- Adenosine monophosphate
Adenosine monophosphate Identifiers CAS number ChemSpider UNII DrugBank KEGG MeSH ChEBI ChEMBL IUPHAR ligand Jmol-3D images Image 1
Properties Molecular formula C10H14N5O7P Molar mass 347.22 g/mol Acidity (pKa) 0.9, 3.8, 6.1 (what is: /?)
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa)
Adenosine monophosphate (AMP), also known as 5'-adenylic acid, is a nucleotide that is used as a monomer in RNA. It is an ester of phosphoric acid and the nucleoside adenosine. AMP consists of a phosphate group, the sugar ribose, and the nucleobase adenine. As a substituent it takes the form of the prefix adenylyl-.
Production and degradation
- 2 ADP → ATP + AMP
Or AMP may be produced by the hydrolysis of one high energy phosphate bond of ADP:
- ADP → AMP + Pi
- ATP → AMP + PPi
When RNA is broken down by living systems, nucleoside monophosphates, including adenosine monophosphate, are formed.
AMP can be regenerated to ATP as follows:
- AMP + ATP → 2 ADP (adenylate kinase in the opposite direction)
- ADP + Pi → ATP (this step is most often performed in aerobes by the ATP synthase during oxidative phosphorylation)
In a catabolic pathway, adenosine monophosphate can be converted to uric acid, which is excreted from the body.
AMP can also exist as a cyclic structure known as cyclic AMP (or cAMP). Within certain cells the enzyme adenylate cyclase makes cAMP from ATP, and typically this reaction is regulated by hormones such as adrenaline or glucagon. cAMP plays an important role in intracellular signaling.
- Ming D, Ninomiya Y, Margolskee RF (1999). "Blocking taste receptor activation of gustducin inhibits gustatory responses to bitter compounds". Proc Natl Acad Sci 96 (17): 9903–9908. doi:10.1073/pnas.96.17.9903. PMC 22308. PMID 10449792. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=22308.
Nucleic acid constituents Nucleobase Nucleoside Nucleotide
Nucleoside diphosphate Nucleoside triphosphate Neurotransmitters Amino acids Endocannabinoids Gasotransmitters Monoamines Purines Trace amines OthersSee also Template:Neuropeptides
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