- Nashville, Tennessee
Nashville — Consolidated city–county — Vanderbilt University, the Parthenon, the Nashville skyline, LP Field, Dolly Parton performing at the Grand Ole Opry, and Ryman Auditorium
Nickname(s): Music City, Athens of the South Davidson County and the state of Tennessee. Coordinates: Coordinates: Country United States State Tennessee County Davidson Founded 1779 Incorporated 1806 Named for Francis Nash Government – Mayor Karl Dean (D) Area – Consolidated 527.9 sq mi (1,367.3 km2) – Land 504.0 sq mi (1,305.4 km2) – Water 23.9 sq mi (61.9 km2) Elevation 597 ft (182 m) Population (2009) – Consolidated 635,710 – Density 1,204.2/sq mi (465/km2) – Metro 1,582,264 – Balance 605,473 Demonym Nashvillians Time zone CST (UTC-6) – Summer (DST) CDT (UTC-5) ZIP codes 37201-37250 Area code(s) 615 Interstates I-40, I-24, I-65, and I-440 Waterways Cumberland River Airports Nashville International Airport Public transit Nashville MTA Regional rail Music City Star Website nashville.gov
Nashville is the capital of the U.S. state of Tennessee and the county seat of Davidson County. It is located on the Cumberland River in Davidson County, in the north-central part of the state. The city is a center for the health care, publishing, banking and transportation industries, and is home to a large number of colleges and universities. It is most notably known as a center of the music industry, earning it the nickname "Music City".
Nashville has a consolidated city–county government which includes seven smaller municipalities in a two-tier system. The population of Nashville-Davidson County stood at 635,710 as of the 2009 census estimates, according to the United States Census Bureau. This makes it the second largest city in Tennessee, after Memphis. This also makes Nashville the fourth largest city in the Southeastern United States. The 2009 population of the entire 13-county Nashville metropolitan area was 1,582,264, making it the largest Metropolitan Statistical Area in the state. The 2009 population of the Nashville-Davidson–Murfreesboro–Columbia combined statistical area, a larger trade area, was estimated at 1,666,210.
- 1 History
- 2 Geography
- 3 Cityscape
- 4 Culture
- 5 Economy
- 6 Demographics
- 7 Law and government
- 8 Education
- 9 Transportation
- 10 Nicknames
- 11 Sister cities
- 12 See also
- 13 References
- 14 Further reading
- 15 External links
Nashville was founded by James Robertson, John Donelson, and a party of Wataugans in 1779, and was originally called Fort Nashborough, after the American Revolutionary War hero Francis Nash. Nashville quickly grew because of its strategic location, accessibility as a river port, and its later status as a major railroad center. In 1806, Nashville was incorporated as a city and became the county seat of Davidson County, Tennessee. In 1843, the city was named the permanent capital of the state of Tennessee.
By 1860, when the first rumblings of secession began to be heard across the South, antebellum Nashville was a very prosperous city. The city's significance as a shipping port made it a desirable prize as a means of controlling important river and railroad transportation routes. In February 1862, Nashville became the first state capital to fall to Union troops. The Battle of Nashville (December 15–16, 1864) was a significant Union victory and perhaps the most decisive tactical victory gained by either side in the war.
Within a few years after the Civil War the city had reclaimed its important shipping and trading position and also developed a solid manufacturing base. The post-Civil War years of the late 19th century brought a newfound prosperity to Nashville. These healthy economic times left the city with a legacy of grand classical-style buildings, which can still be seen around the downtown area.
Since the 1970s, the city has experienced tremendous growth, particularly during the economic boom of the 1990s under the leadership of then-Mayor and later-Tennessee Governor, Phil Bredesen, who made urban renewal a priority, and fostered the construction or renovation of several city landmarks, including the Country Music Hall of Fame and Museum, the downtown Nashville Public Library, the Bridgestone Arena, and LP Field.
In 1997 Nashville was awarded an NHL expansion team which was subsequently named the Nashville Predators. LP Field (formerly Adelphia Coliseum) was built after the National Football League's (NFL) Houston Oilers agreed to move to the city in 1995. The NFL team debuted in Nashville in 1998 at Vanderbilt Stadium, and LP Field opened in the summer of 1999. The Oilers changed their name to the Tennessee Titans and saw a season culminate in the Music City Miracle and a close Super Bowl game that came down to the last play.
Nashville lies on the Cumberland River in the northwestern portion of the Nashville Basin. Nashville's topography ranges from 385 feet (117 m) above sea level at the Cumberland River to 1,160 feet (350 m) above sea level at its highest point.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 527.9 square miles (1,367 km2), of which 504.0 square miles (1,305 km2) of it is land and 23.9 square miles (62 km2) of it (4.53%) is water.
Nashville has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa), with generally mild to cool winters, and hot, humid summers. Monthly averages range from 36.8 °F (2.7 °C) in January to 79.1 °F (26.2 °C) in July, with a diurnal temperature variation of 17 to 23 °F (9 to 13 °C). In the winter months, snowfall does occur in Nashville but is usually not heavy. Average annual snowfall is about 9 inches (23 cm), falling mostly in January and February and occasionally March and December. The largest snow event since 2000 was on January 16, 2003, when Nashville received 7 inches (18 cm) of snow in a single storm; the largest on record was 17 inches (43 cm), received on March 17, 1892. Rainfall is typically greater in winter and spring while autumn is the driest. Spring and fall are generally warm but prone to severe thunderstorms, which occasionally bring tornadoes — with recent major events on April 16, 1998; April 7, 2006; February 5, 2008; April 10, 2009; and May 1–2, 2010. Relative humidity in Nashville averages 83% in the mornings and 60% in the afternoons, which is considered moderate for the Southeastern United States. In recent decades, due to urban development, Nashville has developed an urban heat island (UHI); especially on cool, clear nights, temperatures are up to 10 °F (5.6 °C) warmer in the heart of the city than in rural outlying areas.
Nashville's long springs and autumns combined with a diverse array of trees and grasses can often make it uncomfortable for allergy sufferers. In 2008, Nashville was ranked as the 18th-worst spring allergy city in the U.S. by the Asthma and Allergy Foundation of America.
The coldest temperature ever recorded in Nashville was −17 °F (−27 °C) on January 21, 1985, and the highest was 107 °F (42 °C) on July 28, 1952.
Climate data for Nashville International Airport Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Record high °F (°C) 78
Average high °F (°C) 45.6
69.0 Daily mean °F (°C) 36.8
58.9 Average low °F (°C) 27.9
48.8 Record low °F (°C) −17
Precipitation inches (mm) 3.97
Snowfall inches (cm) 3.9
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in) 11.1 10.1 12.1 10.7 11.3 9.7 10.0 8.4 8.3 7.4 10.1 11.0 120.2 Avg. snowy days (≥ 0.1 in) 2.6 2.4 .8 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 .2 1.0 7 Sunshine hours 139.5 146.9 192.2 231.0 260.4 279.0 279.0 263.5 225.0 217.0 147.0 130.2 2,510.7 Source: NOAA; Weather.com (records); Hong Kong Observatory (sunshine hours)
The downtown area of Nashville features a diverse assortment of entertainment, dining, cultural and architectural attractions. The Broadway and 2nd Avenue areas feature entertainment venues, night clubs and an assortment of restaurants. North of Broadway lies Nashville's central business district, Legislative Plaza, Capitol Hill and the Tennessee Bicentennial Mall. Cultural and architectural attractions can be found throughout the city.
The downtown area of Nashville is easily accessible. Three major interstate highways (I-40, I-65 and I-24) converge near the core area of downtown, and many regional cities are within a day's driving distance.
Nashville's first skyscraper, the Life & Casualty Tower, was completed in 1957 and started the construction of high rises in downtown Nashville. After the construction of the AT&T Building (commonly known to locals as the "Batman Building") in 1994, the downtown area saw little construction until the mid-2000s. Many new residential developments have been constructed or are planned for the various neighborhoods of downtown and midtown. A new high rise office building, The Pinnacle, was recently opened in 2010.
Many civic and infrastructure projects are either being planned, in progress, or recently completed. A new MTA bus hub was recently completed in downtown Nashville, as was the Music City Star pilot project. Several public parks have been constructed, such as the Public Square. Riverfront Park is scheduled to be extensively updated. The Music City Center, a convention center project, has been approved for the downtown area and is currently under construction.
Parks and gardens
Metro Board of Parks and Recreation owns and manages 10,200 acres (4,100 ha) of land and 99 parks and greenways (comprising more than 3% of the total area of the county).
Warner Parks, situated on 2,684 acres (1,086 ha) of land, consists of a 5,000-square-foot (460 m2) learning center, 20 miles (32 km) of scenic roads, 12 miles (19 km) of hiking trails, and 10 miles (16 km) of horse trails. It is also the home of the annual Iroquois Steeplechase.
The United States Army Corps of Engineers maintains parks on Old Hickory Lake and Percy Priest Lake. These parks are used for activities such as fishing, waterskiing, sailing and boating. Percy Priest Lake is also home to the Vanderbilt Sailing Club.
Nashville has the largest metropolitan area in the state of Tennessee, spanning 13 counties and, as of 2009[update], had a population of 1,582,264. The Nashville Metropolitan Statistical Area encompasses the Middle Tennessee counties of Cannon, Cheatham, Davidson, Dickson, Hickman, Macon, Robertson, Rutherford, Smith, Sumner, Trousdale, Williamson, and Wilson. The 2009 population of the Nashville-Davidson—Murfreesboro—Columbia combined statistical area was estimated at 1,666,210.
Much of the city's cultural life has revolved around its large university community. Particularly significant in this respect were two groups of critics and writers who were associated with Vanderbilt University in the early twentieth century: the Fugitives and the Agrarians.
Popular destinations include Fort Nashborough and Fort Negley, the former being a reconstruction of the original settlement, the latter being a semi-restored Civil War battle fort; the Tennessee State Museum; and The Parthenon, a full-scale replica of the original Parthenon in Athens. The Tennessee State Capitol is one of the oldest working state capitol buildings in the nation, while The Hermitage is one of the older presidential homes open to the public.
Although best known for its music, Nashville is a city filled with countless dining destinations. Some of the more popular types of local cuisine include hot chicken, hot fish, barbecue, and meat and three.
Entertainment and performing arts
Nashville has a vibrant music and entertainment scene spanning a variety of genres. The Tennessee Performing Arts Center is the major performing arts center of the city. It is the home of the Tennessee Repertory Theatre, the Nashville Opera, the Music City Drum and Bugle Corps, and the Nashville Ballet. In September 2006, the Schermerhorn Symphony Center opened as the home of the Nashville Symphony.
As the city's name itself is a metonym for the country music industry, many popular tourist sites involve country music, including the Country Music Hall of Fame and Museum, Belcourt Theatre, and Ryman Auditorium. Ryman was home to the Grand Ole Opry until 1974 when the show moved to the Grand Ole Opry House, 9 miles (14 km) east of downtown. The Opry plays there several times a week, except for an annual winter run at the Ryman.
Numerous music clubs and honky-tonk bars can be found in downtown Nashville, especially the area encompassing Lower Broadway, Second Avenue, and Printer's Alley, which is often referred to as "the District".
Each year, the CMA Music Festival (formerly known as Fan Fair) brings thousands of country fans to the city. The Tennessee State Fair is also held annually in September.
Nashville was once home of television shows such as Hee Haw and Pop! Goes the Country, and to the Opryland USA theme park, which operated from 1972 to 1997 before being closed by its owners Gaylord Entertainment, and soon after demolished to make room for the Opry Mills mega-shopping mall.
The Christian pop and rock music industry is based along Nashville's Music Row, with a great influence in neighboring Williamson County. The Christian record companies include EMI Christian Music Group, Provident Label Group and Word Records.
Although Nashville was never known as a jazz town, it did have many great jazz bands, including The Nashville Jazz Machine led by Dave Converse and its current version, the Nashville Jazz Orchestra, led by Jim Williamson, as well as The Establishment, led by Billy Adair. The Francis Craig Orchestra entertained Nashvillians from 1929 to 1945 from the Oak Bar and Grille Room in the Hermitage Hotel. Craig's orchestra was also the first to broadcast over local radio station WSM-AM and enjoyed phenomenal success with a 12-year show on the NBC Radio Network. In the late 1930s, he introduced a newcomer, Dinah Shore, a local graduate of Hume Fogg High School and Vanderbilt University.
Radio station WMOT-FM in nearby Murfreesboro has aided significantly in the recent revival of the city's jazz scene, as has the non-profit Nashville Jazz Workshop, which holds concerts and classes in a renovated building in the north Nashville neighborhood of Germantown. Fisk University also maintains a jazz station.
Nashville has an active theatre scene, having several professional and community theatre companies. Most notable of the professional companies are Nashville Children's Theatre, Tennessee Repertory Theatre, the Nashville Shakespeare Festival, the Dance Theatre of Tennessee and the Tennessee Women's Theater Project. Of the community theatres, Circle Players has been in operation for over 60 years.
Perhaps the biggest factor in drawing visitors to Nashville is its association with country music. Many visitors to Nashville attend live performances of the Grand Ole Opry, the world's longest running live radio show. The Country Music Hall of Fame and Museum is another major attraction relating to the popularity of country music. The Gaylord Opryland Resort & Convention Center, the Opry Mills regional shopping mall and the General Jackson showboat, are all located in what is known as Music Valley.
Civil War history is important to the city's tourism industry. Sites pertaining to the Battle of Nashville and the nearby Battle of Franklin and Battle of Stones River can be seen, along with several well-preserved antebellum plantation houses such as Belle Meade Plantation, Carnton plantation in Franklin, and Belmont Mansion.
Nashville has several arts centers and museums, including the Frist Center for the Visual Arts, Cheekwood Botanical Garden and Museum of Art, the Tennessee State Museum, Fisk University's Van Vechten and Aaron Douglas Galleries, Vanderbilt University's Fine Art Gallery and Sarratt Gallery, and the Parthenon. Nashville West is one of the city's newer attractions.
Major annual events
Event Month Held and Location Nashville Film Festival Weeklong festival in April. It features hundreds of independent films and is one of the biggest film festivals in the Southern United States. Country Music Marathon Marathon and half marathon which normally include over 25,000 runners from around the world in April. Veterans Day Parade A parade running down Broadway on 11/11 at 11:11.11 am since 1951. Features include 101st Airborne division (Air Assault), Tennessee National Guard, Veterans from wars past and present, military plane fly-overs, tanks, motorcycles, first responder vehicles, marching bands and thousands of spectators. Iroquois Steeplechase Annual steeplechase horse racing event which takes place in May at Percy Warner Park. CMA Music Festival A four day event in June featuring performances by country music stars, autograph signings, artist/fan interaction, and other activities for country music fans. Tomato Art Festival Takes place in East Nashville every August. African Street Festival Takes place on the campus of Tennessee State University in September. Tennessee State Fair In September at the State Fairgrounds. The State Fair lasts nine days and includes rides, exhibits, rodeos, tractor pulls, and numerous other shows and attractions. Country Music Association Awards Usually held in November at the Bridgestone Arena and televised nationally to millions of viewers.
Nashville has many professional sports teams, most notably the Nashville Predators of the National Hockey League and the Tennessee Titans of the National Football League. Several other pro sports teams also call Nashville home, as does the NCAA college football Music City Bowl. Nashville is also home to the Fairgrounds Speedway, a NASCAR Whelen All-American Series racetrack.
Club Sport League Venue Established Tennessee Titans Football National Football League LP Field 1960 Nashville Predators Hockey National Hockey League Bridgestone Arena 1997 Nashville Sounds Baseball Pacific Coast League Herschel Greer Stadium 1978 Nashville Metros Soccer Premier Development League Ezell Park 1989 Nashville Soul Basketball American Basketball Association (2000–present) Nashville Municipal Auditorium 2011
Nashville is also home to four Division I athletic programs.
Program Division Conference Major venues Vanderbilt Commodores Division I (FBS) Southeastern Conference Vanderbilt Stadium (football)
Memorial Gymnasium (basketball)
Hawkins Field (baseball)
Tennessee State Tigers Division I (FCS) Ohio Valley Conference LP Field (football)
Gentry Center (basketball)
Belmont Bruins Division I (non-football) Atlantic Sun Conference
(moving to Ohio Valley Conference in July 2012)
Curb Event Center Lipscomb Bisons Division I (non-football) Atlantic Sun Conference Allen Arena
The daily newspaper in Nashville is The Tennessean, which, until 1998, competed fiercely with the Nashville Banner, another daily paper that was housed in the same building under a joint-operating agreement. The Tennessean is the city's most widely circulated newspaper, while a smaller free daily called The City Paper shares the Nashville market. Online news service NashvillePost.com competes with the printed dailies to break local and state news. Several weekly papers are also published in Nashville, including The Nashville Pride, Nashville Business Journal, Nashville Scene and The Tennessee Tribune. Historically, The Tennessean was associated with a broadly liberal editorial policy, while The Banner carried staunchly conservative views in its editorial pages; The Banner's heritage is carried on these days by The City Paper. The Nashville Scene is the area's alternative weekly broadsheet. The Nashville Pride is aimed towards community development and serves Nashville's entrepreneurial population.
Nashville is home to eleven broadcast television stations, although most households are served by direct cable network connections. Comcast Cable has a monopoly on terrestrial cable service in Davidson County (but not throughout the entire media market). Nashville is ranked as the 29th largest television market in the United States.
Nashville is also home to cable networks Country Music Television (CMT), Great American Country (GAC), and RFD-TV, among others. CMT's master control facilities are located in New York City with the other Viacom properties. The Top 20 Countdown and CMT Insider are taped in their Nashville studios. Nashville is also the home and namesake of the NBC country music singing competition Nashville Star, which broadcasts from the Opryland complex. Shop at Home Network was once based in Nashville, but the channel signed off in 2008.
Several dozen FM and AM radio stations broadcast in the Nashville area, including five college stations and one LPFM community radio station. Nashville is ranked as the 44th largest radio market in the United States. WSM-FM is owned by Cumulus Media and is 95.5 FM. WSM-AM, owned by Gaylord Entertainment Company, can be heard nationally on 650 AM or online at WSM Online from its studios located inside the Gaylord Opryland Resort & Convention Center. WSM is famous for carrying live broadcasts of the Grand Ole Opry, through which it helped spread the popularity of country music in America, and continues to broadcast country music throughout its broadcast day. WLAC, whose over-the-air signal is heard at 1510 AM, is a Clear Channel-owned talk station which was originally sponsored by the Life and Casualty Insurance Company of Tennessee, and its competitor WWTN is owned by Cumulus.
Several major motion pictures have been filmed in Nashville, including The Green Mile, The Last Castle, Gummo, The Thing Called Love, Two Weeks, Coal Miner's Daughter, Nashville, and Country Strong.
As the "home of country music", Nashville has become a major music recording and production center. All of the Big Four record labels, as well as numerous independent labels, have offices in Nashville, mostly in the Music Row area. Since the 1960s, Nashville has been the second biggest music production center (after New York) in the U.S. As of 2006, Nashville's music industry is estimated to have a total economic impact of US$6.4 billion per year and to contribute 19,000 jobs to the Nashville area.
Although Nashville is renowned as a music recording center and tourist destination, its largest industry is actually health care. Nashville is home to more than 250 health care companies, including Hospital Corporation of America, the largest private operator of hospitals in the world. As of 2006, it is estimated that the health care industry contributes US$18.3 billion per year and 94,000 jobs to the Nashville-area economy. The automotive industry is also becoming increasingly important for the entire Middle Tennessee region. Nissan North America moved its corporate headquarters in 2006 from Gardena, California (Los Angeles County) to Franklin. Nissan also has its largest North American manufacturing plant in Smyrna, Tennessee. Largely as a result of the increased development of Nissan and other Japanese economic interests in the region, Japan moved its New Orleans Consulate-general to Nashville's Palmer Plaza.
Other major industries in Nashville include insurance, finance, and publishing (especially religious publishing). The city hosts headquarters operations for several Protestant denominations, including the United Methodist Church, Southern Baptist Convention, National Baptist Convention USA, and the National Association of Free Will Baptists.
According to the City's 2010 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, the top employers in the city are:
# Employer # of Employees 1 Vanderbilt University and Medical Center 20,968 2 Metropolitan Nashville-Davidson County Government and Public Schools 20,162 3 State of Tennessee 20,000 4 U.S. Government 11,496 5 Saint Thomas Health Services 6,500 6 Nissan North America 5,850 7 HCA 5,447 8 Walmart 4,500 Gaylord Entertainment 4,500 9 Cracker Barrel Old Country Store 4,189 10 Dell 3,200
Historical populations Census Pop. %± 1810 1,100 — 1820 3,410 210.0% 1830 5,566 63.2% 1840 6,929 24.5% 1850 10,165 46.7% 1860 16,988 67.1% 1870 25,865 52.3% 1880 43,350 67.6% 1890 76,168 75.7% 1900 80,865 6.2% 1910 110,364 36.5% 1920 118,342 7.2% 1930 153,866 30.0% 1940 167,402 8.8% 1950 174,307 4.1% 1960 170,874 −2.0% 1970 448,003 162.2% 1980 455,651 1.7% 1990 510,784 12.1% 2000 569,891 11.6% Est. 2009 635,710 11.5% Sources:
The data below is for all of Metropolitan Nashville-Davidson County, including other incorporated cities within the consolidated city–county (such as Belle Meade and Berry Hill). See Nashville-Davidson (balance) for demographic data on Nashville-Davidson County excluding separately incorporated cities.
According to the 2009 American Community Survey, there were 628,434 people residing in the city. The population density was 1,204.2 people per square mile (465/km²). There were 282,452 housing units at an average density of 560.4 per square mile (216.4/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 60.1% White, 26.8% African American, 8.4% Hispanic or Latino (of any race), 3.1% Asian, 0.3% Native American, 0.1% Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander, 0.1% from one other race, and 1.2% from two or more races.
There were 254,651 households and 141,469 families (55.6% of households). Of households with families, 37.2% had married couples living together, 14.1% had a female householder with no husband present, and 4.2% had a male householder with no wife present. 27.9% of all households had children under the age of 18, and 18.8% had at least one member 65 years of age or older. Of the 44.4% of households that are non-families, 36.2% were individuals and 8.2% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.38 and the average family size was 3.16.
The age distribution was 22% under 18, 10% from 18 to 24, 33% from 25 to 44, 24% from 45 to 64, and 11% who were 65 or older. The median age was 34.2 years. For every 100 females there were 94.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.7 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $46,280, and the median income for a family was $56,923. Males with a year-round, full-time job had a median income of $40,037 versus $34,269 for females. The per capita income for the city was $28,056. About 12.2% of families and 16.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 26.0% of those under age 18 and 10.0% of those age 65 or over.
Because of its relatively low cost of living and large job market, Nashville has become a popular city for immigrants. Nashville's foreign-born population more than tripled in size between 1990 and 2000, increasing from 12,662 to 39,596. Large groups of Mexicans, Kurds, Vietnamese, Laotians, Cambodians, Arabs, and Bantus call Nashville home, among other groups. Nashville has the largest Kurdish community in the United States, numbering approximately 11,000. About 60,000 Bhutanese refugees are being admitted to the U.S. and some of them will resettle in Nashville. During the Iraqi election of 2005, Nashville was one of the few international locations where Iraqi expatriates could vote. The American Jewish community in Nashville dates back over 150 years, and numbered about 6,500 in 2001.
Law and government
The city of Nashville and Davidson County merged in 1963 as a way for Nashville to combat the problems of urban sprawl. The combined entity is officially known as "the Metropolitan Government of Nashville and Davidson County", and is popularly known as "Metro Nashville" or simply "Metro". It offers services such as police, fire, electricity, water and sewage treatment. When the Metro government was formed in 1963, the government was split into two service districts—the "urban services district" and the "general services district." The urban services district encompasses the 1963 boundaries of the former City of Nashville, and the general services district includes the remainder of Davidson County. There are seven smaller municipalities within the consolidated city-county: Belle Meade, Berry Hill, Forest Hills, Lakewood, Oak Hill, Goodlettsville (partially), and Ridgetop (partially). These municipalities use a two-tier system of government, with the smaller municipality typically providing police services and the Metro Nashville government providing most other services. Lakewood residents voted in 2010 and 2011 to dissolve its city charter and join the metropolitan government, with both votes passing.
Nashville is governed by a mayor, vice-mayor, and 40-member Metropolitan Council. It uses the strong-mayor form of the mayor–council system. The current mayor of Nashville is Karl Dean. The Metropolitan Council is the legislative body of government for Nashville and Davidson County. There are five council members who are elected at large and 35 council members that represent individual districts. The Metro Council has regular meetings that are presided over by the vice-mayor, who is currently Diane Neighbors. The Metro Council meets on the first and third Tuesday of each month at 6:00 pm, according to the Metropolitan Charter.
Nashville has been a Democratic stronghold since at least the end of Reconstruction. While local elections are officially nonpartisan, nearly all of the city's elected officials are known to be Democrats. At the state level, Democrats hold all but one of the city's state house districts and all but one of the city's state senate districts.
Democrats are no less dominant at the federal level. Over the past 100 years, Democratic presidential candidates have carried Nashville/Davidson County in four out of five elections. Normally, Democrats carry Nashville at the presidential level with relatively little difficulty. In the 2000 presidential election, Al Gore carried Nashville with over 59% of the vote even as he narrowly lost his home state. In the 2004 election, John Kerry carried Nashville with 55% of the vote even as George W. Bush won the state by 14 points. In 2008, Barack Obama carried Nashville with 60% of the vote even as John McCain won Tennessee by 15 points.
At the federal level, Nashville is split between two congressional districts. Nearly all of the city is in the 5th District, currently represented by Democrat Jim Cooper. A Republican has not represented a significant portion of Nashville since 1874. While Republicans made a few spirited challenges in the mid-1960s and early 1970s, they have not made a serious bid for the district since 1972, when the Republican candidate gained only 38% of the vote even as Nixon carried the district in the presidential election by a large margin. The district's best-known congressman was probably Jo Byrns, who represented the district from 1909 to 1936 and was Speaker of the House for much of Franklin Roosevelt's first term as President. Another nationally prominent congressman from Nashville was Percy Priest, who represented the district from 1941 to 1956 and was House Majority Whip from 1949 to 1953. Former mayors Richard Fulton and Bill Boner also sat in the U.S. House before assuming the Metro mayoral office.
All of Nashville was located in a single district for most of the time from Reconstruction until the 2000 Census, when a small portion of southwestern Nashville was drawn into the heavily Republican 7th District. That district is currently represented by Marsha Blackburn of neighboring Williamson County; Blackburn represented much of the Nashville share of the 7th in the state senate from 1998 to 2002.
The city is served by the Metropolitan Nashville Public Schools.
- David Lipscomb Campus School
- Davidson Academy
- Donelson Christian Academy
- Christ Presbyterian Academy
- Ensworth School
- Ezell-Harding Christian School
- Franklin Road Academy
- Father Ryan
- Goodpasture Christian School
- Harpeth Hall School
- Madison Academy
- Montgomery Bell Academy
- Nashville Christian School
- Nashville International Academy
- St. Cecilia Academy
- University School of Nashville
Colleges and universities
Nashville is often labeled the "Athens of the South" due to the many colleges and universities in the city and metropolitan area. The colleges and universities in Nashville include American Baptist College, Aquinas College, The Art Institute of Tennessee – Nashville, Belmont University, Daymar Institute, Fisk University, Free Will Baptist Bible College, John A. Gupton College, International Academy of Design and Technology, Lipscomb University, Meharry Medical College, Nossi College, Nashville School of Law, Nashville Auto Diesel College (a NAFTC Training Center), Nashville State Community College, Strayer University, Tennessee State University, Trevecca Nazarene University, University of Phoenix, Vanderbilt University, and Watkins College of Art, Design & Film.
Within 30 miles (48 km) of Nashville in Murfreesboro is Middle Tennessee State University (MTSU), a full-sized public university with Tennessee's largest undergraduate population. Enrollment in post-secondary education in Nashville is around 43,000. Within the Nashville Metropolitan Statistical Area—which includes MTSU, Cumberland University (Lebanon), Volunteer State Community College (Gallatin), Daymar Institute, and O'More College of Design (Franklin)—total enrollment exceeds 74,000. Within a 40 miles (64 km) radius are Austin Peay State University (Clarksville) and Columbia State Community College (Columbia), enrolling an additional 13,600.
Nashville is centrally located at the crossroads of three Interstate Highways: I-40, I-24, and I-65. Interstate 440 is a bypass route connecting I-40, I-65, and I-24 south of downtown Nashville. Briley Parkway connects the north side of the city and its interstates. A number of arterial surface roads called "pikes" radiate from the city center; many carry the names of nearby towns to which they lead. Among these are Clarksville Pike, Gallatin Pike, Lebanon Pike, Murfreesboro Pike, Nolensville Pike, and Franklin Pike.
The Metropolitan Transit Authority provides bus transit within the city, out of a newly built hub station downtown. Routes utilize a hub and spoke method. Expansion plans include use of Bus rapid transit for new routes, with the possibility for local rail service at some point in the future.
Nashville is considered a gateway city for rail and air traffic for the Piedmont Atlantic MegaRegion.
Nashville launched a passenger commuter rail system called the Music City Star on September 18, 2006. The only currently operational leg of the system connects the city of Lebanon to downtown Nashville at the Nashville Riverfront. Legs to Clarksville, Murfreesboro and Gallatin are currently in the feasibility study stage. The system plan includes seven legs connecting Nashville to surrounding suburbs.
Notable bridges in the city are:
Official Name Other Names Length Date Opened Gateway Bridge Korean War Veterans Memorial Bridge 1,660 feet (510 m) May 19, 2004 Kelly Miller Smith Bridge Jefferson Street Bridge March 2, 1994 Old Hickory Bridge 1929 Martin Luther King Jr. Bridge Bordeaux Bridge September 18, 1980 Shelby Street Bridge Shelby Avenue Bridge 3,150 feet (960 m) July 5, 1909 Silliman Evans Bridge 2,362 feet (720 m) 1963 Victory Memorial Bridge July 2, 1956 William Goodwin Bridge Hobson Pike Bridge 2,215 feet (675 m) Woodland Street Bridge 639 feet (195 m)
Nashville is a colorful, well-known city in several different arenas. As such, it has earned various sobriquets, including:
- Music City, USA: WSM-AM announcer David Cobb first used this name during a 1950 broadcast and it stuck. It is now the official nickname used by the Nashville Convention and Visitors Bureau. Nashville is the home of the Grand Ole Opry, the Country Music Hall of Fame, and many major record labels. This name also dates back to 1874, where after receiving and hearing a performance by the Fisk Jubilee Singers, Queen Victoria of England is reported as saying that "These young people must surely come from a musical city."
- Athens of the South: Home to twenty-four post-secondary educational institutions, Nashville has long been compared to the ancient city of learning, site of Plato's Academy. Since 1897, a full-scale replica of the Athenian Parthenon has stood in Nashville, and many examples of classical and neoclassical architecture can be found in the city.
- The Protestant Vatican or The Buckle of the Bible Belt: Nashville has over 700 churches, several seminaries, a number of Christian music companies, and is the headquarters for the publishing arms of the Southern Baptist Convention (LifeWay Christian Resources), the United Methodist Church (United Methodist Publishing House) and the National Baptist Convention (Sunday School Publishing Board). It is also the seat of the National Baptist Convention, the National Association of Free Will Baptists, the Gideons International, the Gospel Music Association, and Thomas Nelson, the world's largest producer of Bibles.
- Cashville: Nashville native Young Buck released a successful rap album called Straight Outta Cashville that has popularized the nickname among a new generation.
- Little Kurdistan: Nashville has the United States' largest population of Kurdish people, estimated to be around 11,000.
- Nash Vegas or Nashvegas
Nashville is an active participant in the Sister Cities program and has relationships with the following towns:
- Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom)
- Caen (France)
- Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)
- Magdeburg (Germany)
- Mendoza (Argentina)
- Taiyuan, Shanxi (People's Republic of China)
- International Friendship City
- Crouy (France)
- Municipality United in Friendship
- El Port de la Selva (Spain)
- ^ "Geographic Identifiers: Davidson County, Tennessee". Census.gov. 2010. http://factfinder2.census.gov/faces/help/jsf/pages/geography.xhtml?lang=en&code=050&name=Davidson+County%2C+Tennessee. Retrieved August 3, 2011.
- ^ a b c "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Counties of Tennessee: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2009" (XLS). Census.gov. March 2010. http://www.census.gov/popest/counties/tables/CO-EST2009-01-47.xls. Retrieved August 3, 2011.
- ^ a b c "Annual Estimates of the Population of Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2009" (XLS). Census.gov. March 2010. http://www.census.gov/popest/metro/tables/2009/CBSA-EST2009-01.xls. Retrieved August 3, 2011.
- ^ "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Incorporated Places in Tennessee: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2009" (XLS). Census.gov. September 2010. http://www.census.gov/popest/cities/tables/SUB-EST2009-04-47.xls. Retrieved August 3, 2011.
- ^ Consolidated refers to the population of Davidson County; Balance refers to the population of Nashville excluding other incorporated cities within the Nashville-Davidson boundary.
- ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. http://www.naco.org/Counties/Pages/FindACounty.aspx. Retrieved 2011-06-07.
- ^ a b "Selected Population Profile in the United States: Nashville-Davidson—Murfreesboro—Columbia, TN CSA". Census.gov. 2010. http://www2.census.gov/acs2009_1yr/prod/SelectPopulationProfile/Combined_Statistical_Area/Nashville-Davidson--Murfreesboro--Columbia,%20TN%20CSA.csv. Retrieved August 3, 2011.
- ^ "Elevations and Distances in the United States". USGS.gov. 2001. http://egsc.usgs.gov/isb/pubs/booklets/elvadist/elvadist.html. Retrieved August 3, 2011.
- ^ "Nashville Weather". NashvilleFlights.com. http://www.nashvilleflights.com/destinationguide/destinationguide.aspx?guide=Weather. Retrieved January 29, 2010.
- ^ a b "Climatography of the United States, No. 20, 1971–2000: Nashville International Airport". NOAA.gov. February 2004. http://cdo.ncdc.noaa.gov/climatenormals/clim20/tn/406402.pdf. Retrieved September 13, 2010.
- ^ "Snowstorms Producing at Least 6" at Nashville". NOAA.gov. November 17, 2009. http://www.srh.noaa.gov/ohx/?n=snowstorms. Retrieved December 30, 2009.
- ^ "Nashville Relative Humidity". Cityrating.com. http://www.cityrating.com/cityhumidity.asp?City=Nashville. Retrieved August 4, 2008.
- ^ Gale Research (2006). Cities of the United States. 1 (5th ed.). Detroit: Thomson-Gale. p. 511. ISBN 0787673692.
- ^ Buchanan, Joy (March 21, 2007). "Nashville's an allergy leader, but it's not alone". The Tennessean. http://tennessean.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20070321/FEATURES04/703210425/1082/NEWS07. Retrieved March 21, 2007.
- ^ "Spring Allergy Capitals 2008" (PDF). AAFA.org. http://aafa.org/pdfs/FINAL%20public%20LIST%20Spr2008.pdf. Retrieved April 29, 2008.
- ^ "Calendar of Significant Weather Events in Middle Tennessee". NOAA.gov. August 3, 2009. http://www.srh.noaa.gov/ohx/?n=calendar. Retrieved September 22, 2009.
- ^ "Monthly Averages for Nashville, TN". Weather.com. http://www.weather.com/outlook/health/fitness/wxclimatology/monthly/USTN0357. Retrieved September 26, 2010.
- ^ "Climatological Information for Nashville, United States". Hong Kong Observatory. http://www.hko.gov.hk/wxinfo/climat/world/eng/n_america/us/nashville_e.htm. Retrieved May 13, 2010.
- ^ "Gallery: Grand opening for Pinnacle tower". Nashville Business Journal. February 11, 2010. http://nashville.bizjournals.com/nashville/stories/2010/02/08/daily23.html. Retrieved February 17, 2010.
- ^ "Metropolitan Statistical Areas and Components, November 2004, With Codes". Census.gov. March 2005. http://www.census.gov/population/estimates/metro-city/List4.txt. Retrieved August 3, 2011.
- ^ Romine, Linda (2006). Frommer's Nashville & Memphis (7th ed.). Hoboken: Wiley. pp. 117–120. ISBN 0471776149.
- ^ Guier, Cindy Stooksbury; Finch, Jackie Sheckler (2007). Insiders' Guide to Nashville (6th ed.). Guilford: Globe Pequot. pp. 118–129. ISBN 0762741864.
- ^ Davidson, Carla (November/December 2005). "Singing City". American Heritage 56 (6). http://www.americanheritage.com/articles/magazine/ah/2005/6/2005_6_31.shtml.
- ^ "Nashville's Veterans Day Parade – HOME". Nashvillesveteransdayparade.com. http://nashvillesveteransdayparade.com/. Retrieved October 23, 2011.
- ^ "Market Profiles". TVB.org. http://www.tvb.org/market_profiles. Retrieved August 3, 2011.
- ^ Romine, Linda (2006). Frommer's Nashville & Memphis (7th ed.). Hoboken: Wiley. p. 32. ISBN 0471776149.
- ^ "Country Music Labels". ClubNashville.com. Archived from the original on August 8, 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20070808102905/http://www.clubnashville.com/labels.htm.
- ^ "Hoedown on a Harpsichord". Time. November 14, 1960. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,711961,00.html. Retrieved August 3, 2011.
- ^ "Nashville's Music Industry Worth $6.38 Billion". MI2N.com. January 11, 2006. http://www.mi2n.com/press.php3?ej=md&press_nb=86392. Retrieved August 3, 2011.
- ^ Pack, Todd (February 15, 2006). "Health care worth $18B here". Tennessean.com. http://www.tennessean.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=2006602150432.
- ^ "Dell to Expand Nashville Operations; Increase Area Workforce By Up to 1,000 Employees" (Press release). Dell.com. June 2, 2006. http://www.dell.com/content/topics/global.aspx/corp/pressoffice/en/2006/2006_06_02_nv_000?c=us&cs=19&l=en&s=dhs. Retrieved December 16, 2008.
- ^ "Principal Employers: Current Year and Nine Years Ago". Nashville.gov. 2010. http://www.nashville.gov/finance/docs/operations/cafr2010/H33.pdf. Retrieved August 3, 2011.
- ^ "Demographics". NashvilleChamber.org. http://www.nashvillechamber.com/Homepage/BusinessNashville/Research/Demographics.aspx. Retrieved August 3, 2011.
- ^ Gibson, Campbell (June 1998). "Population of the 100 Largest Cities and Other Urban Places In The U.S.: 1790 to 1990". Census.gov. http://www.census.gov/population/www/documentation/twps0027.html. Retrieved August 3, 2011.
- ^ "Ranking Tables for Incorporated Places of 100,000 or More: 1990 and 2000". Census.gov. April 2, 2001. Archived from the original on November 8, 2008. http://replay.web.archive.org/20081108112254/http://www.census.gov/population/www/cen2000/briefs/phc-t5/tables/tab02.txt.
- ^ The significant increase between 1960 and 1970 is due to the merging of Nashville and Davidson County in 1963.
- ^ "Davidson County, Tennessee: ACS Demographic and Housing Estimates: 2007–2009". Census.gov. 2009. http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/ADPTable?-qr_name=ACS_2009_3YR_G00_DP3YR5&-geo_id=05000US47037. Retrieved August 3, 2011.
- ^ "Davidson County, Tennessee: Selected Social Characteristics in the United States: 2007–2009". Census.gov. 2009. http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/ADPTable?-geo_id=05000US47037&-qr_name=ACS_2009_3YR_G00_DP3YR2. Retrieved August 3, 2011.
- ^ "Davidson County, Tennessee: Population and Housing Narrative Profile: 2007–2009". Census.gov. 2009. http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/NPTable?-geo_id=05000US47037&-qr_name=ACS_2009_3YR_G00_NP01. Retrieved August 3, 2011.
- ^ "Davidson County, Tennessee: Selected Economic Characteristics: 2007–2009". Census.gov. 2009. http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/ADPTable?-geo_id=05000US47037&-qr_name=ACS_2009_3YR_G00_DP3YR3. Retrieved August 3, 2011.
- ^ Swarns, Rachel L (July 20, 2003). "U.S. a Place of Miracles for Somali Refugees". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2003/07/20/national/20REFU.html?ei=5007&en=913fc8336985e647&ex=1374033600. Retrieved August 3, 2011.
- ^ "Nashville Refugee Population Grows". WSMV.com. February 7, 2009. http://www.wsmv.com/news/18664025/detail.html.
- ^ Cornfield, Daniel B; Arzubiaga, Angela; BeLue, Rhonda; et al (August 15, 2003). "Final Report of the Immigrant Community Assessment". Nashville.gov. http://www.nashville.gov/humanrelations/docs/immigrant_community_assessment_nashville.pdf. Retrieved August 3, 2011.
- ^ a b Copeland, Larry (June 15, 2006). "Who's the biggest fish in the South?". USA Today. http://www.usatoday.com/news/nation/2006-06-15-south-big-fish_x.htm. Retrieved August 3, 2011.
- ^ Echegaray, Chris (January 1, 2009). "Newest refugees hail from Bhutan". The Tennessean. http://www.tennessean.com/article/20090101/NEWS01/901010349/1001/RSS6001.
- ^ Alligood, Leon (January 11, 2005). "Local Iraqis ready to vote but worried about process". The Tennessean. Archived from the original on January 11, 2005. http://www.aina.org/news/20050111105713.jsp.
- ^ "A Brief History of the Nashville Jewish Community". JewishNashville.org. Jewish Federation of Nashville and Middle Tennessee. http://www.jewishnashville.org/page.aspx?id=75712.
- ^ Waddle, Ray (April 2001). "Bible Belt getting stretched in Nashville". The Tennessean. http://www.tennessean.com/local/archives/01/04/03814884.shtml?Element_ID=3814884.
- ^ Humbles, Andy (April 15, 2011). "Residents Vote To Surrender Lakewood's Charter". NewsChannel5.com. http://www.newschannel5.com/story/14258754/residents-vote-to-surrender-lakewoods-charter. Retrieved August 3, 2011.
- ^ "Rein of Council redefines mayoral relationship". The City Paper. April 9, 2004. http://nashvillecitypaper.com/content/city-voices/rein-council-redefines-mayoral-relationship. Retrieved August 3, 2011.
- ^ a b Kreyling, Christine M; Paine, Wesley; Warterfield, Charles W; Wiltshire, Susan Ford (1996). Classical Nashville: Athens of the South. Nashville: Vanderbilt University Press. ISBN 0585132003.
- ^ "Piedmont Atlantic Megaregion (PAM)". GATech.edu. 2009. http://www.cqgrd.gatech.edu/program_areas/megaregions/pam.php. Retrieved September 27, 2010.
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- ^ "Fisk Jubilee Singers Celebrate 135 Year Tradition with "Walk of Fame" Honors" (PDF). Fisk 2 (1): 14. March 2007. Archived from the original on July 10, 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20070710015859/http://www.fisk.edu/pdfs/fiskmag/Fisk_Mag_March_07.pdf.
- ^ Guier, Cindy Stooksbury; Finch, Jackie Sheckler (2007). Insiders' Guide to Nashville (6th ed.). Guilford, CT: Globe Pequot. pp. 13, 35, 396. ISBN 0762741864.
- ^ "Nashville Area Churches". NashCity.com. http://nashcity.com/religious-institutions/christian-churches/index.shtml. Retrieved April 30, 2008.
- ^ Miller, Rachel L (April 14, 2008). "Nashville: Sophisticated Southern City with a Country Edge". RoadandTravel.com. http://www.roadandtravel.com/travel%20directory/Tennessee/nashvillestory.htm. Retrieved April 30, 2008.
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- ^ Demsky, Ian; Avila, Oscar (December 30, 2004). "Iraqis to cast votes in Nashville". The Tennessean and Chicago Tribune.
- ^ Asimov, Eric (July 6, 1997). "True Grits in Nashville". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/1997/07/06/travel/true-grits-in-nashville.html?pagewanted=3. Retrieved January 22, 2010.
- ^ "Sister Cities of Nashville". SCNashville.org. http://www.scnashville.org/. Retrieved August 3, 2011.
- Carey, Bill (2000). Fortunes, Fiddles, & Fried Chicken: A Nashville Business History. Franklin, Tennessee: Hillsboro Press. ISBN 1-57736-178-4.
- Durham, Walter T. Nashville: The Occupied City, 1862-1863 (1985)
- Durham, Walter T. Reluctant Partners: Nashville and the Union, 1863-1865 (1987)
- Egerton, John (1979). Nashville: The Faces of Two Centuries, 1780–1980. Nashville, Tennessee: PlusMedia. LCCN 79089173.
- Egerton, John and E. Thomas Wood (eds.) (2001). Nashville: An American Self-Portrait. Nashville, Tennessee: Beaten Biscuit Press. ISBN 0-9706702-1-4.
- Lovett, Bobby L. (1999). African-American History of Nashville, Tennessee, 1780–1930: Elites and Dilemmas. University of Arkansas Press. ISBN 1-55728-555-1.
- Potter, Susanna Henighan (2008). Nashville & Memphis (Moon Handbook). Berkeley, California: Avalon Travel Publications. ISBN 978-1-59880-102-6.
- Romine, Linda (2006). Nashville & Memphis (Frommer Guide) (7th ed.). Hoboken, New Jersey: Frommer's. ISBN 0-471-77614-9.
- Wooldridge, John (editor) (1890). History of Nashville, Tennessee. Nashville, Tennessee: Publishing House of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South. LCCN 76027605.
- Zepp, George R. (2009). Hidden History of Nashville. Charleston, South Carolina: History Press. ISBN 978-1-59629-792-0.
- Duke, Jan (2005). Historic Photos of Nashville. Nashville, Tennessee: Turner Publishing. ISBN 978-1596521841.
- Haugen, Ashley Driggs (2009). Historic Photos of Nashville in the 50s, 60s and 70s. Nashville, Tennessee: Turner Publishing. ISBN 978-1596525399.
- McGuire, Jim (2007). Historic Photos of the Opry: Ryman Auditorium 1974. Nashville, Tennessee: Turner Publishing. ISBN 978-1596523739.
- Nashville Convention & Visitors Bureau
- Nashville Area Chamber of Commerce
- Nashville historical timeline
- Metropolitan Archives of Nashville and Davidson County
- Nashville travel guide from Wikitravel
Clarksville Springfield Hendersonville, Gallatin Dickson Mt. Juliet, Lebanon Nashville Belle Meade, Bellevue Brentwood, Franklin La Vergne, Smyrna, Murfreesboro Municipalities and communities of Davidson County, TennesseeCounty seat: Nashville Cities Unincorporated
‡This populated place also has portions in an adjacent county or counties
Nashville Metropolitan Area Principal CityNashville Other Major Cities Counties
State of TennesseeNashville (capital) Topics Grand Divisions Regions Major cities Counties
- Van Buren
State capitals of the United States AL Montgomery AK Juneau AZ Phoenix AR Little Rock CA Sacramento CO Denver CT Hartford DE Dover FL Tallahassee GA Atlanta HI Honolulu ID Boise IL Springfield IN Indianapolis IA Des Moines KS Topeka KY Frankfort LA Baton Rouge ME Augusta MD Annapolis MA Boston MI Lansing MN Saint Paul MS Jackson MO Jefferson City MT Helena NE Lincoln NV Carson City NH Concord NJ Trenton NM Santa Fe NY Albany NC Raleigh ND Bismarck OH Columbus OK Oklahoma City OR Salem PA Harrisburg RI Providence SC Columbia SD Pierre TN Nashville TX Austin UT Salt Lake City VT Montpelier VA Richmond WA Olympia WV Charleston WI Madison WY Cheyenne DC Washington1
AS Pago Pago GU Hagåtña MP Saipan PR San Juan VI Charlotte Amalie 50 most populous cities of the United States(2010 United States Census Bureau) Mayors of cities with populations exceeding 100,000 in TennesseeOther states: AL • AK • AZ • AR • CA • CO • CT • DE • FL • GA • HI • ID • IL • IN • IA • KS • KY • LA • ME • MD • MA • MI • MN • MS • MO • MT • NE • NV • NH • NJ • NM • NY • NC • ND • OH • OK • OR • PA • RI • SC • SD • TN • TX • UT • VT • VA • WA • WV • WI • WY
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