ImageFile1 = Adenine chemical structure.png
ImageSize1 = 150px
ImageFileL2 = Adenine-3D-balls.png
ImageSizeL2 = 100px
ImageFileR2 = Adenine-3D-vdW.png
ImageSizeR2 = 100px
IUPACName = 9H-purin-6-amine
OtherNames = 6-aminopurine
Section1 = Chembox Identifiers
CASNo = 73-24-5
PubChem = 190
SMILES = Nc1ncnc2 [nH] cnc12
Section2 = Chembox Properties
Formula = C5H5N5
MolarMass = 135.127 g/mol
MeltingPt = 360 - 365 °C
BoilingPt = Adenosine triphosphate is a type of energy
Section3 = Chembox Hazards
Adenine is a
purinewith a variety of roles in biochemistryincluding cellular respiration, in the form of both the energy-rich adenosine triphosphate(ATP) and the cofactors nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide(NAD) and flavin adenine dinucleotide ( FAD), and protein synthesis, as a chemical component of DNAand RNA. [ [http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/ghr/glossary/adenine Definition of Adenine from the Genetics Home Reference] - National Institutes of Health] the shape of adenine is complementary to either thymine or uracil.
It forms several
tautomers, compounds that can be rapidly interconverted and are often considered equivalent.
Purine metabolisminvolves the formation of Adenine and Guanine. Both adenine and guanine are derived from the nucleotide inosine monophosphate (IMP), which is synthesised on a pre-existing ribose through a complex pathway using atoms from the amino acids glycine, glutamine, and aspartic acid, as well as formate ions transferred from the coenzyme tetrahydrofolate.
Adenine is one of the two purine
nucleobases (the other being guanine) used in forming nucleotides of the nucleic acids. In DNA, adenine binds to thyminevia two hydrogen bondsto assist in stabilizing the nucleic acid structures. In RNA, which is used in the cytoplasmfor protein synthesis, adenine binds to uracil.
adenosine, a nucleoside, when attached to ribose, and deoxyadenosinewhen attached to deoxyribose. It forms adenosine triphosphate(ATP), a nucleotide, when three phosphate groups are added to adenosine. Adenosine triphosphate is used in cellular metabolism as one of the basic methods of transferring chemical energybetween chemical reactions.
In older literature, adenine was sometimes called Vitamin B4. [cite journal
title=The assay of vitamin B4
doi=10.1007/BF01581575] It is no longer considered a true vitamin or part of the
Vitamin Bcomplex. However, two B vitamins, niacinand riboflavin, bind with adenine to form the essential cofactors nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide(NAD) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), respectively.
Some think that, at the
origin of lifeon Earth, the first adenine was formed by the polymerizationof five hydrogen cyanide(HCN) molecules.Fact|date=May 2008 However, this has been criticized by some chemists. [cite journal
title=The prebiotic role of adenine: A critical analysis
journal=Origins of Life and Evolution of Biospheres
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