United States Army Corps of Engineers

United States Army Corps of Engineers

Infobox Military Unit
unit_name=U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
caption=USACE Logo
dates=June 15, 1775 - Present
country=United States
branch=United States Army
size= 34,600 civilian and 650 military members
current_commander= LTG Robert L. Van Antwerp, Jr.
garrison=Washington, D.C.
motto="Essayons" (Let us try)
colors=Red and White
notable_commanders= COL Richard Gridley, COL Joseph Swift, COL Alexander Macomb, Jr., BG William Louis Marshall, MG Richard Delafield, BG Joseph Totten, BG Henry Robert, LTG Edgar Jadwin, LTG Leif J. Sverdrup

The United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) is a federal agency and a major Army command made up of some 34,600 civilian and 650 military personnel, [http://www.usace.army.mil/who/ USACE Organization] ] making it the world's largest public engineering, design and construction management agency. Although generally associated with dams, canals and flood protection in the United States, USACE is involved in a wide range of public works support to the nation and to Department of Defense throughout the world.

The Corps's mission is to provide military and public works services to the United States by providing vital engineering services and capabilities, as a public service, across the full spectrum of operations--from peace to war--in support of national interests. [ [http://www.usace.army.mil/missions/index.html Missions of the US Army Corps of Engineers ] ] Their most visible missions include
* Planning, designing, building, and operating locks and dams. Other civil engineering projects include flood control, beach nourishment, and dredging for waterway navigation.
* Design and construction of flood protection systems (as in New Orleans) through various federal mandates (see Public Laws below).
* Design and construction management of military facilities for the Army and Air Force and other Defense and Federal agencies.
* Environmental regulation and ecosystem restoration.

Mission Areas


USACE provides support directly and indirectly to the warfighting effort. [ [http://www.usace.army.mil/missions/warfighting.html USACE Warfighting Mission] ] The Corps builds and helps maintain much of the infrastructure the Army and the Air Force use to train, house, and deploy troops. Corps built and maintained navigation systems and ports provide an effective means to deploy vital equipment and other materiel. Corps R&D facilities help develop new methods and measures for deployment, force protection, terrain analysis, and mapping, and other support.

USACE directly supports the military at the front, making expertise available to commanders to help solve and avoid engineering and other problems. Forward Engineer Support Teams may accompany combat engineers to provide immediate support, or to reach back electronically into the rest of the Corps for the necessary expertise. Corps professionals use the knowledge and skills honed on both military and civil projects to support the US and local communities in the areas of real estate, contracting, mapping, construction, logistics, engineering, and management experience. This work currently includes support for rebuilding Iraq, establishing Afghanistan infrastructure, and supporting international and interagency services.

In addition, the work of almost 34,000 civilians on civil works programs throughout USACE provide a training ground for similar capabilities world-wide. USACE civilians volunteer for assignments world-wide. For example, hydropower experts have helped repair, renovate, and run hydropower dams in Iraq in an effort to help get Iraqis to become self-sustaining. [ [http://www.hq.usace.army.mil/cepa/pubs/jan08/story2.htm Engineer Update ] ] From "Serving The Armed Forces and The Nation" 2007 edition (Oct 2007), and data from the US Army Corps of Engineers ]

Homeland Security

USACE supports the United States' Department of Homeland Security and the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) through its security planning, force protection, research and development, disaster preparedness efforts, and quick response to emergencies and disasters. [ [http://www.usace.army.mil/missions/Security.html USACE Homeland Security Mission] ] The Corps of Engineers is able to help save hundreds of lives and millions of dollars in property damage every year from natural and manmade disasters (however, see Civil Works controversies below).

The Corps conducts its emergency response activities under two basic authorities -- the Flood Control and Coastal Emergency Act (P.L. 84-99), and the Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act (P.L. 93-288). In a typical year, the Corps of Engineers responds to more than 30 Presidential disaster declarations, plus numerous state and local emergencies. Emergency responses usually involve cooperation with other military elements and Federal agencies in support of State and local efforts.

Infrastructure Support

Work comprises engineering and management support to military installations, global real estate support, civil works support (including risk and priorities), operations and maintenance of Federal navigation and flood control projects, and monitoring of dams and levees. [ [http://www.usace.army.mil/missions/infrastructure.html USACE Infrastructure Mission] ]

More than 67 percent of the goods consumed by Americans and more than half of the Nation's oil imports are processed through deepwater ports maintained by the Corps of Engineers, which maintains more than convert|12000|mi|km of commercially navigable channels across the US.

In both its Civil Works mission and Military Construction program, the Corps is responsible for billions of dollars of the nation's infrastructure. For example, the Corps maintains direct control 609 dams, maintains and/or operates 257 navigation locks, and operates 75 hydroelectric facilities generating 24% of the nation's hydropower and three percent of its total electricity. USACE inspects over 2,000 Federal and non-Federal levees every two years.

Four billion gallons of water per day are drawn from the Corps' 136 multi-use water supply projects comprising 9.8 million acre-feet of water storage, making it one of the United States' largest water supply agencies.

The 249th Engineer Battalion (Prime Power), the only active duty unit in USACE, generates and distributes prime electrical power in support of warfighting, disaster relief, stability and support operations as well as provides advice and technical assistance in all aspects of electrical power and distribution systems. The battalion deployed in support of recovery operations after 9/11 and was instrumental in getting Wall Street back up and running within a week. [ [http://www.wood.army.mil/ENGRMAG/Disaster%20Relief%20PDFs/Pung.pdf Engineer Magazine article 'Disaster Relief'] ] The battalion also deployed in support of post-Katrina operations.

All of this work represents a significant investment in the nation's resources.

Water Resources

Through its Civil Works program, USACE carries out a wide array of projects that provide coastal protection, flood protection, hydropower, navigable waters and ports, recreational opportunities, and water supply. [ [http://www.usace.army.mil/missions/water.html USACE Water Resources Mission] ] Work includes coastal protection and restoration, including a new emphasis on a more holistic approach to risk management. As part of this work, the Corps is the number one provider of outdoor recreation in the US, so there is a significant emphasis on water safety.

Army involvement in works "of a civil nature," including water resources, goes back almost to the origins of the U.S. Over the years, as the Nation's needs have changed, so have the Army's Civil Works missions.

Major areas of emphasis include the following:
* Navigation. Supporting navigation by maintaining and improving channels was the Corps of Engineers' earliest Civil Works mission, dating to Federal laws in 1824 authorizing the Corps to improve safety on the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers and several ports. Today, the Corps maintains more than 12,000 miles (19,200 km) of inland waterways and operates 235 locks. These waterways -a system of rivers, lakes and coastal bays improved for commercial and recreational transportation - carry about 1/6 of the Nation's inter-city freight, at a cost per ton-mile about 1/2 that of rail or 1/10 that of trucks. USACE also maintains 300 commercial harbors, through which pass 2 billion tons of cargo a year, and more than 600 smaller harbors.

* Flood Damage Reduction. The Corps was first called upon to address flood problems along the Mississippi river in the mid- 1800s. They began work on the Mississippi River and Tributaries Flood Control Project in 1928, and the Flood Control Act of 1936 gave the Corps the mission to provide flood protection to the entire country. Neither the Corps nor any other agency can prevent all flood damages; and when floods cause damage, there is sure to be controversy (see "Civil Works Controversies" below).
* Recreation. The Corps of Engineers is the Nation's largest provider of outdoor recreation, operating more than 2,500 recreation areas at 463 projects (mostly lakes) and leasing an additional 1,800 sites to State or local park and recreation authorities or private interests. The Corps hosts about 360 million visits a year at its lakes, beaches and other areas, and estimates that 25 million Americans (one in ten) visit a Corps project at least once a year. Supporting visitors to these recreation areas generates 600,000 jobs.

* Hydroelectric Power. The Corps was first authorized to build hydroelectric plants in the 1920s, and today operates 75 power plants, producing one fourth of the nation's hydro-electric power--or three percent of its total electric energy. This makes USACE the Nation's fifth largest electric supplier.

* Shore Protection. With a large proportion of the U.S. population living near our sea and lake shores, and an estimated 75% of U.S. vacations being spent at the beach, there has been Federal interest – and a Corps of Engineers mission - in protecting these areas from hurricane and coastal storm damage. This mission is one of the more controversial missions of USACE (see "Civil Works Controversies" below).

* Dam Safety. The Corps of Engineers is a leader in developing engineering criteria for safe dams, and conducts an active inspection program of its own dams.

* Water Supply. The Corps first got involved in water supply in the 1850s, when they built the Washington Aqueduct. Today USACE reservoirs supply water to nearly 10 million people in 115 cities. In the drier parts of the Nation, water from Corps reservoirs is also used for agriculture. [http://www.hq.usace.army.mil/history USACE History] ]


The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers environmental mission has two major focus areas: restoration and stewardship. The Corps supports or manages numerous environmental programs, that run the gamut from cleaning up areas on former military installations contaminated by hazardous waste or munitions to helping establish/reestablish wetlands that helps endangered species survive. [ [http://www.usace.army.mil/missions/environment.html USACE Environmental Mission webpage] ] Some of these programs include Ecosystem Restoration, Formerly Used Defense Sites, Environmental Stewardship, EPA Superfund, Abandoned Mine Lands, Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program, Base Realignment and Closure, 2005, and Regulatory.

This mission includes education as well as regulation and cleanup.

The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers has a very active environmental program under both its Military and Civil Programs. [ [http://www.usace.army.mil/missions/environment.html USACE Environmental Mission] ]

The Civil Works environmental mission that ensures all Corps projects, facilities and associated lands meet environmental standards. The program has four functions: compliance, restoration, prevention, and conservation. The Corps also regulates all work in wetlands and waters of the United States.

The Military Programs Environmental Program manages design and execution of a full range of cleanup and protection activities:
* cleans up sites contaminated with hazardous waste, radioactive waste, or ordnance
* complies with federal, state, and local environmental laws and regulations
* strives to minimize our use of hazardous materials
* conserves our natural and cultural resources

The following are major areas of environmental emphasis:
* Wetlands and Waterways Regulation and Permitting
* Ecosystem Restoration
* Environmental Stewardship
* Radioactive site cleanup through the Formerly Used Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP)
* Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC)
* Formerly Used Defense Sites (FUDS)
* Support to EPA's Superfund Program

See also Environmental Enforcement below.


The history of United States Army Corps of Engineers can be traced back to 16 June 1775, when the Continental Congress organized an army with a chief engineer and two assistants. Colonel Richard Gridley became General George Washington's first chief engineer; however, it was not until 1779 that Congress created a separate Corps of Engineers. One of its first tasks was to build fortifications near Boston at Bunker Hill. The first Corps was mostly composed of French subjects, who had been hired by General Washington from the service of Louis XVI.

The Corps of Engineers as it is known today came into being on 16 March 1802, when President Thomas Jefferson was authorized to "organize and establish a Corps of Engineers ... that the said Corps ... shall be stationed at West Point in the State of New York and shall constitute a Military Academy." The United States Military Academy was under the direction of the Corps of Engineers until 1866. The Corps's authority over river works in the United States began with its fortification of New Orleans after the War of 1812. A Corps of Topographical Engineers, was separately authorized on 4 July 1838, consisted only of officers, and was used for mapping and the design and construction of federal civil works such as lighthouses and other coastal fortifications and navigational routes. It included such officers as George Meade. It was merged with the Corps of Engineers on 31 March 1863, at which point the Corps of Engineers also assumed the Lakes Survey District mission for the Great Lakes. [Charting the Inland Seas: A History of the U.S. Lake Survey, Arthur M. Woodford, 1991] In the mid-1800s, Corps of Engineers' officers ran Lighthouse Districts in tandem with US Naval officers. The Army Corps of Engineers played an instrumental role in the American Civil War. Many of the men who would serve in the top leadership in this institution were West Point graduates, who rose to military fame and power during the Civil War. Some of these men were Union Generals George McClellan, Henry Halleck, George Meade, and Confederate generals Robert E. Lee, Joseph Johnston, and P.G.T. Beauregard. [http://www.hq.usace.army.mil/history/brief.htm US Army Corps of Engineers Brief History] ] The versatility of officers in the Army Corps of Engineers contributed to the success of numerous missions throughout the Civil War. They were responsible for building pontoon and railroad bridges, forts and batteries, the destruction of enemy supply lines, and the construction of roads. The Union forces were not the only ones to employ the use of engineers throughout the war; and on March 6 1861, once the South had seceded from the Union, among the different acts passed at the time, a provision was stated that called for the creation of a Confederate Corps of Engineers.First Lieutenant Shaun Martin, Confederate Engineers in the American Civil War, Engineer: The Professional Bulletin for Army Engineers. Technology Industry. U.S. Civil War Center]

The progression of the war demonstrated the South’s disadvantage in engineering expertise; because of the initial 65 cadets who resigned from West Point to accept positions with the Confederate Army, only seven were placed in the Corps of Engineers. To overcome this obstacle, the Confederate Congress passed legislation that gave a company of engineers to every division in the field; and by 1865, they actually had more engineer officers serving in the field of action than the Union Army. The Army Corps of Engineers served as a main function in making the war effort logistically feasible. One of the main projects for the Army Corps of Engineers was constructing railroads and bridges, which Union forces took advantage of because railroads and bridges provided access to resources and industry. One area where the Confederate engineers were able to outperform the North was in the ability to build fortifications that were used both offensively and defensively along with trenches that made them harder to penetrate. This method of building trenches was known as the zigzag pattern. From the beginning, many politicians wanted the Corps to contribute to both military construction and works of a civil nature. Assigned the military construction mission on 1 December 1941 after the Quartermaster Department struggled with the expanding mission, [ [http://www.hq.usace.army.mil/history/vignettes/vignette_1.htm USACE Office of History vignettes] ] the Corps built facilities at home and abroad to support the U.S. Army and Air Force. During World War II the mission grew to more than 27,000 military and industrial projects in a $15.3 billion mobilization program. Included were aircraft, tank assembly, and ammunition plants, camps for 5.3 million soldiers, depots, ports, and hospitals, as well as the Manhattan Project, and the Pentagon.

In the 20th century, the Corps became the lead federal flood control agency and significantly expanded its civil works activities, becoming among other things, a major provider of hydroelectric energy and the country’s leading provider of recreation; its role in responding to natural disasters also grew dramatically. In the late 1960s, the Corps became a leading environmental preservation and restoration agency.

Five commanding general /Chiefs of Staff (after the 1903 reorganization) of the United States Army held Engineer commissions early in their careers. All transferred to other branches before rising to the top. They were Alexander Macomb, George B. McClellan, Henry W. Halleck, Douglas MacArthur, and Maxwell D. Taylor. [ [http://www.history.army.mil/books/CG&CSA/Macomb-A.htm Bell, William Gardner, "Commanding Generals and Chiefs of Staff, 1775-2005: Portraits & Biographical Sketches of the United States Army's Senior Officer" (Washington, D.C.: Center of Military History, U.S. Army, 2006).] . ISBN 0160723760.]

Notable dates and projects

* Breed's Hill
* An act to improve navigation on the Ohio and Mississippi rivers initiated the Corps' permanent civil works construction mission. The General Survey Act authorized use of Army engineers to survey roads and canals
* Survey and construction of the National Road until Federal funds were withdrawn (1838)
* The 555 ft 5 1/8 in (169 m) tall Washington Monument, completed under the direction and command of Lieutenant Colonel Thomas Lincoln Casey, 1884
* Panama Canal, completed under supervision of Army Engineer officers, 1914
* Flood Control Act of 1936 made flood control a Federal policy and officially recognized the Corps as the major Federal flood control agency
* USACE took over all real estate acquisition, construction, and maintenance for Army facilities, 1941
* Planning and construction of The Pentagon, completed in 1943 just 15 months after groundbreaking
* The Manhattan Project
* Corps began construction support for NASA leading to major activities at the Manned Spacecraft Center and John F. Kennedy Space Center, 1961
* The Water Resources Development Act of 1986 (WRDA 86) brought major change in financing by requiring non federal contributions toward most Federal water resource projects
*Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan
*Cross Florida Barge Canal
*Tennessee-Tombigbee WaterwayOccasional civil disasters including the Great Mississippi Flood of 1927 resulted in greater responsibilities for the Corps. New Orleans is another example of this.



The current Chief of Engineers and Commanding General, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers is Lieutenant General Robert L. Van Antwerp, Jr.. [http://www.hq.usace.army.mil/hq_exec/index.asp]

Four Deputy Commanding Generals assist in supervising General Staff activities and in discharging the responsibilities which devolve upon the Commanding General. The current Deputies are:
*Major General Don T. Riley, Deputy Commanding General.
*Major General Steven R. Abt, Deputy Commanding General for Mobilization and Reserve Affairs (Individual Mobilization Augmentee)
*Major General Merdith (Bo) Temple, Deputy Commanding General for Civil and Military Operations
*Brigadier General Jeffrey J. Dorko, Deputy Commanding General for Military and International Operations


The Headquarters group defines policy and guidance and plans direction for the organizations within the Corps. It is made up of an Executive Office and 17 Staff Principals. Located in Washington, DC, the Headquarters creates policy and plans the future direction of all other Corps organizations.

USACE has two directors who head up Military Programs and Civil Works.
* Steve Stockton, Director of Military Programs.
* Joe Tyler, Director of Civil Works

The current USACE Command Sergeant Major is Robert A. Winzenried.

Divisions and Districts

The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers is organized geographically into eight permanent divisions, one provisional division, one provisional district, and one research command reporting directly to the HQ. Within each division, there are several districts. Districts are defined by watershed boundaries for civil works projects and by political boundaries for military projects.
*Great Lakes and Ohio River Division (LRD), located in Cincinnati, OH. Stretches from the St Lawrence Seaway, across the Great Lakes, down the Ohio River Valley to the Tennessee and Cumberland Rivers. Covers convert|355300|sqmi|km2, parts of 17 states. Serves 56 million people. Its seven Districts are located in Buffalo NY, Chicago IL, Detroit MI, Louisville KY, Nashville TN, Pittsburgh PA, and Huntington, WV. The division commander serves on two national and international decision-making bodies: co-chair of the Lake Superior, Niagara, and Ontario/St Lawrence Seaway boards of control; and the Mississippi River Commission.

*Mississippi Valley Division (MVD), located in Vicksburg, MS. Stretches from Canada to the Guf of Mexico. Covers convert|370000|sqmi|km2, and portions of 12 states bordering the Mississippi River. Serves 28 million people. Its six districts are located in St Paul MN, Rock Island IL, St Louis MO, Memphis TN, Vicksburg MS, and New Orleans LA. MVD serves as headquarters for the Mississippi River Commission.

*North Atlantic Division (NAD), located in Brooklyn, NY. Stretches from Maine to Virginia and the District of Columbia with an overseas mission in 51 countries. Serves 62 million people. Its six districts are located in New York City NY, Philadelphia PA, Baltimore MD, Norfolk VA, Concord MA, and Wiesbaden, Germany. NAD has the largest Superfund program in the Corps with 60% of the funding.

*Northwestern Division (NWD), located in Portland, OR. Stretches from Canada to California, and from the Pacific Ocean to Missouri. Covers nearly 1 million square miles in all or parts of 14 states. Its five districts are located in Omaha NE, Portland OR, Seattle WA, Kansas City MO, Walla Walla WA. NWD has 35% of the total Corps water storage capacity and 75% of the total Corps hydroelectric capacity.

*Pacific Ocean Division (POD), located at Fort Shafter, HI. Stretches from the Arctic Circle to American Samoa below the equator and across the international dateline out to Micronesia and into Asia. Its four districts are located in Japan, Seoul South Korea, Anchorage AK, and Honolulu HI. Unlike other military work, POD designs and builds for ALL of the military services -- Army, Navy, Air Force, Marines -- in Japan, Korea, and Kwajalein Atoll.

*South Atlantic Division (SAD), located in Atlanta, GA. Stretches from North Carolina to Alabama as well as the Caribbean, and Central and South America. Covers all or parts of 6 states. Its five districts are located in Wilmington NC, Charleston SC, Savannah GA, Jacksonville FL, and Mobile AL. One-third of the stateside Army and one-fifth of the stateside Air Force are located within the division boundaries. The largest single environmental restoration project in the world -- the Everglades Restoration -- is managed by SAD.

*South Pacific Division (SPD), located in San Francisco, CA. Stretches from California to Colorado and New Mexico. Covers all or parts of 7 states. Its four districts are located in Albuquerque NM, Los Angeles CA, Sacramento CA, and San Francisco CA. Its region is host to 18 of the 25 fastest growing metropolitan areas in the Nation.

*Southwestern Division (SWD), located in Dallas, TX. Stretches from Mexico to Kansas. Covers all or part of seven states. Its four districts are located in Little Rock AR, Tulsa OK, Galveston TX, and Forth Worth TX. SWD's recreation areas are the most visited in the Corps with more than convert|11400|mi|km of shoreline and 1,172 recreation sites.

*Gulf Region Division (Provisional) (GRD) (Operation IRAQI FREEDOM), located in Baghdad, Iraq.= Its three districts are in North, Central, and South Iraq. There are more than 4,600 projects in the works with more than 4,000 completed to date. GRD is staffed primarily by civilian volunteers from throughout USACE.

*Afghanistan Engineer District (Provisional) (AED) (Operation ENDURING FREEDOM), located in Kabul, Afghanistan. The Corps of Engineers built much of the original Ring Road in the early 1960s and returned in 2002 Supports the full spectrum of regional support, including the Afghan National Security Forces, US and Coalition Forces, Counter Narcotics and Border Management, Strategic Reconstruction support to USAID, and the Commander's Emergency Response Program. AED is also primarily staffed by civilian volunteers from throughout USACE.

Other USACE Organizations

There are several other organizations within the Corps of Engineers:
* Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC) – the Corps of Engineers research and development command. ERDC consists of seven laboratories. (see research below)
* U.S. Army Engineering and Support Center (CEHNC) – provides engineering and technical services, program and project management, construction management, and innovative contracting initiatives, for programs that are national or broad in scope or not normally provided by other Corps of Engineers elements
* Transatlantic Programs Center (CETAC) – supports Federal programs and policies overseas
* Finance Center, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (CEFC) – supports the operating finance and accounting functions throughout the Corps of Engineers
* Humphreys Engineer Center Support Activity (CEHEC) – provides administrative and operational support for Headquarters, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and various field offices
* Marine Design Center (CEMDC) – provides total project management including planning, engineering, and shipbuilding contract management in support of Corps, Army, and national water resource projects in peacetime, and augments the military construction capacity in time of national emergency or mobilization
* Institute for Water Resources (IWR) – supports the Civil Works Directorate and other Corps of Engineers commands by developing and applying new planning evaluation methods, polices and data in anticipation of changing water resources management conditions.
* USACE Logistics Activity (ULA)- Provides logistics support to the Corps including supply, maintenance, readiness, materiel, transportation, travel, aviation, facility management, integrated logistics support, management controls, and strategic planning.
* Information Technology (ACEIT) - provides information technology services to the Corps including automation, communications, management, visual information, printing, records management, and information assurance.
* 249th Engineer Battalion (Prime Power) – generates and distributes prime electrical power in support of fighting wars, disaster relief, stability and support operations as well as provides advice and technical assistance in all aspects of electrical power and distribution systems. It also maintains Army power generation and distribution war reserves.
* 911th Engineer Company – (formerly the MDW Engineer Company) provides specialized technical search and rescue support for the Washington, D.C. metropolitan area; it is also a vital support member of the Joint Force Headquarters National Capital Region, which is charged with the homeland security of the United States capital region.
* 412th Engineer Command, US Army Reserve, located in Vicksburg, MS.
* 416th Engineer Command, US Army Reserve, located in Darien, IL.


Civil works

Some of the Corps of Engineers' civil works projects have been characterized in the press as being pork barrel or boondoggles such as the New Madrid Floodway Project and the New Orleans flood protection. [ [ http://www.time.com/time/specials/2007/article/0,28804,1646611_1646683_1648904,00.html ] ] [ [http://www.stltoday.com/stltoday/news/stories.nsf/missouristatenews/story/AFF2AC0B5A2C828C8625735A0073D4FD?OpenDocument ] ] Projects have allegedly been justified based on flawed or manipulated analyses during the planning phase. Some projects are said to have created profound detrimental environmental effects and/or provided questionable economic benefit such as the Mississippi River Gulf Outlet in southeast Louisiana. [ [http://mrgomustgo.org/ Close the Mississippi River Gulf Outlef - The Hurricane Highway ] ] Faulty design and substandard construction have been cited in the failure of levees in the wake of Hurricane Katrina.

Corps of Engineers projects can be found in all fifty states, [ [http://www.usace.army.mil U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Home website] ] making its budget and project authorizations ripe for earmarks and other pork. Under the provisions of the US Constitution, Article I, Sec 9, " [N] o Money shall be drawn from the Treasury but in Consequence of an Appropriation made by Law." [ [http://www.law.cornell.edu/anncon/html/art1frag92_user.html#art1_hd276 CRS/LII Annotated Constitution Article I ] ] Therefore, Corps projects are either authorized specifically or as part of a Congressionally authorized category of projects. Many times, local citizen, special interest, and political groups lobby Congress [See History section in Political campaign] for authorization and appropriations for specific projects in their area. [ [http://www.motherjones.com/news/featurex/2007/08/broken-the-army-corps-of-engineers.html ] (See "Skewed Priorities") ] Depending on the point of view of any debate on these projects is that they may or may not be considered sound from an engineering standpoint. Whether or not USACE planners and engineers actually do the best they can with what they are directed to do is part of the controversy.

Attempts to modify the Corps' way of doing business or its organizational structure have most recently been championed by Senator Russ Feingold and Senator John McCain who succeeded in adding an amendment requiring peer review of corps projects to the Water Resources Development Act in 2006. [ [http://feingold.senate.gov/~feingold/releases/07/05/20070514.html Feingold, McCain, Coburn Work to Reform Army Corps of Engineers ] ] That bill did not pass, but a similar bill, the Water Resources Development Act of 2007, with the Corps reform measures intact was passed by Congress in 2007 becoming law despite a presidential veto. [ [http://blog.nola.com/times-picayune/2007/11/water_bill_passes_despite_bush.html Water bill passes despite Bush veto - Breaking News Updates New Orleans - Times-Picayune - NOLA.com ] ]

Military works

Some of the Corps of Engineers' military works projects of the past have been criticized as being deleterious to the environment. A number of camps and facilities designed by the Corps of Engineers, including the former Camp O'Ryan in New York State, have had an unintended or negative impact on the surrounding communities. Camp O'Ryan, with its rifle range, has possibly contaminated well and storm runoff water with toxic lead. This runoff water eventually runs into the Great Lakes of Erie and Ontario, the source of drinking water to millions of people. This situation is exacerbated by a failure to locate the engineering and architectural plans for the camp, which were produced by the New York District in 1949. [FOIA Request to the Army Corps of Engineers, New York District, "records pertaining to the former Camp O'Ryan site, previously the Wethersfield Range", 21 February 2007 ] ["State of New York Annual Report of the Chief of Staff to the Governor for the Division of Military and Naval Affairs for the Year 1949 ", Karl F. Hausauer, Major General, N.Y.N.G., Chief of Staff to the Governor, 31 December 1949, page 78 ]

=Operational Facts and Figures=

* One HQ, 8 Divisions, 1 Provisional Division, 45 Districts, 6 Centers, one active-duty unit, 2 Engineer Reserve Command
* At work in more than 90 countries
* Completed over 4,400 infrastructure projects in Iraq at an estimated cost of $6.5 billion and over 500 projects ($2.6 billion) are ongoing: school projects (324,000 students), crude oil production convert|3|Moilbbl/d|m3/d, potable water projects (3.9 million people (goal 5.2 million)), fire stations, border posts, prison/courthouse improvements, transportation/communication projects, village road/expressways, railroad stations, postal facilities, and aviation projects.
* Supports 159 Army installations and 91 Air Force installations
* Owns and operates 609 dams
* Owns and/or operates 257 navigation lock chambers at 212 sites
* Owns and operates 24% of US hydropower capacity (3% of the total US electric capacity)
* Operates and maintains convert|12000|mi|km of commercial inland navigation channels
* Maintains 926 coast, Great Lakes, and inland harbors
* Dredge convert|255000000|cuyd|m3 annually for construction or maintenance
* Nation's "number one provider of outdoor recreation" with more than 368 million visits annually to 4,485 sites at 423 Corps projects (383 major lakes and reservoirs)
* Total water supply storage capacity of convert|329900000|acre feet
* Average annual damages prevented by Corps flood risk management projects (1995-2004) of $21 billion (see "Civil works controversies" below)
* Approximately 137 environmental protection projects under construction (Sep 2006 figure)
* Approximately convert|38700|acre|km2 of wetlands restored, created, enhanced, or preserved annually under the Corps' Regulatory Program
* Approximately $4 billion in technical services to 70 non-DoD Federal agencies annually
* More than 90 percent of the USACE construction contracts have been awarded to Iraqi-owned businesses - offering employment opportunities, boosting the economy, providing jobs, and training, promoting stability and security where before there was none. Consequently, the mission is a central part of the U.S. exit strategy.

Public Laws affecting the Corps of Engineers

The Corps of Engineers' work is specifically authorized by Congress, either for an individual project or for a specific class of projects. Note: See Controversies section above about how the Congressional authorization process adds to the controversial nature of some projects. Here are some of the specific laws affecting work done by the Corps. [U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Civil Works Pocket Reference, Prepared by the Institute for Water Resources, 1998]

Regulatory Program

* Navigation Safety and Improvements
** Sec 7, Rivers and Harbors Act of 1917
* Permits for Work in the Waters of the United States
** Sec 9 and 10, Rivers and Harbors Act of 1899
* "Section 103" and "Section 404"
** Sec 404, Clean Water Act of 1972
** Section 103, Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act of 1972, USPL|92|532

Emergency Response

* Flood Control and Coastal Emergency Act, USPL|84|99
* Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, USPL|93|288
* Separately from any USPL|84|99 authorization, FEMA may also mission assign USACE for flood emergency response under the National Response Plan.

Flood Control

* Structural Flood Control
** Flood Control Act of 1928 which holds the corps exempt from financial liability should their flood control structures fail
** Sec 1 and 3, Flood Control Act of 1936 (FCA 1936), USPL|74|738
** Sec 2, FCA 1941, USPL|77|228
** Sec 103, Water Resources Development Act of 1986 (WRDA 1986), USPL|99|662
** Sec 202(a), WRDA 1996, USPL|104|303
* Non-Structural Flood Control
** Sec 73, WRDA 1974, USPL|93|251
** Sec 103(b), WRDA 1986, USPL|99|662
** Sec 202(a), WRDA 1996, USPL|104|303
* Flood Control, "Section 205"
** Sec 205, FCA 1948, USPL|80|858. This is a continuing authority that does not need further specific authorization (within limits).
** Sec 202, WRDA 1996, USPL|104|303
* Flood Control, Clearing and Snagging
** Sec 208, FCA 1954, USPL|83|780, as amended. This is a continuing authority that does not need further specific authorization (within limits).
** Sec 202, WRDA 1996, USPL|104|303
* Emergency Flood Control
** Sec 5a, FCA 1941, as amended
** Flood Control and Coastal Emergency Act of 1955, USPL|84|99
** Rivers and Harbors Act of 1962, USPL|87|874
** Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974, USPL|93|523
** USPL|95|51
** Sec 917, WRDA 1986, USPL|99|662
** Sec 302, WRDA 1990, USPL|101|640
** Sec 204(e), WRDA 1996, USPL|104|303
* Flood Control, Flood Plain Management Services
** Sec 206, FCA 1960, USPL|86|845 as amended

Hurricane and Storm Damage Reduction

* Shore Protection, General Authority
** Shore Protection Cost Sharing Act of 1946, USPL|79|727 as amended
** Sec 103(c)(5) and (d), WRDA 1986, USPL|99|662
** Sec 14, WRDA 1988, USPL|100|676
* Shore Protection, Periodic Nourishment
** Beach Nourishment Act of 1956, USPL|84|826
* Shore Protection "Section 103"
** Sec 103, Rivers and Harbors Act of 1962, USPL|87|874
** Sec 103(c), 103(d), 103(i), 915(e), WRDA 1986, USPL|99|662

Ecosystem Restoration and Protection

* General
** Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act of 1958, USPL|85|624
** Federal Water Project Recreation Act of 1958
** National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969
** Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972
** Clean Water Act of 1972
** Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act of 1972
** Endangered Species Act of 1973
** WRDAs 1986, 1990, 1992, and 1996
** Coastal Wetlands Planning, Protection, and Restoration Act of 1990
** Executive Order 11990, "The Protection of Wetlands"
** Executive Order 11991, "Relating to Protection and Enhancement of Environmental Quality"
* Project Modification for Environment Improvements within the Civil Works Program
** Sec 1135, WRDA 1986, USPL|99|662
* Beneficial Use of Dredged Material
** Sec 204, WRDA 1992
* Aquatic Restoration
** Sec 206, WRDA 1996, USPL|104|303
* Fish and Wildlife Mitigation
** Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act of 1958, USPL|85|624
** Sec 103(c) and 906, WRDA 1986, USPL|99|662
* Flow Regulation
** Sec 102, Clean Water Act of 1972, USPL|92|500 as amended
** Sec 103(c) and (d), WRDA 1986, USPL|99|662
* Aquatic Plant Control
** Sec 104, Rivers and Harbors Act of 1958, USPL|85|500 as amended
** Sec 103(c)(6) and 941, WRDA 1986, USPL|99|662. This is a continuing authority that does not need further specific authorization (within limits).
** Sec 225 and 540, WRDA 1996, USPL|104|303

General Navigation

Stems from the Commerce clause of the US Constitution and US Supreme Court decisions. the Corps mission is considered to have begun in 1824 when funds were appropriated to clear snags from the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers. Specific Project Authorizations:

* Harbor Navigation
** Sec 101 and 214, WRDA 1986, USPL|99|662
** Sec 13, WRDA 1988, USPL|100|676
** Sec 201, WRDA 1996, USPL|104|303
* Harbor Navigation, Disposal Partnerships
** Sec 217, WRDA 1996, USPL|104|303
* Inland Waterways Navigation, Locks and Dams
** Sec 102, WRDA 1986, USPL|99|662
** Sec 206, Inland Waterways Revenue Act of 1978, USPL|95|500 as amended by Sec 1405, WRDA 1986
* Navigation, Small Navigation Projects
** Sec 107, Rivers and Harbors Act of 1960, USPL|86|845. This is a continuing authority that does not need further specific authorization (within limits).
** FCA 1944, USPL|78|534
* Navigation, Clearing and Snagging
** Sec 3, Rivers and Harbors Act of 1945, USPL|79|14 as amended. This is a continuing authority that does not need further specific authorization (within limits).
* Navigation, Mitigation of Damages (includes beach nourishment):
** Sec 111, Rivers and Harbors Act of 1968, USPL|90|483 as amended. This is a continuing authority that does not need further specific authorization (within limits).
** Sec 940, WRDA 1986, USPL|99|662
* Navigation, Recreation
** Sec 103(c)(4), WRDA 1986, USPL|99|662

Emergency Streambank and Shore Protection

* "Section 14" Authority
** Sec 14, FCA 1946, USPL|79|526 as amended
** Sec 27, WRDA 1974, USPL|93|251
** Sec 915(c), WRDA 1986, USPL|99|662
** Sec 219, WRDA 1996, USPL|104|303. This is a continuing authority that does not need further specific authorization (within limits).

Hydroelectric Power

* General
** various Congressional statutes
** Sec 5, FCA 1944, USPL|78|534
** Sec 703, WRDA 1986, USPL|99|662
* Facilities for Future Power Installations
** Sec 4, FCA 1938, USPL|75|761 and subsequent authorizing acts
** FCA 1936
** FCA 1920

Water Supply Storage

* General
** Water Supply Act of 1958, USPL|85|500 as amended
** USPL|88|140
** Sec 932, WRDA 1986, USPL|99|662
* Surplus Water
** Sec 6, FCA 1944, USPL|78|534
* Minor Emergency Withdrawals
** Sec 6, FCA 1944, USPL|78|534


* Reservoir Projects
** Sec 4, FCA 1944, USPL|78|534
** Federal Water Project Recreation Act of 1965, USPL|89|72 as amended
** Sec 103(c)(4), WRDA 1986, USPL|99|662
** Sec 2804, Reclamation Projects Authorization and Adjustments Act of 1992, USPL|102-575
* Non-Reservoir Projects
** Sec 4, FCA 1944, USPL|78|534
** Federal Water Project Recreation Act of 1965, USPL|89|72 as amended
** Sec 103(c)(4), WRDA 1986, USPL|99|662
** Sec 313, WRDA 1990, USPL|101|640

Dam Safety Assurance

* Sec 1203, WRDA 1986, USPL|99|662
* Sec 215, WRDA 1996, USPL|104|303

Other Related Laws

* Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act, USPL|101|601, USStat|104|3048
* Endangered Species Act
* Marine Mammal Protection Act
* National Historic Preservation Act
* Wild and Scenic Rivers Act
* Abandoned Shipwreck Act of 1987
* Anadromous Fish Conservation Act
* Coastal Barrier Resources Act of 1982
* Coastal Wetlands Planning, Protection and Restoration Act
* Coastal Zone Protection Act of 1996
* Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972
* Deepwater Port Act of 1974
* Emergency Wetlands Resources Act
* Environmental Quality Improvement Act of 1970
* Federal Water Project Recreation Act
* Food Security Act of 1985
* Land and Water Conservation Fund Act of 1965
* Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972
* North American Wetland Conservation Act
* Nonindigenous Aquatic Nuisance Prevention and Control Act of 1990
* Reservoir Areas-Forest Cover
* Safe Drinking Water Act
* Submerged Land Act
* Sustainable Fisheries Act

Environmental enforcement

One of the major responsibilities of the Corps of Engineers is administering the wetlands permitting program under Section 404 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1972. (aka "The Clean Water Act"). This Act authorized the Secretary of the Army to issue permits for the discharge of dredged and fill material.

Section 10 of the Rivers and Harbors Act of 1899 (codified in Chapter 33, Section 403 of the United States Code) gave the Corps authority over navigable waters of the United States. As navigable waters are defined as "navigable waters of the United States are those waters that are subject to the ebb and flow of the tide and/or are presently being used, or have been used in the past, or may be susceptible for use to transport interstate or foreign commerce", the Corps has broad authority to enforce this, including licensing of bridges over navigable waters, and the maintenance of pierhead and bulkhead lines.

There are three types of permits issued by the Corps of Engineers: Nationwide, Regional General, and Individual. 80% of the permits issued are nationwide permits, which include several general types of activities, as published in the Federal Register. To gain authorization under a nationwide permit, an applicant usually needs only send a letter to the regional Corps office notifying them of his or her intent, type and amount of impact, and a site map. Although the nationwide process is fairly simple, Corps approval must be obtained before commencing with any work. Regional general permits are specific to each Corps division office. Individual permits are generally required for projects greater than 0.5 acres (2,000 m²) in size.


ERDC Research support includes:
* Dam safety systems
* Mapping and topography terrain analysis
* Infrastructure design, construction, operations and maintenance
* Structural engineering
* Cold regions and ice engineering
* Coastal and hydraulic engineering, producing products such as HEC-RAS
* Environmental quality, including toxic chemistry of bay mud and other dredge spoils
* Geotechnical engineering
* High performance computing and information technology
* Geospatial Engineering (U.S. Army warfighter) Geospatial Information Officer


The Corps of Engineers branch insignia, the Corps Castle, is believed to have originated on an informal basis. In 1841, cadets at West Point wore insignia of this type. In 1902, the Castle was formally adopted by the Corps of Engineers as branch insignia. [http://www.hq.usace.army.mil/history/vignettes/Vignette_90.htm] The castle itself is actually the Bradley Barracks at USMA in West Point, NY.Fact|date=June 2008 A current tradition was established with the "Gold Castles" branch insignia of General of the Army Douglas MacArthur, West Point Class of 1903, who served in the Corps of Engineers early in his career and had received the two pins as a graduation gift of his family. In 1945, near the conclusion of World War II, General MacArthur gave his personal pins to his Chief Engineer, General Leif J. Sverdrup. On May 2, 1975, upon the 200th anniversary of the Corps, retired General Sverdrup, who had civil engineering projects including the landmark convert|17|mi|km|0|sing=on-long Chesapeake Bay Bridge-Tunnel to his credit, presented the Gold Castles to then-Chief of Engineers Lieutenant General William C. Gribble, Jr., who had also served under General MacArthur in the Pacific. General Gribble then announced a tradition of passing the insignia along to future Chiefs of Engineers, and it has been done so since. [http://www.hq.usace.army.mil/history/vignettes/Vignette_89.htm]


External links

* [http://www.usace.army.mil/ United States Army Corps of Engineers]
* [http://www.topix.com/us/us-army-corps-of-engineers U.S. Army Corps of Engineers News]
* [http://www.levees.org Levees.org - Non profit in New Orleans holding the Army Corps accountable for its flood protection nationwide]
* [http://www.corpsreform.org Corps Reform Network - A network of grassroots groups working to ensure that Army Corps of Engineers projects are economically and environmentally sound]
* [http://www.usace.army.mil/publications/misc/ceho.htm History] Miscellaneous USACE Publications.
* [http://texashistory.unt.edu/browse/collection/ACE/ Historic photos of Corps of Engineers lock and dam projects throughout Texas in 1910-20s from the Portal to Texas History]

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