- Lake Erie
Infobox_lake |lake_name = Lake Erie
image_lake = Lake Erie looking southward.jpg
caption_lake = From a high bluff near
coords = coord|42.2|N|81.2|W|type:waterbody_scale:3000000_region:CA/US|display=inline,title
basin_countries = Canada, United States
length = convert|241|mi|km|abbr=on
width = convert|57|mi|km|abbr=on
area = convert|9940|sqmi|km2|0|abbr=on
depth = convert|62|ft|m|0|abbr=on
max-depth = convert|210|ft|m|0|abbr=on
volume = convert|116|cumi|km3|abbr=on
residence_time = 2.6 years
shore = convert|850|mi|km|abbr=on
elevation = convert|571|ft|m|0|abbr=on
islands = 24+ "(see list)"
islands_category = Islands in the Great Lakes
Buffalo, New York
reference = cite book|first=John W. (ed.)|last=Wright|coauthors=Editors and reporters of "The New York Times"|year=2006 | title=The New York Times Almanac | edition=2007 | publisher=Penguin Books |location = New York, New York | id=ISBN 0-14-303820-6 | pages=64]
Lake Erie [
United States Geological SurveyHydrological Unit Code: 04-12-02-00Fact|date=June 2008] (pronEng|ˈɪəriː) is the fourth largest lake(by surface area) of the five Great Lakes, and the tenth largest globally. [http://www.factmonster.com/ipka/A0001777.html Large Lakes of the World] . "Factmonster.com."] It is the southernmost, shallowest, and smallest by volumeof the Great Lakes [http://www.great-lakes.net/lakes/ref/eriefact.html Lake Erie - Facts and Figures] , "Great Lakes Information Network."] [ [http://www.factmonster.com/ce6/us/A0817584.html Erie, Lake] , "Factmonster.com."] and therefore also has the shortest average water residence time. It is bounded on the north by the Canadian province of Ontario, on the south by the U.S. states of Ohio, Pennsylvania, and New York, and on the west by the state of Michigan. The lake is named after the Erie tribeof Native Americans who lived along its southern shore.
Lake Erie (42.2° N, 81.2° W) has a mean elevation of 571 feet (174 m) above sea level. It has a surface area of 9,940 square miles (25,745 km²) with a length of 241 miles (388 km) and breadth of 57 miles (92 km) at its widest points.
It is the shallowest of the Great Lakes with an average depth of 62 feet (19 m) and a maximum depth of 210 feet (64 m). For comparison,
Lake Superiorhas an average depth of 483 feet (147 m), a volume of 2,900 cubic miles (12,100 km³) and shoreline of 2,726 miles (4385 km). Because it is the shallowest, it is also the warmest of the Great Lakes. [ [http://www.wkyc.com/life/programming/shows/lake_erie/news_article.aspx?storyid=70035 Dr. Charles E. Herdendorf ] ]
Lake Erie is primarily fed by the
Detroit River(from Lake Huronand Lake St. Clair) and drains via the Niagara Riverand Niagara Fallsinto Lake Ontario. Navigation downstream is provided by the Welland Canal, part of the Saint Lawrence Seaway. Other major contributors to Lake Erie include the Grand River, the Huron River, the Maumee River, the Sandusky Riverand the Cuyahoga River. Point Pelee National Park, the southernmost point of the Canadian mainland, is located on a peninsula extending into the lake. Several islands are found in the western end of the lake; these belong to Ohio except for Pelee Islandand 8 neighboring islands, which are part of Ontario. The cities of Buffalo, New York; Erie, Pennsylvania; Toledo, Ohio; Port Stanley, Ontario; Monroe, Michigan; and Cleveland, Ohioare located on the shores of Lake Erie.
drainage basincovers 30,140 square miles (78,000 sq. km).
Lake Erie has a
lake retention timeof 2.6 years, which is the shortest of all the Great Lakes. [http://www.epa.gov/glnpo/basicinfo.html#erie Great Lakes; Basic Information: Lake Erie] . "U.S. Environmental Protection Agency."]
Like the rest of the Great Lakes, Erie's levels fluctuate with the season of the year, with the lowest levels in January and February, and the highest in June or July. Its average yearly levels also vary depending on long-term precipitation variations, with levels falling during
droughts and rising during periods of extended above-average precipitation.
Lake Erie's short-term level changes are often subject to weather, since its shallowness and the southwest-to-northeast alignment of its longitudinal axis make it particularly prone to
seiches, especially during high southwesterly winds, when the lake water tends to pile up at one end of the lake. This can lead to large storm surges, potentially causing damage onshore. During one storm in November 2003, the water level at Buffalo rose by 7 feet (2.1 m) with waves of 10-15 feet (3-4.5 m) on top of that, for a cumulative rise of as much as 22 feet (6.7 m).fact|date=June 2008 Meanwhile, Toledo at the western end of the lake will measure similar drops in water level. After the storm event, the water will slowly slosh back and forth, similar to the effect in a bath tub, until equilibrium is re-established.
At the time of European contact, there were several groups of Iroquoian cultures living around the shores of the eastern end of the lake. The
Erie tribe(from whom the lake takes its name) lived along the southern edge, while the Neutrals(also known as Attawandaron) lived along the northern shore. Both tribes were conquered and assimilated by their hostile eastern neighbours, the Iroquois Confederacy between 1651 and 1657 AD, in what is referred to as part of the Beaver Wars. [ Trigger, Bruce; "The Children of Aataentsic" (McGill-Queen's University Press, Kingston and Montreal,1987, ISBN 0-7735-0626-8), pgs.789-797.]
For decades after those wars, the land around eastern Lake Erie was claimed and utilized by the Iroquois as a hunting ground. As the power of the Iroquois waned during the last quarter of the seventeenth century, several other, mainly
AnishinaabeNative American tribes, displaced them from the territories they claimed on the north shore of the lake. [ Schmalz, Peter S.; "The Ojibwa of Southern Ontario" (University of Toronto Press, Toronto, Buffalo, London, 1991, ISBN 0-8020-2736-9), pgs.13-34.]
European exploration and settlement
In 1669, the Frenchman
Louis Jollietwas the first documented European to sight Lake Erie, although there is speculation that Etienne Brulemay have come across it in 1615. [Ashworth, William (1987). "The Late, Great Lakes: An Environmental History", p. 36. Detroit: Wayne State University Press. ISBN 0814318878.] Lake Erie was the last of the Great Lakes to be explored by Europeans, since the Iroquois who occupied the Niagara Riverarea were in conflict with the French, and they did not allow explorers or traders to pass through. Explorers had followed rivers out of Lake Ontario and portaged into Lake Huron.
Like the other Great Lakes, Erie produces
lake effect snowwhen the first cold winds of winter pass over the warm waters, making Buffalo, New York, the eleventh snowiest place in the entire United States, according to data collected from the National Climatic Data Center. [ [http://www.usatoday.com/weather/resources/askjack/2003-10-01-snowiest-cities_x.htm Answers: 10 snowiest 'cities' aren't all in New York] . Also creating the snow beltfrom Cleveland to Buffalo. Chris Cappella, "USATODAY.com."] The lake effect ends or its effect is reduced, however, when the lake freezes over. Being the shallowest of the Great Lakes, it is the most likely to freeze and frequently does. [http://www.straightdope.com/mailbag/mlakeeffectsnow.html What's the physics behind "lake effect snow"?] . "the Straight Dope Science Advisory Board."]
The lake is also responsible for
microclimates that are important to agriculture. Along its north shore is one of the richest areas of Canada's fruitand vegetableproduction, and along the southeastern shore in Ohio, Pennsylvania, and New York is an important grapegrowing region, as are the islands in the lake. Appleorchards are abundant in northeast Ohio to western New York.
Lake Erie infamously became very polluted in the 1960s and 1970s. The
water qualitydeteriorated due to increasing levels of the nutrient phosphorusin both the water and lake bottom sediments. The resultant high nitrogenlevels in the water caused eutrophication, which resulted in algal blooms. Algae masses and fish kills increasingly fouled the shoreline during this period, but a 1969 Time magazine article about a fire on the Cuyahoga River, a tributaryfeeding the lake at Cleveland, Ohioso embarrassed officials that the United States Congressquickly passed the Clean Water Actof 1972. [Ashworth (1987), pp. 143-44.] Also in 1972, an agreement between Canada and the United States significantly reduced the dumping and runoff of phosphorus into the lake. The lake has since become clean enough to allow sunlight to infiltrate its water and produce algae and sea weed, but a dead zone persists in the central Lake Erie Basinduring the late summer. The United States Environmental Protection Agencyis currently studying this cyclic phenomenon. [ [http://www.epa.gov/glnpo/lakeerie/eriedeadzone.html Lake Erie 'Dead Zone'] . "US EPA Lake Erie 'Dead Zone'." URL accessed on December 15, 2005.]
Since the 1970s
environmental regulationhas led to a great increase in water quality and the return of economically important fish species such as walleyeand other biological life. [ [http://www.michigan.gov/dnr/0,1607,7-153-10369_36152-145852--,00.html Recovery of Lake Erie Walleye a Success Story] . "Michigan Department of Natural Resources."]
Lake Erie is home to one of the world's largest freshwater commercial fisheries. Once a mainstay of communities around the lake,
commercial fishingis now predominantly based in Canadian communities, with a much smaller fishery—largely restricted to yellow perch—in Ohio. The Ontario fishery is one of the most intensively managed in the world. It was one of the first fisheries in the world managed on individual transferable quotas and features mandatory daily catch reporting and intensive auditing of the catch reporting system. Still, the commercial fishery is the target of critics who would like to see the lake managed for the exclusive benefit of sport fishingand the various industries serving the sport fishery.
Commercial landings are dominated by yellow perch and
walleye, with substantial quantities of rainbow smeltand white bassalso taken. Anglers target walleye and yellow perch, with some effort directed at rainbow trout. A variety of other species are taken in smaller quantities by both commercial and sport fleets.
Management of the fishery is by consensus of all management agencies with an interest in the resource (the states of New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio and Michigan and the province of Ontario) under the mandate of the Great Lakes Fishery Commission, which is driven by comprehensive fisheries assessment programs and sophisticated mathematical modeling systems. The Commission remains the source of considerable recrimination, primarily from United States based angler and charter fishing groups with a historical antipathy to the commercial fishery. This conflict is complex, dating from the 1960s, with in U.S. fisheries management that led to elimination of commercial fishing in most U.S. Great Lakes states. The process began in Michigan, and its evolution is well documented in Szylvian (2004) [ [http://www.historycooperative.org/journals/eh/9.1/szylvian.html Szylvian,K.M. 2004.] "Transforming Lake Michigan into the 'World's Greatest Fishing Hole': The Environmental Politics of Michigan's Great Lakes Sport Fishing, 1965–1985."] , using
Lake Michiganas a case study. The underlying issues are universal, wherever sport and commercial fishing coexist, but their persistence in the Lake Erie context, one of the most intensively scrutinized and managed fisheries, suggests that these conflicts are cultural, not scientific, and therefore not resolvable by reference to ecological data. These debates are largely driven by social, political and economic issues, not ecology [Berkes, F. 1984. Competition between commercial and sport fishermen: an ecological analysis. Human Ecology 12: 413-429.] .
The lake consists of a long list of well established
introduced species. Common non-indigenous fish species include the rainbow smelt, alewife, white perchand common carp. Non-native sport fish such as rainbow troutand brown troutare stocked specifically for anglers to catch. Attempts failed to stock coho salmon and its numbers are once again dwindling. The lake has recently been plagued with a number of invasive species, including Zebra and quagga mussels, the goby and the grass carp. Zebra mussels and gobies have been credited with the increased population and size of smallmouth bassin Lake Erie. [ [http://sports.espn.go.com/outdoors/bassmaster/news/story?page=tourn_03_north_open_NY_erie_preview ESPN - 2003/04 New York Northern Open: Smallmouth haven Erie to host Northern anglers ] ]
The lake's formerly more extensive lakebed creates a favorable environment for
agriculturein the bordering areas of Ontario, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and New York. The lake also supports a strong commercial and sport fishery. But since high levels of pollutionwere discovered in the 1960s and 1970s, there has been continued debate over the desired intensity of commercial fishing.
The drainage basin has led to well fertilized soil. Ohio's north coast is widely referred to as the nursery capital. [ [http://www.lakecountyoh.net/businessmenu/business.php Lake County Ohio Business and Personal Directory ] ]
The Port of Cleveland generates over $350 million and over 15 million tons of cargo. The traffic in Lake Erie, which is the most of the lakes, along with being the shallowest and roughest of lakes has led to it containing the most known shipwrecks of the
*Bessie the Lake Erie sea monster
Lake Erie belt
List of lakes by area
List of lakes in Ohio
*Assel, R.A. (1983). "Lake Erie regional ice cover analysis: preliminary results " [NOAA Technical Memorandum ERL GLERL 48] . Ann Arbor, MI: U.S. Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Environmental Research Laboratories, Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory.
*Saylor, J.H. and G.S. Miller. (1983). "Investigation of the currents and density structure of Lake Erie" [NOAA Technical Memorandum ERL GLERL 49] . Ann Arbor, MI: U.S. Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Environmental Research Laboratories, Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory.
* [http://www.lakeerieislands.us Lake Erie Islands Directory]
* [http://www.middlebass2.org/IslandsInLakeErie.PDF How many Islands are there in Lake Erie?]
* [http://www.epa.gov/glnpo/atlas/index.html EPA's Great Lakes Atlas]
* [http://www.coastwatch.msu.edu/ Great Lakes Coast Watch]
* [http://www.portclinton.org/ Put in Bay] Travel Guide
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