IUPAC_name = unable to be assigned
C=66 | H=75 | Cl=2 | N=9 | O=24
molecular_weight = 1449.3 g.mol-1
bioavailability= Negligible (oral)
metabolism = Excreted unchanged
elimination_half-life=4–11 hours (adults)
6-10 days (adults, impaired renal function)
excretion = Renal
pregnancy_category = B2 (Au), B (U.S.)
legal_status = S4 (Au), POM (UK), ℞-only (U.S.)
routes_of_administration= IV, oral
Vancomycin (INN) (pronEng|ˌvæŋkoʊˈmaɪs
ɪn) is a glycopeptide antibioticused in the prophylaxisand treatment of infections caused by Gram-positivebacteria. It has traditionally been reserved as a drug of "last resort", used only after treatment with other antibiotics had failed, although the emergence of vancomycin-resistant organisms means that it is increasingly being displaced from this role by linezolidand daptomycin.
Vancomycin was first isolated by
EC Kornfeld(working at Eli Lilly) from a soil sample collected from the interior jungles of Borneoby a missionary. The organism that produced it was eventually named " Amycolatopsis orientalis". [ cite journal|author=Levine DP|title=Vancomycin: a history|journal=Clin Infect Dis|year=2006|volume=42|issue=Suppl 1|pages=S5–12|doi=10.1086/491709] The original indication for vancomycin was for the treatment of penicillin-resistant " Staphylococcus aureus".cite journal | author=Moellering, RC Jr. | title=Vancomycin: A 50-Year Reassessment | journal=Clin Infect Dis | year=2006 | volume=42 | pages=S3–S4 | pmid=16323117 ] cite journal | author=Donald P. | title=Vancomycin: A History | journal=Clin Infect Dis | year=2006 | volume=42| pages=S5–S12 | pmid=16323120 | doi=10.1086/491709 ]
The compound was initially labelled compound 05865, but was eventually given the generic name, vancomycin (derived from the word "vanquished"). One advantage that was quickly apparent was that staphylococci did not develop significant resistance despite serial passage in culture media containing vancomycin. The rapid development of
penicillin-resistance by staphylococci led to the compound being fast-tracked for approval by the FDA in 1958. Eli Lilly first marketed vancomycin hydrochloride under the trade name Vancocin.
Vancomycin never became first line treatment for "Staphylococcus aureus" for several reasons:
#The drug must be given
intravenously, because it is not absorbed orally.
#β-lactamase-resistant semi-synthetic penicillins such as
methicillin(and its successors, nafcillinand cloxacillin) were subsequently developed.
#Early trials using early impure forms of vancomycin ("Mississippi mud") which were found to be toxic to the ears and to the kidneys;cite journal | author=Griffith RS. | title=Introduction to vancomycin | journal=Rev Infect Dis | year=1981 | volume=3 | pages=S2004 ] these findings led to vancomycin being relegated to the position of a drug of last resort.
In 2004, Eli Lilly licensed "Vancocin" to
ViroPharmain the U.S., Flynn Pharmain the UK and Aspen Pharmacarein Australia. The patentexpired in the early 1980s and generic versions of the drug are also available under various trade names.
Vancomycin biosynthesis occurs via different nonribosomal protein synthases (NRPSs). cite journal |author=Samel SA, Marahiel MA, Essen LO |title=How to tailor non-ribosomal peptide products-new clues about the structures and mechanisms of modifying enzymes |journal=Mol Biosyst |volume=4 |issue=5 |pages=387–93 |year=2008 |month=May |pmid=18414736 |doi=10.1039/b717538h] The
enzymesdetermine the amino acid sequence during its assembly through its 7 modules. Before Vancomycin is assembled through NRPS, the amino acidsare first modified. L-tyrosine is modified to become the β-hydroxychlorotyrosine (β-hTyr) and 4-hydroxyphenylglycine (HPG) residues. On the other hand, acetate is used to derive the 3,5 dihydroxyphenylglycine ring (3,5-DPG). cite book |author=Dewick, Paul M. |title=Medicinal natural products: a biosynthetic approach |publisher=Wiley |location=New York |year=2002 |pages= |isbn=0-471-49641-3 |oclc= |doi= |accessdate=] Nonribosomal peptide synthesis occurs through distinct modulesthat can load and extend the proteinby one amino acid through the amidebond formation at the contact sites of the activating domains. cite journal |author=van Wageningen AM, Kirkpatrick PN, Williams DH, "et al" |title=Sequencing and analysis of genes involved in the biosynthesis of a vancomycin group antibiotic |journal=Chem. Biol. |volume=5 |issue=3 |pages=155–62 |year=1998 |month=March |pmid=9545426 |doi= |url=] Each module typically consists of an adenylation (A) domain, a peptidyl carrier protein (PCP) domain, and a condensation (C) or elongation domain. In the A domain, the specific amino acid is activated by converting into an aminoacyl adenylate enzyme complex attached to a 4’phosphopantetheine cofactor by thioesterification cite journal |author=Schlumbohm W, Stein T, Ullrich C, "et al" |title=An active serine is involved in covalent substrate amino acidbinding at each reaction center of gramicidin S synthetase |journal=J. Biol. Chem. |volume=266 |issue=34 |pages=23135–41 |year=1991 |month=December |pmid=1744112 |doi= |url=http://www.jbc.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=1744112] cite journal |author=Stein T, Vater J, Kruft V, "et al" |title=The multiple carrier model of nonribosomal peptide biosynthesis at modular multienzymatic templates |journal=J. Biol. Chem. |volume=271 |issue=26 |pages=15428–35 |year=1996 |month=June |pmid=8663196 |doi= |url=http://www.jbc.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=8663196] The complex is then transferred to the PCP domain with the expulsion of AMP. The PCP domain uses the attached 4’-phosphopantethein prosthetic group to load the growing peptide chain and their precursors. cite journal |author=Kohli RM, Walsh CT, Burkart MD |title=Biomimetic synthesis and optimization of cyclic peptide antibiotics |journal=Nature |volume=418 |issue=6898 |pages=658–61 |year=2002 |month=August |pmid=12167866 |doi=10.1038/nature00907] The organization of the modules necessary to biosynthesize Vancomycin is shown in Figure 1. In the biosynthesis of Vancomycin, additional modification domains are present, such as the epimerization(E) domain, which is used isomerizes the amino acid from one stereochemistryto another, and a thioesterase domain (TE) is used as a catalyst for cyclization and releases of the molecule via a thioesterasescission. A set of multienzymes (peptide synthase CepA, CepB, and CepC) are responsible for assembling the heptapeptide. (Figure 2). The organization of CepA, CepB, and Cep C closely resembles orther peptide synthases such as those for surfactin (SrfA1, SrfA2 and SrfA3) and gramicidin (GrsA and GrsB). cite journal |author=van Wageningen AM, Kirkpatrick PN, Williams DH, "et al" |title=Sequencing and analysis of genes involved in the biosynthesis of a vancomycin group antibiotic |journal=Chem. Biol. |volume=5 |issue=3 |pages=155–62 |year=1998 |month=March |pmid=9545426 |doi= |url=] Each peptide synthase activates codes for various amino acids in order to activate each domain. CepA codes for modules 1, 2 and 3, CepB codes for modules 4,5,and 6, and CepC codes for module 7 codes. The three peptide synthases are located at the start of the region of the bacterial genome linked with antibioticbiosynthesis and spans 27kb. cite journal |author=van Wageningen AM, Kirkpatrick PN, Williams DH, "et al" |title=Sequencing and analysis of genes involved in the biosynthesis of a vancomycin group antibiotic |journal=Chem. Biol. |volume=5 |issue=3 |pages=155–62 |year=1998 |month=March |pmid=9545426 |doi= |url=]
After the linear heptapeptide molecule is synthesized, Vancomycin has to further undergo post-translational modifications, such as oxidative cross-linking and
glycosylation, in trans by distinct enzymes, referred to as tailoring enzymes, in order to become biologically active (Figure 3). To convert the linear heptapeptide, eight enzymes, Open Reading Frames (ORF) 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 14, 18, 20, and 21 are used. The enzymes ORF 7, 8,9 and 20 are P450 enzymes, ORF 10 and 18 show to nonheme haloperoxidases and ORF 9 and 14 are identified as putative hydroxylation enzymes.cite journal |author=Solenberg PJ, Matsushima P, Stack DR, Wilkie SC, Thompson RC, Baltz RH |title=Production of hybrid glycopeptide antibiotics in vitro and in Streptomyces toyocaensis |journal=Chem. Biol. |volume=4 |issue=3 |pages=195–202 |year=1997 |month=March |pmid=9115410 |doi= |url=http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1074-5521(97)90288-X] With the help of these enzymes, β-hydroxyl groups are introduced onto tyrosineresidues 2 and 6 and coupling occurs for rings 5 and 7, rings 4 and 6, and rings 4 and 2. In addition, a haloperoxidase is used to attach the chlorine atoms onto rings 2 and 6 via an oxidative process. cite journal |author=van Wageningen AM, Kirkpatrick PN, Williams DH, "et al" |title=Sequencing and analysis of genes involved in the biosynthesis of a vancomycin group antibiotic |journal=Chem. Biol. |volume=5 |issue=3 |pages=155–62 |year=1998 |month=March |pmid=9545426 |doi= |url=]
Pharmacology and chemistry
Vancomycin acts by inhibiting proper
cell wallsynthesis in Gram-positive bacteria. The mechanism inhibited, and various factors related to entering the outer membrane of Gram-negativeorganisms mean that vancomycin is not active against Gram-negative bacteria (except some non-gonococcal species of Neisseria).
Specifically, vancomycin prevents incorporation of N-acetylmuramic acid (NAM)- and N-acetylglucosamine (NAG)-peptide subunits into the
peptidoglycanmatrix; which forms the major structural component of Gram-positive cell walls.
hydrophilicmolecule is able to form hydrogen bondinteractions with the terminal D-alanyl-D-alanine moieties of the NAM/NAG-peptides. Normally this is a five-point interaction. This binding of vancomycin to the D-Ala-D-Ala prevents the incorporation of the NAM/NAG-peptide subunits into the peptidoglycan matrix.
atropisomerism — it has two chemically distinct rotamers owing to the rotational restriction of the chlorotyrosine residue (on the right hand side of the figure). The form present in the drug is the thermodynamically more stable conformer, and, importantly, has more potent activity.
Vancomycin is indicated for the treatment of serious, life-threatening infections by
Gram-positivebacteria which are unresponsive to other less toxic antibiotics. In particular, vancomycin should not be used to treat methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureusbecause it is inferior to penicillins such as nafcillin. [cite journal|author=Small PM, Chambers HF|title=Vancomycin for "Staphylococcus aureus" endocarditis in intravenous drug users|journal=Antimicrob Agents Chemother|year=1990|volume=34|pages=1227–31|pmid=2393284] [cite journal|author=Gonzalez C, Rubio M, Romero-Vivas J, Gonzalez M, Picazo JJ|title=Bacteremic pneumonia due to "Staphylococcus aureus": a comparison of disease caused by methicillin-resistant and methicillin-susceptible organisms|journal=Clin Infect Dis|year=1999|volume=29|pages=1171–7|pmid=10524959|doi=10.1086/313440]
The increasing emergence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci has resulted in the development of guidelines for use by the
Centers for Disease Control(CDC) Hospital Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee. These guidelines restrict use of vancomycin to the following indications:Rossi S, editor. Australian Medicines Handbook2006. Adelaide: Australian Medicines Handbook; 2006. ISBN 0-9757919-2-3]
*treatment of serious infections caused by susceptible organisms resistant to
penicillins (methicillin-resistant "Staphylococcus aureus" and multi-resistant " Staphylococcus epidermidis" (MRSE)) or in individuals with serious allergy to penicillins
pseudomembranous colitis(relapse or unresponsive to metronidazoletreatment)
*For treatment of infections caused by gram-positive microorganisms in patients who have serious allergies to beta-lactam antimicrobials. (http://wonder.cdc.gov/wonder/prevguid/m0039349/m0039349.asp)
*antibacterial prophylaxis for
endocarditisfollowing certain procedures in penicillin-hypersensitive individuals at high risk
*surgical prophylaxis for major procedures involving implantation of prostheses in institutions with a high rate of MRSA or MRSE
adverse drug reactions (≥1% of patients) associated with IV vancomycin include: local pain, which may be severe and/or thrombophlebitis.
Damage to the kidneys and to the hearing were a side effect of the early impure versions of vancomycin, and these were prominent in the clinical trials conducted in the mid-1950s. Later trials using purer forms of vancomycin found that
nephrotoxicityis an infrequent adverse effect (0.1–1% of patients), but that this is accentuated in the presence of aminoglycosides. [cite journal | author=Farber BF, Moellering RC Jr. | title=Retrospective study of the toxicity of preparations of vancomycin from 1974 to 1981. | journal=Antimicrob Agents Chemother | year=1983 | volume=23 | pages=138 ]
Rare adverse effects (<0.1% of patients) include:
anaphylaxis, toxic epidermal necrolysis, erythema multiforme, red man syndrome ("see below"), superinfection, thrombocytopenia, neutropenia, leucopenia, tinnitus, dizziness and/or ototoxicity ("see below").
Lately it has been emphasized that vancomycin can induce platelet-reactive antibodies in the patient, leading to severe
thrombocytopeniaand bleeding with florid petechial hemorrhages, ecchymoses, and wet purpura. [cite journal | author=Drygalski A, Curtis BR | title=Vancomycin-Induced Immune Thrombocytopenia | journal= N Engl J Med | year=2007 | volume=356 | pages=904 | doi=10.1056/NEJMoa065066 | pmid=17329697]
Intravenous vs oral administration
Vancomycin needs to be given
intravenously (IV) for systemic therapy since it does not cross through the intestinal lining. It is a large hydrophilic molecule which partitions poorly across the gastrointestinal mucosa. The only indication for oral vancomycin therapy is in the treatment of pseudomembranous colitis, where it must be given orally to reach the site of infection in the colon. Inhaled vancomycin has also been used ( off-label), via nebulizer, for treatment of various infections of the upper and lower respiratory tract.
Red man syndrome
Vancomycin must be administered in a dilute solution slowly, over at least 60 minutes (maximum rate of 10 mg/minute for doses >500 mg). This is due to the high incidence of
painand thrombophlebitisand to avoid an infusion reaction known as the red man syndrome or red neck syndrome. This syndrome, usually appearing within 4–10 minutes after the commencement or soon after the completion of an infusion, is characterized by flushing and/or an erythematousrash that affects the face, neck and upper torso. These findings are due to non-specific mast celldegranulation and are not an IgEmediated allergic reaction. Less frequently, hypotensionand angioedemamay also occur. Symptoms may be treated with antihistamines, including diphenhydramine.Sivagnanam S, Deleu D. Red man syndrome. Crit Care 2003;7(2):119–120. PMID 12720556. ( [http://www.pubmedcentral.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pubmed&pubmedid=12720556 full text] )]
Therapeutic drug monitoring
Vancomycin activity is considered to be time-dependent – that is, antimicrobial activity depends on the duration that the drug level exceeds the
minimum inhibitory concentration(MIC) of the target organism. Thus, peak levels have not been shown to correlate with efficacy or toxicity – indeed concentration monitoring is unnecessary in most cases. Circumstances where therapeutic drug monitoring(TDM) is warranted include: patients receiving concomitant aminoglycoside therapy, patients with (potentially) altered pharmacokinetic parameters, patients on haemodialysis, during high dose or prolonged treatment, and patients with impaired renal function. In such cases, trough concentrations are measured.Cantu TG, Yamanaka-Yuen NA, Lietman PS. Serum vancomycin concentrations: reappraisal of their clinical value. Clin Infect Dis 1994;19(6):1180-2. PMID 8038306] Moellering RC Jr. Monitoring serum vancomycin levels: climbing the mountain because it is there? Clin Infect Dis 1994;18(4):544-6. PMID 8038307] Karam CM, McKinnon PS, Neuhauser MM, Rybak MJ. Outcome assessment of minimizing vancomycin monitoring and dosing adjustments. Pharmacotherapy 1999;19(3):257-66. PMID 10221365]
Vancomycin has traditionally been considered a
nephrotoxicand ototoxicdrug, based on observations by early investigators of elevated serum levels in renally impaired patients who had experienced ototoxicity, and subsequently through case reports in the medical literature. However, as the use of vancomycin increased with the spread of MRSAbeginning in the seventies, it was recognised that the previously reported rates of toxicity were not being observed. This was attributed to the removal of the impurities present in the earlier formulation of the drug, although those impurities were not specifically tested for toxicity.
Subsequent reviews of accumulated case reports of vancomycin-related
nephrotoxicityfound that many of the patients had also received other known nephrotoxins, particularly aminoglycosides. Most of the rest had other confounding factors, or insufficient data regarding the possibility of such, that prohibited the clear association of vancomycin with the observed renal dysfunction.
In 1994, Cantu and colleagues found that the use of vancomycin monotherapy was clearly documented in only three of 82 available cases in the literature. Prospective and retrospective studies attempting to evaluate the incidence of vancomycin-related nephrotoxicity have largely been methodologically flawed and have produced variable results. The most methodologically sound investigations indicate that the actual incidence of vancomycin-induced nephrotoxicity is around 5–7%. To put this into context, similar rates of renal dysfunction have been reported for
cefamandoleand benzylpenicillin, two reputedly non-nephrotoxic antibiotics.
Additionally, evidence to relate nephrotoxicity to vancomycin serum levels is inconsistent. Some studies have indicated an increased rate of nephrotoxicity when trough levels exceed 10 µg/mL, but others have not reproduced these results. Nephrotoxicity has also been observed with concentrations within the "therapeutic" range as well. Essentially, the reputation of vancomycin as a nephrotoxin is over-stated, and it has not been demonstrated that maintaining vancomycin serum levels within certain ranges will prevent its nephrotoxic effects, when they do occur.
Attempts to establish rates of vancomycin-induced ototoxicity are even more difficult due to the scarcity of quality evidence. The current consensus is that clearly related cases of vancomycin ototoxicity are rare. The association between vancomycin serum levels and ototoxicity is also uncertain. While cases of ototoxicity have been reported in patients whose vancomycin serum level exceeded 80 µg/mL, cases have been reported in patients with therapeutic levels as well. Thus, it also remains unproven that
therapeutic drug monitoringof vancomycin for the purpose of maintaining "therapeutic" levels will prevent ototoxicity.
Interactions with other nephrotoxins
Another area of controversy and uncertainty concerns the question of whether, and if so, to what extent, vancomycin increases the toxicity of other nephrotoxins. Clinical studies have yielded variable results, but animal models indicate that there probably is some increased nephrotoxic effect when vancomycin is added to nephrotoxins such as aminoglycosides. However, a dose- or serum level-effect relationship has not been established.
There are a few
gram-positivebacteria that are intrinsically resistant to vancomycin: these are Leuconostocand Pediococcusspecies, but these organisms are rare causes of disease in humans.cite journal | author=Swenson JM, Facklam RR, Thornsberry C | title=Antimicrobial susceptibility of vancomycin-resistant "Leuconostoc, Pediococcus" and "Lactobacillus" species | journal=Antimicrob Agents Chemother | year=1990 | volume=34 | pages=543–49 ] Most Lactobacillusspecies are also intrinsically resistant to vancomycin (the exception is the finding of a few strains (but not all) of "L. acidophilus" [cite journal | author=Hamilton-Miller JM, Shah S | year=1998 | title=Vancomycin susceptibility as an aid to the identification of lactobacilli | journal=Lett Appl Microbiol | volume=26 | pages=153–54 | doi=10.1046/j.1472-765X.1998.00297.x] ).
gram-negativebacteria are intrinsically resistant to vancomycin because of their outer membrane is impermeable to large glycopeptide molecules [cite book | author=Quintiliani R Jr, Courvalin P | chapter=Mechanisms of Resistance to Antimicrobial Agents | title=Manual of Clinical Microbiology | editor=Murray PR, Baron EJ, Pfaller MA, Tenover FC, Yolken RH | publisher=ASM Press | location=Washington DC | year=1995 | edition=6th | pages=1319 | isbn=1-55581-086-1 ] (with the exception of some non-gonococcal Neisseriaspecies). [cite journal | author=Geraci JE, Wilson WR | title=Vancomycin therapy for infective enocarditis | journal=Rev Infect Dis | year=1981 | volume=3(Suppl) | pages=S250–58 ]
Acquired microbial resistance to vancomycin is a growing problem, particularly within health care facilities such as hospitals. With vancomycin being the last-line antibiotic for serious
Gram-positiveinfections there is the growing prospect that resistance will result in a return to the days when fatal bacterial infections were common. Fact|date=May 2008 Vancomycin-resistant enterococcus(VRE) emerged in 1987. Vancomycin resistance emerged in more common pathogenic organisms during the 1990s and 2000s, including vancomycin-intermediate "Staphylococcus aureus" (VISA), vancomycin-resistant "Staphylococcus aureus" (VRSA), and vancomycin-resistant " Clostridium difficile".Smith TL, Pearson ML, Wilcox KR, Cruz C, Lancaster MV, Robinson-Dunn B, et al. Emergence of vancomycin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. Glycopeptide-Intermediate Staphylococcus aureus Working Group. N Engl J Med 1999;340(7):493-501. PMID 10021469] McDonald LC, Killgore GE, Thompson A, et al. Emergence of an epidemic, toxin gene variant strain of Clostridium difficile responsible for outbreaks in the United States between 2000 and 2004. N Engl J Med 2005;353:2433-2441. PMID 16322603] There is some suspicion that agricultural use of avoparcin, another similar glycopeptide antibiotic, has contributed to the emergence of vancomycin-resistant organisms.
One mechanism of resistance to vancomycin appears to be alteration to the terminal
amino acidresidues of the NAM/NAG-peptide subunits, normally D-alanyl-D-alanine, which vancomycin binds to. Variations such as D-alanyl-D-lactate and D-alanyl-D-serine result in only a 4-point hydrogen bonding interaction being possible between vancomycin and the peptide. This loss of just one point of interaction results in a 1000-fold decrease in affinity.
In "Enterococci" this modification appears to be due to the expression of an enzyme which alters the terminal residue. Three main resistance variants have been characterised to date among resistant "Enterococcus faecium" and "E. faecalis" populations.
*VanA - resistance to vancomycin and
teicoplanin, inducible on exposure to these agents
*VanB - lower level resistance, inducible by vancomycin but strains may remain susceptible to teicoplanin
*VanC - least clinically important, resistance only to vancomycin, constitutive resistance
The development and use of novel antibiotics such as
linezolidand daptomycinis expected to delay, but not halt, the emergence of bacteria resistant to all available antibiotics.
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
Vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
* [http://www.vancomycin.co.uk Vancomycin information site and forum]
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