National Collegiate Athletic Association

National Collegiate Athletic Association
National Collegiate Athletic Association
Abbreviation NCAA
Formation March 31, 1906 (1906-03-31) (IAAUS)[1]
1910 (NCAA)
Legal status Association
Headquarters Indianapolis, Indiana
Region served United States of America, Canada[2]
Membership 1,281 (schools, conferences or other associations)
President Mark Emmert
Main organ Executive Committee
Budget $5.64 billion (2007–08 budget)[3]
Website (administrative) (sports)

The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) is a semi-voluntary association of 1,281 institutions, conferences, organizations and individuals that organizes the athletic programs of many colleges and universities in the United States. It is headquartered in Indianapolis, Indiana.

In August 1973, the current three-division setup of Division I, Division II, and Division III was adopted by the NCAA membership in a special convention. Under NCAA rules, Division I and Division II schools can offer scholarships to athletes for playing a sport. Division III schools may not offer any athletic scholarships. Generally, larger schools compete in Division I and smaller schools in II and III. Division I football was further divided into I-A and I-AA in 1978. Subsequently the term "Division I-AAA" was briefly added to delineate Division I schools which do not field a football program at all, but that term is no longer officially used by the NCAA.[4] In 2006, Divisions I-A and I-AA were respectively renamed the Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS) and Football Championship Subdivision (FCS).



The NCAA dates its formation to two White House conferences convened by President Theodore Roosevelt to "encourage reforms" to college football practices in the early 20th century, which had resulted in repeated injuries and deaths and "prompted many college and universities to discontinue the sport."[1]

Following those White House meetings, Chancellor Henry MacCracken of New York University organized a meeting of 13 colleges and universities to initiate changes; at a follow-on meeting, 62 institutions became charter members of the Intercollegiate Athletic Association of the United States (IAAUS).[1] The IAAUS was officially established on March 31, 1906, and took its present name, the NCAA, in 1910.[1]

Until the 1980s, the association did not offer women's athletics. Instead an organization named the Association for Intercollegiate Athletics for Women (AIAW) governed women's collegiate sports in the United States. By 1982, however, all divisions of the NCAA offered national championship events for women's athletics and most members of the AIAW joined the NCAA.

In 2009, Simon Fraser University in Burnaby, Canada became the NCAA's first non-US member institution.[5][6]


The NCAA's legislative structure is broken down into cabinets and committees, consisting of various representatives of its member schools.[citation needed] These may be broken down further into sub-committees. Legislation is then passed on to the Management Council, which oversees all the cabinets and committees, and also includes representatives from the schools, such as athletic directors and faculty advisors. Management Council legislation goes on to the Board of Directors, which consists of school presidents, for final approval. The NCAA staff provides support, acting as guides, liaison, research and public and media relations.

Sports sanctioned by the NCAA include the following:[citation needed] basketball, baseball (men), softball (women), football (men), cross country, field hockey (women), bowling (women), golf, fencing (coeducational), lacrosse, soccer, gymnastics, rowing (women only), volleyball, ice hockey, water polo, rifle (coeducational), tennis, skiing (coeducational), track and field, swimming and diving, and wrestling (men).

Presidents of NCAA

The NCAA had no full-time administrator until 1951, when Walter Byers was appointed executive director.[1] In 1998, the title was changed to President.[7]

Division history

Years Division
1906–1955 None
1956–1972 NCAA University Division (Major College), College Division (Small College)
1973–present NCAA Division I, Division II, Division III
1978–2006 NCAA Division I-A, NCAA Division I-AA (Division I football only), Division II, Division III
2006–present NCAA Division I Football Bowl Subdivision, Division I Football Championship Subdivision (Division I football only), Division II, Division III


NCAA National Championship trophies, rings, and watches won by UCLA teams

All sports

The NCAA awards championships in in the following sports:

The NCAA has never sanctioned an official championship in the highest level of football, now known as Division I FBS. Instead, several outside bodies award their own titles; see below.

As of 2010,[10] UCLA, Stanford and Southern California have the most NCAA championships; UCLA holds the most, winning a combined 107 team championships in men's and women's sports, with Stanford second, with 101, Southern California third with 93, Oklahoma State with 50, followed by Texas with 48.

During the 2008-09 school year, the Pac-10 conference captured 11 NCAA titles, outperforming any other conference. It was followed by the ACC and Big Ten with five championships, and by the Big 12 and SEC conferences with four each.[11]

The NCAA currently awards 87 national championships yearly; 44 women's, 40 men's, and coed championships for fencing, rifle, and skiing. For every NCAA sanctioned sport other than Division I FBS football, the NCAA awards trophies with gold, silver, and bronze plating for the first, second, and third place teams respectively.[citation needed] In the case of the NCAA basketball tournaments, both semifinalists who did not make the championship game receive bronze plated trophies for third place (prior to 1982 the teams played a "consolation" game to determine third place).[citation needed] Similar trophies are awarded to both semifinalists in the NCAA football tournaments (which are conducted in Division I FCS and both lower divisions), which have never had a third-place game. Winning teams maintain permanent possession of these trophies unless it is later found that they were won via serious rules violations.

Starting with the 2001 season, and again in 2008, the trophies were changed.[citation needed] Starting in the 2007 basketball season, teams that make the Final Four in the Division I tournament receive bronze plated "regional championship" trophies upon winning their Regional Championship. The teams that make the National Championship game receive an additional trophy that is gold plated for the winner and silver plated for the runner-up. Starting in the mid-1990s, the National Champions in men's and women's basketball receive a very elaborate trophy sponsored by Siemens with a black marble base and crystal "neck" with a removable crystal basketball following the presentation of the standard NCAA Championship trophy.

Football Bowl Subdivision

The NCAA does not hold a championship tournament for Division I FBS football. In the past, the "national championship" went to teams that placed first in any of a number of season-ending media polls, most notable the AP Poll of writers and the Coaches Poll. Currently, the Bowl Championship Series—an association of the conferences and independent schools that compete in Division I FBS and four bowl games—has arranged to place the top two teams (based on a formula blending human polls and computer rankings)[12] into a national title game. The winner of the BCS title game must be ranked first in the final Coaches' Poll and receives the AFCA Coaches' Trophy (presently sponsored by Dr Pepper); since the NCAA awards no national championship for Division I FBS football, this trophy does not say NCAA as other NCAA college sports national championship trophies do. The AP and other organizations are still free to name as national champions other teams than the one that won the BCS championship, although all conferences (and by extension their teams) are contractually agreed to the BCS formula and champion the USA Today Coaches' poll is required to vote the winner of the “BCS National Championship Game” the #1 team in the nation in the final poll. All conferences have sanctioned this practice and championship (with various changes to the present form seen today) for the several contractual periods since 1998.[13]

Hall of Champions

NCAA 2006 championship banners hang from the ceiling of the NCAA Hall of Champions in Indianapolis


See also: Academic All-America, Best Female College Athlete ESPY Award,[14] Best Male College Athlete ESPY Award,[14] Lowe's Senior CLASS Award, Honda Sports Award, College baseball awards, and Sports Illustrated 2009 all-decade honors (college basketball & football)

The NCAA presents a number of different individual awards, including:

  • NCAA Award of Valor (not given every year); selection is based on heroic action occurring in the academic year.
  • NCAA Gerald R. Ford Award, honoring an individual who has provided significant leadership as an advocate for intercollegiate athletics.
  • NCAA Inspiration Award (not given every year); selection is based on inspirational action.
  • NCAA Sportsmanship Award, honoring student-athletes who have demonstrated one or more of the ideals of sportsmanship.
  • NCAA Theodore Roosevelt Award, the highest honor that the NCAA confers on an individual.
  • NCAA Woman of the Year Award, honoring a senior student-athlete who has distinguished herself throughout her collegiate career in academics, athletics, service and leadership.
  • Elite 88 Award, honoring the student-athlete with the highest cumulative GPA who has reached the competition at the finals site for each of the NCAA's 88 men's and women's championships (in Divisions I, II, and III).
  • Silver Anniversary Awards, honoring six distinguished former student-athletes on the 25th anniversary of their college graduation.
  • The Flying Wedge Award, one of the NCAA’s highest honors exemplifying outstanding leadership and service to the NCAA.
  • Today's Top VIII Award, honoring eight outstanding senior student-athletes.
  • Walter Byers Scholarship, honoring the top male and female scholar-athletes.


See also: List of NCAA conferences and List of non-NCAA conferences

Division I conferences

Note: Conferences with automatic entry to the Bowl Championship Series are denoted with an asterisk (*).
Note: Conferences within the Football Bowl Subdivision but not the BCS are denoted with a pound sign (#).

Division I FCS football-only conferences

Division I hockey-only conferences

Division II conferences

See: List of NCAA conferences#Division II

Division III conferences

See: List of NCAA conferences#Division III


The NCAA has current media rights contracts with CBS Sports, CBS College Sports Network, ESPN, ESPN Plus, and Turner Sports for coverage of its 88 championships. According to the official NCAA website,[15] ESPN and its associated networks have rights to 21 championships, CBS to 67, and Turner Sports to one. The following are the most prominent championships and rightsholders:

  • CBS: Men's basketball (NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Tournament, with Turner Sports, and NCAA Men's Division II Basketball Tournament), track and field, ice hockey (women's division I)
  • ESPN: Women's basketball (all divisions), baseball, softball, ice hockey (men's division I), football (all divisions including Div. I FCS), soccer (division I for both sexes)
  • Turner Sports: NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Tournament with CBS

Westwood One has exclusive radio rights to the men's and women's basketball Final Fours to the men's College World Series (baseball). DirecTV has an exclusive package expanding CBS' coverage of the men's basketball tournament.

Video games based on popular NCAA sports such as football and basketball are licensed by Electronic Arts.

Football television controversy

In the late 1940s there were only two colleges in the country with a national TV contract, a considerable source of revenue. In 1951, the NCAA voted to prohibit any live TV broadcast of college football games during the season. No sooner had the NCAA voted to ban television than public outcry forced it to retreat. Instead, the NCAA voted to restrict the number of televised games for each team to stop the slide in gate attendance. Harold Stassen, president of the University of Pennsylvania (Penn), defied the monopoly and signed a $200,000 contract with ABC. Eventually, Penn was forced to back down when the NCAA threatened to expel the Quakers from the association.

By the 1980s, televised college football had become a much larger source of income for the NCAA. If the television contracts the NCAA had with ABC, CBS, and ESPN had remained in effect for the 1984 season, they would have generated US$73.6 million for the Association and its members. In September 1981, the Board of Regents of the University of Oklahoma and the University of Georgia Athletic Association filed suit against the NCAA in district court in Oklahoma. The plaintiffs stated that the NCAA's football television plan constituted price fixing, output restraints, boycott, and monopolizing, all of which were illegal under the Sherman Act. The NCAA argued that its pro-competitive and non-commercial justifications for the plan—-protection of live gate, maintenance of competitive balance among NCAA member institutions and creation of a more attractive "product" to compete with other forms of entertainment—-combined to make the plan reasonable.

In September 1982, the district court found in favor of the plaintiffs, ruling that the plan violated antitrust laws. It enjoined the Association from enforcing the contract. The NCAA appealed all the way to the United States Supreme Court, but lost in 1984 in the 7-2 ruling NCAA v. Board of Regents of Univ. of Oklahoma.[16]


To participate in college athletics in the freshmen year the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) states that students must meet three requirements; graduate from high school, complete the minimum required academic courses, and have qualifying grade-point average (GPA) and SAT or ACT scores.[17]

The 16 academic credits are four courses in English, two courses in math, two classes in social science, two in natural or physical science, and one additional course in English, math, natural or physical science, or another academic course such as foreign language.[18]

To meet the requirements for grade point average and SAT scores students the lowest possible GPA a student may be eligible with is a 1.700 with an SAT score of 1400. The lowest SAT score a student may be eligible with is 700 with a GPA of 2.500.[17]

As of 2011, a high school student may sign a letter of intent to enter and play football for a college only after the first Wednesday in February.[19] In August 2011, the NCAA announced plans to raise academic requirements for postseason competition, including its two most prominent competitions, football's Bowl Championship Series and the Men's Division I Basketball Championship; the new requirement, which are based on an "academic progress rate" that measures retention and graduation rates, and is calculated on a four-year, rolling basis.[20] The changes raise the rate from 900 to 930, which represents a 50% graduation rate.[20]

Rules violations

Member schools pledge to follow the rules promulgated by the NCAA. Creation of a mechanism to enforce the NCAA's legislation occurred in 1952 after careful consideration by the membership.

Allegations of rules violations are referred to the NCAA's investigative staff. A preliminary investigation is initiated to determine if an official inquiry is warranted and to categorize any resultant violations as secondary or major. If several violations are found, the NCAA may determine that the school as a whole has exhibited a "lack of institutional control." The institution involved is notified promptly and may appear in its own behalf before the NCAA Committee on Infractions.

Findings of the Committee on Infractions and the resultant sanctions in major cases are reported to the institution. Sanctions will generally include having the institution placed on "probation" for a period of time, in addition to other penalties. The institution may appeal the findings or sanctions to an appeals committee. After considering written reports and oral presentations by representatives of the Committee on Infractions and the institution, the committee acts on the appeal. Action may include accepting the infractions committee's findings and penalty, altering either, or making its own findings and imposing an appropriate penalty. The current longest running period of sanctions belongs to the University of Alabama (at Tuscaloosa). Sanctions at Alabama cover all major sports and will expire in June 2012 (extending the record for 17 years upon being penalized in 1995). The football team has been the most severely penalized program in the FBS (formerly Division I) over the past 25 years.

In cases of particularly egregious misconduct, the NCAA has the power to ban a school from participating in a particular sport, a penalty known as the "Death Penalty". Since 1985, any school that commits major violations during the probationary period can be banned from the sport involved for up to two years. However, when the NCAA opts not to issue a death penalty for a repeat violation, it must explain why it didn't do so. This penalty has only been imposed three times in its modern form, most notably when Southern Methodist University's football team had its 1987 season canceled due to massive rules violations dating back more than a decade. SMU opted not to field a team in 1988 as well due to the aftershocks from the sanctions, and the program has never recovered; it has only two winning seasons and one bowl appearance since then. The devastating effect the death penalty had on SMU has reportedly made the NCAA skittish about issuing another one. Since the SMU case, there are only three instances where the NCAA has seriously considered imposing it against a Division I school; it imposed it against Division II Morehouse College's men's soccer team in 2003 and Division III MacMurray College's men's tennis team in 2005.

Additionally, in particularly egregious cases of rules violations, coaches, athletic directors and athletic support staff can be barred from working for any NCAA member school without permission from the NCAA. This procedure is known as a "show-cause penalty" (not to be confused with an order to show cause in the legal sense).[21] Theoretically, a school can hire someone with a "show cause" on their record during the time the show cause order is in effect only with permission from the NCAA Infractions Committee. The school assumes the risks and stigma of hiring such a person. It may then end up being sanctioned by the NCAA and the Infractions Committee for their choice, possibly losing athletic scholarships, revenue from schools who would not want to compete with that other school, and the ability for their games to be televised, along with restrictions on recruitment and practicing times. As a result, a show-cause order usually has the effect of blackballing individuals from being hired for the duration of the order.

Currently, Dave Bliss, former basketball coach at Baylor University, has the longest show cause order. As a result of his involvement in serious rules violations, Bliss is effectively banned from coaching at the major college level until the 2015-16 season.

Division I-FBS institutions on probation

The following Division I Football Bowl Subdivision institutions are currently on probation by the NCAA in one or more sports:[22][Full citation needed][23]

Institution Sport(s) Expiry
Florida International University Baseball, Football, Men's Basketball, Men's Cross Country, Men's Soccer, Men's Indoor & Outdoor Track, Women's Golf, Women's Soccer, Women's Softball, Women's Swimming, Women's Tennis, Women's Volleyball 5 May 2012
Florida State University Baseball, Men's Basketball, Football, Men's Golf, Men's Swimming, Men's Indoor & Outdoor Track, Women's Basketball, Women's Cross Country, Women's Swimming, Women's Softball 4 March 2013
University of Alabama Football, Softball, Baseball, Women's Gymnastics, Men's Basketball, Women's Basketball, Women's Soccer, Women's Volleyball, Men's Golf, Women's Golf, Men's Swimming, Women's Swimming, Men's Tennis, Women's Tennis, Men's Indoor & Outdoor, Women's Indoor & Outdoor Track 11 June 2012
University of Central Florida Football 10 February 2012
University of Memphis Men's Basketball, Women's Golf 19 August 2012
University of Southern California Football, Men's Basketball, Women's Tennis 2014
Georgia Institute of Technology Football, Men's Basketball 13 July 2015
Boise State University Football, Men's Indoor & Outdoor Track, Men's Tennis, Women's Indoor & Outdoor Track, Women's Tennis 12 September 2014

Division I-FCS institutions on probation

The following Division I-FCS institutions are currently on probation by the NCAA in one or more sports:[22]

Institution Sport(s) Expiry
Alabama State University Football 9 December 2011
College of the Holy Cross Men's Soccer 15 October 2011
Eastern Washington University Football 10 February 2012
Georgetown University Baseball 1 September 2012
Georgia Southern University Men's Basketball 19 January 2012
Prairie View A&M University Women's Basketball 7 January 2012
Texas Southern University Women's Softball, Men's Tennis, Women's Tennis 15 July 2012

Division I non-football institutions on probation

The following Division I non-football institutions are currently on probation by the NCAA in one or more sports:[22]

Institution Sport(s) Expiry
Texas A&M University–Corpus Christi Men's Tennis, Women's Volleyball 24 March 2013
University of South Alabama Men's Tennis 11 May 2012

Division II institutions on probation

The following Division II institutions are currently on probation by the NCAA in one or more sports:[22]

Institution Sport(s) Expiry
Brigham Young University–Hawaii Women's Softball, Women's Basketball, Women's Soccer, Men's Basketball, Men's Soccer, Men's Tennis 25 August 2012
Lane College Football, Men's Basketball, Women's Basketball 26 February 2012
Miles College Men's Basketball, Women's Basketball, Women's Volleyball, Men's Cross Country, Women's Cross Country, Baseball, Football, Women's Softball, Men's Indoor & Outdoor Track, Women's Indoor Track, Mixed Outdoor Track 3 November 2013
Salem International University Men's Basketball, Women's Basketball, Baseball, Men's Soccer, Women's Soccer 20 November 2011
University of West Georgia Men's Golf, Women's Golf, Men's Cross Country, Women's Cross Country, Men's Basketball, Women's Basketball, Football, Women's Volleyball, Baseball, Women's Softball, Women's Soccer 20 January 2014
University of the District of Columbia All Sports 27 October 2013

Division III institutions on probation

The following Division III institutions are currently on probation by the NCAA in one or more sports:[22]

Institution Sport(s) Expiry
Baruch College Women's Basketball Unknown
Buffalo State College Women's Lacrosse, Women's Basketball, Men's Ice Hockey, Women's Ice Hockey 27 January 2012
Fontbonne University Football, Women's Basketball, Men's Lacrosse Unknown
Hobart College Football 5 January 2014
State University of New York at Geneseo Men's Ice Hockey 27 January 2012
State University of New York at Potsdam Men's Ice Hockey, Women's Ice Hockey, Men's Lacrosse, Women's Lacrosse, Women's Soccer, Women's Volleyball 21 April 2016


The NCAA runs the officiating software company ArbiterSports, based in Sandy, Utah, a joint venture between two subsidiaries of the NCAA, Arbiter LLC and eOfficials LLC. The NCAA has said their objective is for the venture to help improve the fairness, quality and consistency of officiating across amateur athletics.[24][25]


Company Category Since
AT&T Wireless services 2001
Coca-Cola Non-alcoholic beverages 2002
CapitalOne Banking and credit cards 2008
Nissan (Infiniti) Car & parts 2010
Enterprise Rent-A-Car Car rental 2005
The Hartford Mutual funds and related financial services 2004
Hershey's (Reese's) Candy 2009
LG Electronics 2009
Lowe's Home improvement 2005
Kraft (Planters) Snack foods 2008
Unilever Personal-care products 2010
UPS Package delivery and logistics 2009
  • AT&T, Coca-Cola and CapitalOne are NCAA Corporate Champions. Other sponsors are NCAA Corporate Partners.[26]


Numerous criticisms have been lodged against the NCAA. These include:

  • Several people, notably including former Sports Illustrated columnist Rick Reilly, have criticized the NCAA for its inflexibility.[27]
  • Former NCAA President Walter Byers in his book Unsportsmanlike Conduct: Exploiting College Athletes refers to the NCAA's operation by stating that "Today the NCAA Presidents Commission is preoccupied with tightening a few loose bolts in a worn machine, firmly committed to the neo-plantation belief that the enormous proceeds from college games belong to the overseers (administrators) and supervisors (coaches). The plantation workers performing in the arena may only receive those benefits authorized by the overseers."
  • Following losing the 1953 case The University of Denver v Nemeth, where it was found that a student and athlete was owed workers' compensation, it has been argued[by whom?] that the NCAA created the term "student-athlete". This was done according to Andrew Zimbalist in his book Unpaid Professionals (1999) to prevent similar future litigation losses.
  • In 2007, the case of White et al. v NCAA was brought by former NCAA student-athletes Jason White, Brian Pollack, Jovan Harris and Chris Craig as a class action lawsuit. They argued that the NCAA's current limits on a full scholarship or Grant in Aid was a violation of federal antitrust laws. Their reasoning was that in the absence of such a limit, NCAA member schools would be free to offer any financial aid packages they desired to recruit the student and athlete. The NCAA settled before a ruling by the court, by agreeing to set up the Former Student-Athlete Fund to "assist qualified candidates applying for receipt of career development expenses and/or reimbursement of educational expenses under the terms of the agreement with plaintiffs in a federal antitrust lawsuit." More information about this settlement is available at NCAA[28]
  • The National Collegiate Players Association (NCPA) is a group started by former UCLA football players with the purpose of organizing student-athletes. Their goal is to change NCAA rules they view as unjust. Today this continues by:
  1. Raising the scholarship amount
  2. Holding schools responsible for their players' sports-related medical injuries
  3. Increasing graduation rates.[29]
  • The NCAA is highly criticized for the inconsistencies in the rulings and punishments towards superior athletic universities. It is said by many that this is a way for the NCAA to make a strong statement and to show their power. These inconsistencies can be seen in many circumstances, such as the recent probation of the University of Southern California Football Program. Because of the violations committed by Reggie Bush, USC lost 30 scholarships and lost bowl game eligibility for two years. Ohio State, with a very similar violation, was punished by losing five games of eligibility. It seems that the NCAA interprets their bylaws differently for each individual situation, depending on the university, strength of the athletic program, and their opinion of the severity of the violation committed.

Other collegiate athletic organizations

The NCAA is the dominant, but not the only, collegiate athletic organization in the United States. Several other such organizations exist.

In the United States

Foreign intercollegiate/interuniversity equivalents

International governing body

See also


  1. ^ a b c d e "About the NCAA History". NCAA. Retrieved 2011-08-17. "President Theodore Roosevelt summoned college athletics leaders to two White House conferences to encourage reforms. In early December 1905, Chancellor Henry M. MacCracken of New York University convened a meeting of 13 institutions to initiate changes in football playing rules. At a subsequent meeting December 28 in New York City, 62 colleges and universities became charter members of the Intercollegiate Athletic Association of the United States (IAAUS). The IAAUS officially was constituted March 31, 1906, and took its present name, the NCAA, in 1910." 
  2. ^ "Simon Fraser University approved to join NCAA D II". 2009-10-07. Retrieved 2009-11-06. 
  3. ^ "?". [dead link]
  4. ^ "NCAA History". NCAA. 2005. 
  5. ^ O'Toole, Thomas (2009-09-01). "NCAA welcomes Simon Fraser, first Canadian member school". USA Today. Retrieved 2011-11-01. 
  6. ^ Lemire, Joe (2009-08-05). "Canadian school's admittance to NCAA may change rules up north". Sports Illustrated. Retrieved 2011-11-01. 
  7. ^ a b c Lapointe, Joe (October 11, 2002). "The N.C.A.A. Selects Brand As Its Chief". The New York Times. Retrieved 2011-08-17. 
  8. ^ Wieberg, Steve (2009-09-16). "NCAA President Myles Brand dies after battle with cancer". USA Today. Retrieved 2009-09-16. 
  9. ^ Senior VP Jim Isch named interim president Isch pledges to further Brand’s focus, NCAA News, September 22, 2009
  10. ^ "Summary of NCAA Championships" (PDF). Retrieved 2010-06-10. [dated info]
  11. ^ "PAC-10 News: PAC-10 Leads the Way with 11 NCAA Team Championships" (PDF). Retrieved 2009-11-06. 
  12. ^ "?". [dead link]
  13. ^ "?". [dead link]
  14. ^ a b The Best Female and Best Male College Basketball and Best College Football Player ESPY Awards — awarded from 1993 to 2001 — were absorbed in 2002 by the Best Female and Best Male College Athlete ESPY Awards.
  15. ^ NCAA Broadcast Information -[dead link]
  17. ^ a b Hishinuma and Fremstad 589-591[vague]
  18. ^ 2009-2010 Guide for the College Bound Athletes
  19. ^ "Football recruiting now a 24/7/365 event". ESPN. 2010-10-22. Retrieved 2011-08-17. 
  20. ^ a b Elkin, Ali (August 17, 2011). "NCAA's stricter academic rules: What does it mean for your team?". This Just In (blog). CNN. Retrieved 2011-08-17. 
  21. ^ NCAA News Release; Baylor University, Former Basketball Coaches Penalized for Multiple Violations of NCAA Rules "?". Retrieved 6 September 2010. [dead link]
  22. ^ a b c d e NCAA document 2010-02-19.
  23. ^ Erick Smith, USC 'vehemently' disagrees with NCAA's rejection of appeal, USA Today, May 26, 2011
  24. ^ "NCAA Invests in Largest Officiating Management Organizations in Amateur Sports". 2008-09-25. Retrieved 2009-11-06. [dead link]
  25. ^ NCAA invests in officiating companies[dead link]
  26. ^ "NCAA Corporate Champions and Corporate Partners". 2007-12-14. Retrieved 2009-11-06. [dead link]
  27. ^ " - SI Writers - Rick Reilly - SI's Rick Reilly: Corrupting Our Utes - Wednesday August 06, 2003 09:53 AM". Retrieved 2009-11-06. 
  28. ^ "White v NCAA". NCAA. Retrieved 6 September 2010. 
  29. ^ "NCPA now homepage". Retrieved 6 September 2010. 

External links

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