Cycloserine Systematic (IUPAC) name (R)-4-amino-1,2-oxazolidin-3-one Clinical data Trade names Seromycin AHFS/Drugs.com Pregnancy cat. C Legal status ? Pharmacokinetic data Bioavailability ~70% to 90% Metabolism Hepatic Half-life 10 hrs (normal renal function) Excretion Renal Identifiers CAS number ATC code J04 PubChem DrugBank ChemSpider UNII KEGG ChEBI ChEMBL Chemical data Formula C3H6N2O2 Mol. mass 102.092 g/mol SMILES & (what is this?)
Cycloserine is an antibiotic effective against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. For the treatment of tuberculosis, it is classified as a second line drug, i.e. its use is only considered if one or more first line drugs cannot be used.
Although in principle active against other bacteria as well, cycloserine is not commonly used in the treatment of infections other than tuberculosis.
Mode of action
The terminal two amino acid residues of the murein precursor lipid II consist of D-alanine, which is produced by the enzyme alanine racemase; the two residues are joined by D-alanine ligase. Both enzymes are competitively inhibited by cycloserine.
It is also being trialed as an adjuvant to exposure therapy for anxiety disorders (e.g. phobias), depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder and schizophrenia. It has been experimentally used for treatment of Gaucher's disease.
Recent research suggests that D-cycloserine (d-4-amino-3-isoxazolidinone) may be effective in treating chronic pain.
The side effects are mainly central nervous system (CNS) manifestations, i.e. headache, irritability, depression, psychosis convulsions. Co-administration of pyridoxine can reduce the incidence of some of the CNS side effects (e.g. convulsions).
These psychotropic responses are related to D-cycloserine's action as a partial agonist of the neuronal NMDA receptor for glutamate and have been examined in implications with sensory-related fear extinction in the amygdala, and extinction of cocaine seeking in the nucleus accumbens.
- ^ "Cell Envelope.1995". http://www.micro.siu.edu/micr425/425Notes/02-CellEnv.html. Retrieved 2008-11-08.
- ^ a b Davis, Michael; Karyn M. Myers, Kerry J. Ressler and Barbara O. Rothbaum (2005). "Facilitation of Extinction of Conditioned Fear by D-Cycloserine". American Psychological Society 14 (4): 214–219. doi:10.1111/j.0963-7214.2005.00367.x. http://userwww.service.emory.edu/~kressle/papers/davisetalFacilitationofExtinction2005CurrDirPsycholScience.pdf. Retrieved 2008-07-15.
- ^ "Newly Identified Drug Relieves Suffering". Science Daily. 2007-06-05. http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/06/070604123715.htm. Retrieved 2008-07-15.
- ^ "Memory-boosting drug may help cocaine addicts avoid relapse". 2010-08-03. http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2010-08/sfn-mdm073010.php.
- ^ "Effects of the partial glycine agonist D-cycloserine on cognitive functioning in chronic low dose MPTP-treated monkeys". 2000-03-17. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6SYR-3YTT0SF-W&_user=10&_coverDate=03/31/2000&_rdoc=1&_fmt=high&_orig=search&_sort=d&_docanchor=&view=c&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=257ca54d8d673142fb6818807a695015.
Antimycobacterials, including tuberculosis treatment and leprostatic agents (J04) Nucleic acid inhibitorAntifolates/DSIASA4-Aminosalicylic acid# (Calcium aminosalicylate, Sodium aminosalicylate) Protein synthesis inhibitor Cell envelope antibioticPeptidoglycan layerAlanine analogue: Cycloserine#Arabinogalactan layerMycolic acid layer Other/unknown CombinationsRifampicin/isoniazid/pyrazinamide Antibacterials: cell envelope antibiotics (J01C-J01D) Intracellular Glycopeptide β-lactams/
(penams)Mecillinam (Pivmecillinam) • SulbenicillinPenemsCefixime# • Ceftriaxone# • antipseudomonal (Ceftazidime# • Cefoperazone) • Cefcapene • Cefdaloxime • Cefdinir • Cefditoren • Cefetamet • Cefmenoxime • Cefodizime • Cefotaxime • Cefpimizole • Cefpiramide • Cefpodoxime • Cefsulodin • Cefteram • Ceftibuten • Ceftiolene • Ceftizoxime • oxacephem (Flomoxef, Latamoxef ‡)4th (antips-)Ceftobiprole • Ceftaroline fosamilCombinations
Other Neurotransmitters Amino acids Endocannabinoids Gasotransmitters Monoamines Purines Trace amines OthersSee also Template:Neuropeptides Glycinergics Receptor
inhibitorsPlasmalemmalGlyT1 inhibitorsGlyT2 inhibitorsVIAAT Inhibitors
inhibitorsSHMT InhibitorsGDC InhibitorsDAAO Inhibitors
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.