- Squamous cell carcinoma
Name = Squamous cell carcinoma, NOS
Caption = SCC of the skin tends to arise from pre-malignant lesions, actinic keratoses; surface is usually scaly and often ulcerates (as shown here).
ICD10 = C44
ICD9 = ICD9|173
ICDO = ICDO|8070|3
eMedicineSubj = derm
eMedicineTopic = 401
MedlinePlus = 000829
medicine, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a form of cancerof the carcinomatype that may occur in many different organs, including the skin, lips, mouth, esophagus, urinary bladder, prostate, lungs, vagina, and cervix. It is a malignant tumor of squamous epithelium( epitheliumthat shows squamous celldifferentiation).
A carcinoma can be characterized as either "in situ" (confined to the original site) or "invasive", depending on whether the cancer invades underlying tissues; only invasive cancers are able to spread to other organs and cause
Squamous cell carcinoma is the second most common cancer of the skin (after
basal cell carcinomabut more common than melanoma). It usually occurs in areas exposed to the sun, and can generally be treated by excisiononly. Sunlight exposure and immunosuppressionare risk factors for SCC of the skin. The risk of metastasis is larger than with basal cell carcinoma.
Head and neck cancer
Most cases of
head and neck cancer(cancer of the mouth, nasal cavity, throat and associated structures) are due to squamous cell carcinoma. Symptoms may include a poorly healing mouth ulcer, a hoarse voice or other persistent problems in the area. Treatment is usually with surgery(which may be extensive) and radiotherapy. Risk factors include smoking and [alcoholic beverage|alcohol consu
Esophageal cancermay be due to either squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) or adenocarcinoma(EAC). SCCs tend to occur closer to the mouth, while adenocarcinomas occur closer to the stomach. Dysphagia(difficulty swallowing, solids worse than liquids) and odynophagiaare common initial symptoms. If the disease is localized, esophagectomymay offer the possibility of a cure. If the disease has spread, chemotherapyand radiotherapy are commonly used.
When associated with the lung, it often causes ectopic production of
parathyroid hormone-related protein(PTHrP), resulting in hypercalcemia.
When associated with the
prostate, squamous cell carcinoma is very aggressive in nature. It is difficult to detect as there is no increase in prostate specific antigenlevels seen; meaning that the cancer is often diagnosed at an advanced stage.
Vagina and cervix
Vaginal squamous cell carcinoma spreads slowly and usually stays near the vagina, but may spread to the lungs and liver. This is the most common type of
In 2007, Australian biopharmaceutical company Clinuvel Pharmaceuticals Limited began
clinical trialswith a melanocyte-stimulating hormonecalled melanotan(known by the International Nonproprietary Name"afamelanotide", formerly CUV1647)Cite web|url=http://www.clinuvel.com/resources/pdf/asx_announcements/2008/20080617WHOGenericName.pdf|title=World Health Organisation assigns CUV1647 generic name|accessdate=2008-06-17|publisher=Clinuvel|year=2008|format=PDF] to provide photoprotectionfor organ transplant patients against squamous cell carcinoma of the skin and actinic keratosis. [http://www.clinuvel.com/en/faqs/ Clinuvel » Investors » FAQs ] ] [http://www.pharmaasia.com/article-6618-clinuvelsdrugbeginsglobalphaseiiskincancertrials-Asia.html PharmaAsia - Clinuvel’s Drug Begins Global Phase II Skin Cancer Trials] ]
Keratoacanthomais a low-grade malignancy of the skin. It originates in the pilo-sebaceous glands, and is similar in clinical presentation and microscopic analysis to squamous cell carcinoma, except that it contains a central keratinplug. Statistically, it is less likely to become invasive than squamous cell carcinoma.
Bowen's diseaseis a sunlight-induced skin disease, and is considered to be an early form of squamous cell carcinoma.
Marjolin's ulceris a type of squamous cell carcinoma that arises from a non-healing ulceror burn wound.
* [http://www.skincancer.org/content/view/23/81/ Information on Squamous Cell Carcinoma from The Skin Cancer Foundation]
* [http://www.emedicine.com/DERM/topic401.htm Article by Stephen D Hess, MD, PhD]
* [http://www.dermnetnz.org/lesions/squamous-cell-carcinoma.html DermNet NZ: Squamous cell carcinoma]
* [http://www.skintherapyletter.com/2004/9.4/2.html Squamous cell carcinoma in transplant recipients]
* [http://www.kidneycancerresource.com Including TCC, CIS and papillary tumour SCC]
Notes and references
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