but the majority of known Californian Indian tribes became extinct in the late 19th century. The U.S. Census includes Latin American Indian, especially immigrants who belonged to indigenous peoples or who have Amerindian heritage from North and South America.

The Cherokee Nation is the largest tribe in the state with a population of 110,000, although the number of Cherokee descendants may surpass 600,000 according to demographers. They are often descendants of Dust Bowl refugees in the 1930s and 1940s who migrated to the state's farming counties and urban areas for jobs. The largest urban American Indian communities are Los Angeles/Long Beach, San Francisco/Oakland, Sacramento, and San Diego areas.[citation needed]

California also has significant populations of the Apache, Choctaw, Creek, Hopi, Zuni, Navajo, Blackfeet, Shoshone, Paiute, Pueblos, Cahuilla and Chumash tribes. The Cahuilla in the Coachella Valley have profited from real estate land leases, and much of Indio and Palm Springs are tribal-owned lands under legal tribal jurisdiction.[citation needed]

Illegal immigrants

In 2009, illegal immigrants constituted an estimated 7% of the population, with the same concentration as Arizona.[16]


As of 2000, 60.5% of California residents age 5 and older speak English at home and 25.8% speak Spanish. Chinese is the third most spoken language at 2.6%, followed by Tagalog at 2.0% and Vietnamese at 1.3%.[17] Over 200 languages are known to be spoken and read in California, with Spanish used as the state's "alternative" language.

California has more than 100 indigenous languages, making California one of the most linguistically diverse areas in the world. All of California's indigenous languages are endangered, although there are now efforts toward language revitalization.[note 1]

Since the passage of Proposition 63 in 1986, the California Constitution has specified that English is the common and official language of the state.[18] The politics of language is a major political issue in the state, especially in regard to language policy controlling the teaching and official use of immigrant languages.


The state has the most Roman Catholics of any state, as well as large Protestant, non-religious, Jewish, and Muslim populations. California has the most Roman Catholics in the U.S., ahead of New York state. It also has the largest Mormon population outside of Utah.[19] The state's second largest group next to Christianity is the non-religious, which consists of atheists and agnostics. It is one of the fastest growing groups in the state. The state also has a large American Jewish community, the largest in the western U.S., mainly concentrated in Los Angeles, Beverly Hills, San Francisco, Oakland, Sacramento and Palm Springs. It also has a rapidly-growing Islamic population with large Muslim communities in west Los Angeles, San Diego, Orange County, Santa Clara County, and the Modesto area.

Most Roman Catholics in California are of Mexican, other Hispanic, Irish, and Italian ancestry. The population of Catholic Californians is rapidly growing due to the influx of Latin American immigrants. In the state, Roman Catholicism is highly represented among non-Hispanic European-Americans, but less represented among non-Hispanic African-Americans. Protestantism is the majority Christian denomination in non-Hispanic black and white groups.

The largest Christian denominations in California in 2000 were the Roman Catholic Church with 10,079,310; the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints with 529,575; and the Southern Baptist Convention with 471,119. Jewish congregations had 994,000 adherents, or 3% of the Californian population.[20]

Hinduism, Buddhism, Shintō, Sikhism, and Taoism were introduced in part by Asian immigrants. As the twentieth century came to a close, forty percent of all Buddhists in America resided in Southern California. The Los Angeles metropolitan area has become unique in the Buddhist world as the only place where representative organizations of every major school of Buddhism can be found in a single urban center.[21][verification needed] The City of Ten Thousand Buddhas in Northern California and Hsi Lai Temple in Southern California are two of the largest Buddhist temples in the Western Hemisphere. The state also has a growing Hindu population.[citation needed]

With almost one million Jews, California has the highest number of Jews of any state except New York. Many of these Jews live in the West Los Angeles and San Fernando Valley regions of Los Angeles. At the present time, both of California's Senators, Dianne Feinstein and Barbara Boxer, are Jewish.

California also has the largest Muslim community in the United States, an estimated one percent of the population, mostly residing in Southern California. Approximately 100,000 Muslims reside in San Diego.

California has more members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints and Temples than any state except Utah.[22] Latter-day Saints (Mormons) have played important roles in the settlement of California throughout the state's history. For example, a group of a few hundred Mormon converts from the Northeastern United States and Europe arrived at what would become San Francisco in the 1840s aboard the ship Brooklyn, more than doubling the population of the small town. A group of Mormons also established the city of San Bernardino in Southern California in 1851.[19] According to the LDS Church 2009 statistics, just over 750,000 Mormons reside in the state of California, attending almost 1400 congregations statewide.[19]

The religious affiliations of the people of California:[23]

A Pew Research Center survey revealed, however, that California is less religious than the rest of the United States: 62% of Californians say they are "absolutely certain" of the belief in God, while in the nation 71% say so. The survey also revealed that 48% of Californians say religion is "very important", while the figure for the U.S. in general is 56%.[23]

Cities and towns

California has eight of the 50 most populous cities in the U.S., the most of any U.S. state. It also has 3 of the 10 most populous cities, tied with Texas for the most of any state. Los Angeles, with over 4 million people, is the largest city in California and the second largest city in the U.S. Other large cities in California are San Diego (9th), San José (10th), San Francisco (12th), Long Beach (34th), Fresno (37th), Sacramento (38th), and Oakland (44th).

See also

Media related to Demographics of California at Wikimedia Commons


  1. ^ The following are a list of the indigenous languages: Root languages of California: Athabaskan Family: Hupa, Mattole, Lassik, Wailaki, Sinkyone, Cahto, Tolowa, Nongatl, Wiyot, Chilula; Hokan Family: Pomo, Shasta, Karok, Chimiriko; Algonquian Family: Whilkut, Yurok; Yukian Family: Wappo; Penutian Family: Modok, Wintu, Nomlaki, Konkow, Maidu, Patwin, Nisenan, Miwok, Coast Miwok, Lake Miwok, Ohlone, Northern Valley Yokuts, Southern Valley Yokuts, Foothill Yokuts; Hokan Family: Esselen, Salinan, Chumash, Ipai, Tipai, Yuma, Halchichoma, Mohave; Uto-Aztecan Family: Mono Paiute, Monache, Owens Valley Paiute, Tubatulabal, Panamint Shoshone, Kawaisu, Kitanemuk, Tataviam, Gabrielino, Juaneno, Luiseno, Cuipeno, Cahuilla, Serrano, Chemehuevi


  1. ^ Resident Population Data - 2010 Census
  2. ^ Statistical Abstract of the United States
  3. ^ "Governor Edmund G. "Pat" Brown of California". California State Library. November 28, 2005. Retrieved January 29, 2010. 
  4. ^ Census Bureau Quick Facts 2008
  5. ^ San Francisco Chronicle, September 23, 2008
  6. ^ a b
  7. ^ "Population and Population Centers by State: 2000" (TXT). United States Census 2000. US Census Bureau Geography Division. May 20, 2002. Retrieved January 29, 2010. 
  8. ^ Historical Census Statistics on Population Totals By Race, California
  9. ^ Bowman, Bobbi (October 11, 2006). "The Best Story of Our Lives". Poynter Online (The Poynter Institute). Retrieved January 29, 2010. 
  10. ^ "California - ACS Demographic and Housing Estimates: 2006-2008". American Fact Finder. US Census Bureau. Retrieved December 26, 2009. 
  11. ^ "United States - ACS Demographic and Housing Estimates: 2006-2008". American Fact Finder. US Census Bureau. Retrieved December 26, 2009. 
  12. ^ Montagne, Renee (2006-06-08). "Living in Tehrangeles: L.A.'s Iranian Community". National Public Radio. Retrieved 2006-06-28. 
  13. ^ Chaldean-American Chamber of Commerce
  14. ^
  15. ^
  16. ^ Undocumented Immigrants (PPIC Publication)
  17. ^ "Detailed List of Languages Spoken at Home for the Population 5 Years and Over by State: 2000" (PDF). 2000 United States Census. United States Census Bureau. 2003. Retrieved April 11, 2006. 
  18. ^ California State Constitution, Article III, Section 6, cited at
  19. ^ a b c "USA-California - LDS Newsroom:". The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Retrieved January 29, 2010. 
  20. ^ "State Membership Report 2000". The Association of Religious Data Archives. 2002. Retrieved January 29, 2010. 
  21. ^ Melton, J. Gordon, ed (December 2002). "Eastern Family Part II: Buddhism, Shintoism, Japanese New Religions". Encyclopedia of American Religions (Seventh ed.). Detroit: Gale Cengage. pp. 201–211. ISBN 9780787663841. OCLC 51255717. 
  22. ^ "Largest Latter-day Saint Communities". April 12, 2005. Retrieved December 27, 2009. 
  23. ^ a b "Religion and Politics 2008: California". U.S. Religious Landscape Study. The Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life. 2008. Retrieved January 29, 2010. 

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