The Shoshone (Audio-IPA|shoshone1.ogg| [ʃoʊˈʃoʊni] or Audio-IPA|shoshone2.ogg| [ʃəˈʃoʊni] ) are a Native American tribe with three large divisions: the Northern, the Western and the Eastern.
The Northern Shoshone are concentrated in eastern
Idaho, western Wyoming, and north-eastern Utah. The Eastern lived in Wyoming, northern Coloradoand Montana. Conflict with the Blackfoot, Crow, Lakota, Cheyennes, and Arapahos pushed them south and westward after about 1750. The Western ranged from central Idaho, northwestern Utah, central Nevada, and in Californiaabout Death Valleyand Panamint Valley. This group is sometimes called the Panamint. The Idaho groups of Western Shoshone were called "Tukuaduka" (sheep eaters), while the Nevada/Utah ones were called the "Gosiute" or "Toi Ticutta" (cattail eaters).
Possibly the most famous member of the Shoshone tribe was
Sacajaweawho accompanied the Corps of Discovery with Meriwether Lewisand William Clark in their exploration of the Western United States.The estimated population of Northern and Western Shoshone was 4,500 in 1845. 3,650 Northern Shoshone and 1,201 Western Shoshone were counted in 1937 by the United States Bureau of Indian Affairs.
The Northern Shoshone fought conflicts with settlers in Idaho in the 1860s which included the
Bear River Massacreand again in 1878 in the Bannock War. They fought alongside the United States Armyin the 1876 Battle of the Rosebudagainst their traditional enemies, the Lakotaand Cheyenne.
In 1911 a small group of Bannock under a leader named "Shoshone Mike" killed four ranchers in
Washoe County, Nevada[ [http://www.nevada-history.org/indians.html America's Last Indian Battle] ] . A posse was formed, and on February 26, 1911, they caught up with the band, and eight of them were killed, along with one member of the posse, Ed Hogle [ [http://www.odmp.org/officer.php?oid=18238 Ed Hogle memorial] ] . Three children and a woman who survived the battle were captured. The remains of some of the members of the band were repatriated from the Smithsonian Institutionto the Fort Hall Idaho Shoshone-Bannock Tribe in 1994 [ [http://www.nmnh.si.edu/anthro/repatriation/reports/regional/great_basin/nevada_w.htm NMNH - Repatriation Office - Reports - Great Basin - Nevada ] ] .
In 1982, the Western Shoshone, who also invited "unrepresented tribes," made a declaration of
sovereigntyand began issuing its own passports as the Western Shoshone National Council.
In 2008, the Shoshone Nation acquired the site of the
Bear River Massacre[ [http://www.indiancountry.com/content.cfm?id=1096416777 Tribe remembers nation's largest massacre : ICT [2008/03/10 ] ] .
Wind River Reservation, population 2,650 Eastern Shoshone, 2,268,008 acres (9,178 km²) of reservation in Wyoming are shared with the Northern Arapaho
Fort Hall Indian Reservation, 544,000 acres (2,201 km²) in Idaho, Lemhi and Northern Shoshone with the Bannock Indians, a Paiuteband with which they have merged
Lemhi Indian Reservation(1875–1907) in Idaho, Lemhi Shoshoni, removed to Fort Hall Reservation
Duck Valley Indian Reservation, southern Idaho/northern Nevada, Western Shoshone
Ely Shoshone Indian Reservationin Ely, Nevada, 111 acres (0.45 km²), 500 members
Fallon Paiute-Shoshone Reservationnear Fallon, Nevada, 8,200 acres (33 km²), 991 members, Western Shoshone and Paiute
Goshute Indian Reservation, 111,000 acres (449 km²) in Nevada and Utah, Western Shoshone
Skull Valley Indian Reservation, 18,000 acres (73 km²) in Utah, Western Shoshone
Fort McDermitt Indian Reservation, Nevada and Oregon, Fort McDermitt Paiute and Shoshone Tribe
Reno-Sparks Indian Colony, Nevada, 1988 acres (8 km²), total 481 member of Shoshone, Paiute, and Washoe bands
Duckwater Indian Reservation, located in Duckwater, Nevada, approximately convert|75|mi|km from Ely.
Nevada Shoshone Indian Reservation, near Carson City, Nevada, 211 members
Western Shoshone traditional narratives
* [http://www.trailtribes.org/lemhi/making-treaties.htm Northern Shoshoni treaties]
* [http://www.greatbasinheritage.org/elyshoshone.htm Ely Shoshone Reservation]
* [http://www.greatbasinheritage.org/goshute.htm Goshute Indian Reservation]
* [http://www.gbcnv.edu/gbia/ Great Basin Indian Archives]
* [http://www.rsic.org/ Reno-Sparks Indian Colony]
* [http://www.temoaktribe.com/ Te-Moak Tribe of the Western Shoshone Indians of Nevada]
* [http://timbisha.org/ Timbisha Tribe of the Western Shoshone Nation]
* [http://www.nativeweb.org/pages/legal/shoshone/ruby_valley.html U.S. Treaty with the Western Shoshone 1863, Ruby Valley]
* [http://www.wsdp.org/ Western Shoshone Defense Project]
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