Leukoplakia Classification and external resources
The white lesion is an example of leukoplakia.
ICD-10 K13.2, N48.0, N88.0, N89.4, N90.4 ICD-9 528.6, 530.83, 607.0, 622.2, 623.1, 624.0 DiseasesDB 7438 MedlinePlus 001046 MeSH D007971
Leukoplakia is a clinical term used to describe patches of keratosis. It is visible as adherent white patches on the mucous membranes of the oral cavity, including the tongue, but also other areas of the gastro-intestinal tract, urinary tract and the genitals. The clinical appearance is highly variable. Leukoplakia is not a specific disease entity, but is diagnosis of exclusion. It must be distinguished from diseases that may cause similar white lesions, such as candidiasis or lichen planus. The lesions of leukoplakia cannot be scraped off easily
Tobacco, either smoked or chewed, is considered to be the main culprit in its development. (1998-2010 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research (MFMER).
Although the term "leukoplakia" often applies to conditions of the mouth, it can also be used to describe conditions of the genitals and urinary tract.
Incidence and prevalence
Leukoplakic lesions are found in approximately 3% of the world's population. Like erythroplakia, leukoplakia is usually found in adults between 40 and 70 years of age, with a 2:1 male predominance.
Leukoplakia is primarily caused by the use of tobacco. Other possible etiological agents implicated are HPV, Candida albicans and possibly alcohol. Simultaneously serum levels of patients with leukoplakia were found to be low in Vit A,B-12,C & folic acid,in a study conducted in India. Most result from chronic irritation of mucous membranes by carcinogens. Bloodroot, otherwise known as sanguinaria, is also believed to be associated with leukoplakia.
5% to 25% of leukoplakias are premalignant lesions; therefore, all leukoplakias should be treated as premalignant lesions by dentists and physicians - they require histologic evaluation or biopsy. Hairy leukoplakia, which is associated with HIV infection and other diseases of severe immune deficiency can go on to develop lymphoma when associated with HIV.
The treatment of leukoplakia mainly involves avoidance of predisposing factors — tobacco cessation, abstinence from alcohol — and avoidance of chronic irritants, e.g., the sharp edges of teeth. A biopsy should be done, and the lesion surgically excised if pre-cancerous changes or cancer is detected.
- Leukoplakia with tylosis and esophageal carcinoma
- Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia
- List of cutaneous conditions
- ^ a b c Underwood. General and Systemic Pathology. 4th Edition. Edinburgh, London: Churchill Livingstone 2004
- ^ "leukoplakia" at Dorland's Medical Dictionary
- ^ Mishra M, Mohanty J, Sengupta S, Tripathy S (2005). "Epidemiological and clinicopathological study of oral leukoplakia". Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 71 (3): 161–5. doi:10.4103/0378-6323.16229. PMID 16394403. http://www.ijdvl.com/article.asp?issn=0378-6323;year=2005;volume=71;issue=3;spage=161;epage=165;aulast=Mishra.
- ^ Ishida K, Ito S, Wada N, et al (2007). "Nuclear localization of beta-catenin involved in precancerous change in oral leukoplakia". Mol. Cancer 6: 62. doi:10.1186/1476-4598-6-62. PMC 2140063. PMID 17922924. http://www.molecular-cancer.com/content/6//62.
- ^ Sitheeque MA, Samaranayake LP (2003). "Chronic hyperplastic candidiasis/candidiasis (candidal leukoplakia)". Crit. Rev. Oral Biol. Med. 14 (4): 253–67. doi:10.1177/154411130301400403. PMID 12907694. http://cro.sagepub.com/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=12907694.
- ^ Leukoplakia, (pdf format) hosted by the American Academy of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology. Page accessed on December 19, 2006.
- ^ http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/beta-carotene/NS_patient-betacarotene
•Current concepts of the diagnosis and management of potentially malignant disorders of the oral mucosa. Free access articles on oral cancer from Journal of Oral Pathology & Medicine
Diseases of the skin and appendages by morphology GrowthsPigmentedDermal and
PurpuraMacularthrombocytopenic purpura · actinic purpuraPapularIndurated
Oral pathology: Stomatognathic disease (K06, K11–K14, 523, 527–529) Vestibule of mouth Oral cavity properHard, soft,
and periapical tissues
Salivary glands Tongue General To be grouped
from dermAcquired dyskeratotic leukoplakia · Angina bullosa haemorrhagica · Behçet syndrome · Cutaneous sinus of dental origin · Cyclic neutropenia · Epulis fissuratum · Eruptive lingual papillitis · Melanocytic oral lesion · Melkersson–Rosenthal syndrome · Mucosal lichen planus · Oral Crohn's disease · Oral florid papillomatosis · Oral melanosis · Plasmoacanthoma · Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia · Pyogenic granuloma · Pyostomatitis vegetans · Recurrent intraoral herpes simplex infection · Stomatitis nicotina · Trumpeter's wart · Vestibular papillomatosis
Tumors of lip, oral cavity and pharynx / head and neck cancer (C00–C14/D10–D11, 140–149/210) Oral cancerLeukoplakia · Rhabdomyoma Female diseases of the pelvis and genitals (N70–N99, 614–629) InternalAdnexaVaginitis (Bacterial vaginosis, Atrophic vaginitis, Candidal vulvovaginitis) · Leukorrhea/Vaginal discharge · Hematocolpos/HydrocolposSexual dysfunction (Dyspareunia, Hypoactive sexual desire disorder, Sexual arousal disorder, Vaginismus)Other/generalPelvic inflammatory disease · Pelvic congestion syndrome External
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