- Languages of the Philippines
Languages of the Philippines
Map of the dominant ethnolinguistic groups of the Philippines.
Official language(s) Filipino, English Regional language(s) Bicol, Cebuano, Hiligaynon, Ilocano, Kapampangan, Kinaray-a, Maguindanao, Maranao, Pangasinan, Tagalog, Tausug, Waray-Waray Main foreign language(s) Japanese, Chinese, Arabic, Hindi, Korean, Malay, Spanish Sign language(s) Filipino Sign Language / Philippine Sign Language Common keyboard layout(s) QWERTY
Life in the Philippines
In the Philippines, there are between 120 and 175 languages, depending on the method of classification. Four languages no longer have any known speakers. Almost all the Philippine languages belong to the Austronesian language family. Of all of these languages, only 2 are considered official in the country while (as of 2010) about 12 are considered official auxiliary.
- 1 National and official languages
- 2 Indigenous languages
- 3 Major foreign languages
- 4 See also
- 5 References
- 6 Further reading
- 7 External links
National and official languages
Spanish was the original official language of the country for more than three centuries, and became the lingua franca of the Philippines in the 19th and early 20th centuries. In 1863 a Spanish decree introduced universal education, creating free public schooling in Spanish. It was also the language of the Philippine Revolution, and the 1899 Malolos Constitution proclaimed it as the official language of the First Philippine Republic. National hero José Rizal wrote most of his works in Spanish, Luciano de la Rosa, established that it was spoken by a total of 60% of the population in the early 20th century as a first, second or third language. Following the American occupation of the Philippines and the imposition of English, the use of Spanish declined gradually, especially after the 1940s.
Under the U.S. occupation and civil regime, English began to be taught in schools. By 1901, public education used English as the medium of instruction. Around 600 educators (called "Thomasites") who arrived in that year aboard the USS Thomas replaced the soldiers who also functioned as teachers. The 1935 Constitution added English as an official language alongside Spanish. A provision in this constitution also called for Congress to "take steps toward the development and adoption of a common national language based on one of the existing native languages." On November 12, 1937, the First National Assembly created the National Language Institute. President Manuel L. Quezón appointed native Waray-Waray speaker Jaime C. De Veyra to chair a committee of speakers of other regional languages. Their aim was to select a national language among the other regional languages. Ultimately, Tagalog was chosen as the base language December 30, 1937.
In 1939, President Manuel L. Quezón renamed the Tagalog language as Wikang Pambansa ("National language" in English translation). The language was further renamed in 1959 as Pilipino by Secretary of Education Jose Romero. The 1973 constitution declared the Pilipino language to be co-official, along with English, and mandated the development of a National language, to be known as Filipino.
The present constitution, ratified in 1987, stated that Filipino and English are both the official languages of the country. Filipino also had the distinction of being a national language that was to be "developed and enriched on the basis of existing Philippine and other languages." Although not explicitly stated in the constitution, Filipino is in practice almost completely composed of the Tagalog as spoken in the capital, Manila; however, organizations such as the University of the Philippines began publishing dictionaries such as the UP Diksyonaryong Filipino in which words from various Philippine languages were also included. The constitution also made mention of Spanish and Arabic, both of which are to be promoted on a voluntary and optional basis.
Filipino is an official language of education, but less important than English. It is the major language of the broadcast media and cinema, but less important than English as a language of publication (except in some domains, like comic books, which are meant to speak directly to the Filipino psyche) and less important for academic-scientific-technological discourse. English and Filipino compete in the domains of business and government.[dubious ] Filipino is used as a lingua franca in all regions of the Philippines as well as within overseas Filipino communities, and is the dominant language of the armed forces (except perhaps for the small part of the commissioned officer corps from wealthy or upper middle class families) and of a large part of the civil service, most of whom are non-Tagalogs.
Nobody questions that there is diglossia in the case of Filipino and the other regional languages. In this case, Filipino can clearly be labelled as the acrolect (the "standard") and the regional languages the basilect.
The Constitution of the Philippines provides for the use of the vernacular languages as auxiliary languages in provinces where Filipino is not the lingua franca. This is however not implemented as Filipinos at large would be polyglots. In the case where the vernacular language is a regional language, Filipinos would speak in Filipino when speaking in formal situations while the regional languages are spoken in non-formal settings. This is evident in major urban areas outside the National Capital Region like Angeles City in the Kapampangan-speaking area, and Davao in the Cebuano-speaking area. Although the case of Ilocano and Cebuano are becoming more of bilingualism than diglossia due to the publication of materials written in these languages.
The diglossia is more evident in the case of other languages such as Pangasinan, Kapampangan, Bikol, Waray, Hiligaynon, Sambal, and Maranao, where the written variant of the language is becoming less and less popular to give way to the use of Filipino. Although Philippine laws consider some of these languages as "major languages" there is little, if any, support coming from the government to preserve these languages. This may be bound to change, however, given current policy trends. Although Philippine linguists would agree that there is still no danger of these languages becoming extinct in the near future, the lack of support from the government makes these languages prone to “bastardisation”.
There still exists another type of diglossia, which is between the regional languages and the minority languages. Here, we label the regional languages as acrolects while the minority languages as the basilect. In this case, the minority language is spoken only in very intimate circles, like the family or the tribe one belongs to. Outside this circle, one would speak in the prevalent regional language, while maintaining an adequate command of Filipino for formal situations. Unlike the case of the regional languages these minority languages are always in danger of becoming extinct because of speakers favoring the more prevalent regional language. Moreover, most of the users of these languages are illiterate[specify] and as expected, there is a chance that these languages will no longer be revived due to lack of written records.
According to Ethnologue, a total of 171 native languages are spoken in the country. Except for English, Spanish, Hokkien (Lan-nang), Cantonese, Mandarin, and Chavacano, all of the languages belong to the Malayo-Polynesian language family. The Asa Familia own 3 of the languages
There are 13 indigenous languages with at least one million native speakers: Tagalog, Cebuano, Ilokano, Hiligaynon, Waray-Waray, Kapampangan, Bikol, Albay Bikol , Pangasinan, Maranao, Maguindanao, Kinaray-a, and Tausug. One or more of these is spoken natively by more than 90% of the population.
A Philippine language family identified by Robert Blust is nearly synonymous with the Malayo-Polynesian languages of the Philippines. The differences are that the family includes languages of north Sulawesi and the Yami language of Taiwan, but excludes the Sama–Bajaw languages of the Sulu Archipelago as well as a couple North Bornean languages spoken in southern Palawan.
Philippine languages are often referred to by Filipinos as dialects, partly as a relic of the inaccurate vocabulary used in literature during the American period (1898–1946). While there are indeed many hundreds of dialects in the Philippines, they represent variations of no fewer than 120 distinct languages, and many of these languages maintain greater differences than those between established European languages like French and Spanish.
The vast differences between the languages can be seen in the following translations of the Philippine national proverb meaning "He who does not (know how to) look back at his past (where he came from) will not reach his destination."
Language Translation Aklanon Ro uwa' gatan-aw sa anang ginhalinan hay indi makaabut sa anang ginapaeangpan. Asi (Bantoanon) Kag tawong waya giruromroma it ida ginghalinan, indi makaabot sa ida apagtuan. Bangon No fuktaw hadwa bumontag idwan dasog at bato lawan. Bicolano (Albay) Bicolano (Bulan, Gubat, Irosin, Matnog, Sta Magdalena, Bulusan) An diri maaram mag-imud sa pinaghalian, diri makaabot sa pakakadtu-an. Biko (Buhi) Yu di nikiling sa pinagalinan, di makaantos sa pupuntahan. Bikol Central An dai tataong magsalingoy sa saiyang ginikanan, dai makakaabot sa padudumanan. Daraga/East Miraya Bikol Su indi tataw makarumdom nung ginitan, indi makaabot sa adunan. Oasnon/West Miraya Bikol Kan na taw na idi tataw mag linguy sa sanyang inalian, idi man maka abot sa sanyang paidtunan. Bicolano (Iriga) A diri maglili sa pinaggalinan, diri makaaabot sa pigiyanan. Capiznon Ang indi kabalo magbalikid sa iya ginbataan, indi makalab-ot sa parakadtuan. Cebuano Kadtong dili molingi sa iyang gigikanan, dili makaabot sa iyang gipadulongan. Caviteño Chabacano Quien no ta bira cara na su origen no de incarsa na su destinacion. Ternateño Chabacano Ay nung sabi mira i donde ya bini no di yega na destinasyon. Zamboangueño Chavacano Quien no sabe vira el cara na su orígen, hay jendéh puede llega na su destinacion. Castellano Abakay Chavacano Cotabateñ Chavacano Ermiteño Chabacano English He who does not (know how to) look back at his past (where he came from) will not reach his destination. Ibanag I tolay nga ari mallipay ta naggafuananna, ari makadde ta angayanna. Itawis Ya tolay nga mari mallipay tsa naggafuananna, mari makakandet tsa angayanna. Ilokano (standard) Ti saanna ammo a tumaliaw iti naggapuanna ket saan a makadanon iti papananna. Ilokano (Abagatan) Ti haan na ammo nga tumaliaw iti naggapuan na ket haan nga makadanon iti papanan na. Hiligaynon Kon sin-o ang indi makahibalo magbalikid sang iya ginta-uhan, indi makaabot sa iya padulungan. Jama Mapun Soysoy niya' pandoy ngantele' patulakan ne, niya' ta'abut katakkahan ne. Kapampangan Ing e byasang malikid king kayang penibatan, e ya miras king kayang pupuntalan. Kinaray-a Ang indi kamaan magbalikid sa ana ginhalinan, indi makaabot sa ana paaragtunan. Manobo (Obo)
Iddos minuvu no konnod kotuig nod loingoy to id pomonan din, konna mandad od poko-uma riyon tod undiyonnan din.
Maranao So tao a di matao domingil ko poonan iyan na di niyan kakwa so singanin iyan. Malay Mereka yang tidak menghadapi bertukar kepada asal, tidak boleh sampai ke destinasi anda. Pangasinan Say toon agga onlingao ed pinanlapuan to, agga makasabi'd laen to. Romlomanon (Ini) Adtong tawo nga indi ansyano mag lingig sa iya guinghalinan hay indi da makasampot sa iya ning pagakadtoan. Sambal (Botolan) Hay ahe nin nanlek ha pinag-ibatan, ay ahe makarateng ha lalakwen. Sambal (Sambal) Hay kay tanda mamanomtom ha pinangibatan, kay immabot sa kakaon. Sangil Tao mata taya mabiling su pubuakengnge taya dumanta su kadam tangi. Sinama Ya Aa ga-i tau pa beleng ni awwal na, ga-i du sab makasong ni maksud na. Spanish Quien no vira la cara a su orígen, no puede llegar a su destino. Surigaonon Adon dili mahibayo molingi sa ija ing-gikanan, dili gajod makaabot sa ija pasingdan. Sorsoganon An diri mag-imud sa pinaghalian diri makaabot sa kakadtuan. Tagalog/Filipino Ang hindi marunong lumingon sa pinanggalingan ay hindi makararatíng sa paroroonan. Tayabas Tagalog Ang dili maalam lumingon sa pinaroonan ay hindi makakarating sa paroroonan. Tausug In di' maingat lumingi' pa bakas liyabayan niya, di' makasampay pa kadtuun niya. Waray-Waray An diri maaram lumingi ha tinikangan, diri maulpot ha kakadtoan. Yakan Gey tau mayam sibukutan, gey tau tekka kaditaran.
The amount of dialectal variation varies from language to language. Languages like Tagalog and Kapampangan are known to have very moderate dialectal variation.
In the languages of the Bicol Region, however, there is great dialectal variation. There are towns which have their own dialects. Below is the sentence "Were you there at the market for a long time?" translated into certain varieties of Bikol. The translation is followed by dialect and language, and town in Bicol where they are spoken. The final translation is in Tagalog.
- Haloy ka duman sa saod? (Standard Bikol, and Bikol-Naga, a dialect of Central Bicolano or Bikol; Naga City, Camarines Sur)
- Aloy ka duman sa saod? (Magarao, a variety of Bikol-Naga, Central Bicolano; Magarao, Camarines Sur)
- Huray ka doon sa saod? (Northern Catanduanes Bicolano or Pandan Bikol; Pandan, Catanduanes)
- Nauban ika sadto sa sa-ran? (Iriga Bicolano or Rinconada; Iriga City)
- Uban ika adto sa saod? (Libon, Albay Bicolano; Libon, Albay)
- Naegey ika adto sa sa-ran? (Buhi-non, Albay Bicolano; Buhi, Camarines Sur)
- Eley ka idto sa sed? (Oasnon, Albay Bicolano; Oas, Albay)
- Dugay ka didto sa mercado? (Ticao, Masbatenyo; Monreal, Masbate)
- Awat ka didto sa plasa? (Gubat, Southern Sorsogon; Gubat, Sorsogon)
- Matagál ka ba roón sa pámilihan? (Tagalog)
Philippine languages comparison chart
Below is a chart of Philippine languages. While there has been misunderstandings on which ones should be classified as language and which ones should be classified as dialect, this chart confirms that most have similarities but are not mutually comprehensible with each other. These languages are arranged according to the regions they are natively spoken (from north to south, then east to west).
There is a language spoken by the Tao people(also known as Yami) of Orchid Islandof Taiwanwhich is not included in the language of the Philippines. Their language, Tao(or Yami) is part of the Batanic languageswhich includes Ivatan, Babuyan, and Itbayat of the Batanes.
English one two three four person house dog coconut day new we what Ivatan asa dadowa tatdo apat tao vahay chito niyoy araw va-yo yaten ango Ilokano maysa dua tallo uppat tao balay aso niog aldaw baro datayo ania Pangasinan sakey duara talora apatira too abong aso niyog agew balo sikatayo anto Ibanag tadday dua tallu appa' tolay balay kitu inniuk aggaw bagu sittam anni Gaddang tata addwa tallo appat tolay balay atu ayog aw bawu ikkanetem sanenay Kapampangan metung adwa atlu apat tau bale asu ngungut aldo bayu ikatamu nanu Tagalog isa dalawa tatlo apat tao bahay aso niyog araw bago tayo, kamí, kata ano Standard Bikol saro duwa tulo apat tawo harong ayam niyog aldaw ba-go kita ano Iriga Bicolano usad darawa tulo upat tawo baloy ayam niyog aldow bago ngamin ono Romblomanon isya dalwa tatlo ap at kita, aton ano Bantoanon usa ruha tuyo upat tawo bayay iro nidog adlaw bag-o kita, ato ni-o Onhan isya darwa tatlo apat tawo balay ayam niyog adlaw bag-o kita, taton ano Kinaray-a sara darwa tatlo apat taho balay ayam niyog adlaw bag-o kita, taten ano, iwan Hiligaynon isa duha tatlo apat tawo balay ido lubi adlaw bag-o kita ano Cebuano usa duha tulo upat tawo balay iro lubi adlaw bag-o kita unsa Surigao-non isa duha tuyo upat tao bayay idu Nijog adlaw bag-o kami unu Waray-Waray usa duha tulo upat tawo balay ayam lubi adlaw bag-o kita ano T'boli sotu lewu tlu fat tau gunu ohu lefo kdaw lomi tekuy tedu Tausug hambuuk duwa tu upat tau bay iru' niyug adlaw ba-gu kitaniyu unu Chavacano uno dos tres cuatro gente cása pérro coco día nuevo nosotros cosá/ qué one two three four person house dog coconut day new we what Tao ása dóa (raroa) tílo (tatlo) ápat tao vahay gara ngata araw vayo tata vela
List of speakers per language
Below are population estimates from the 2000 Philippine census by National Statistics Office of the Philippines on the number of Filipinos who speak the following 18 languages as a native language.
Name of Philippine language Number of native speakers Tagalog 22,000,000 Cebuano 20,000,000 Ilocano 7,700,000 Hiligaynon 7,000,000 Waray-Waray 3,100,000 Kapampangan 2,900,000 Northern Bicol 2,500,000 Pangasinan 2,434,086 Southern Bicol 1,200,000 Maranao 1,150,000 Maguindanao 1,100,000 Kinaray-a 1,051,000 Tausug 1,022,000 Surigaonon 600,000 Masbateño 530,000 Aklanon 520,000 Chavacano (Spanish creole) 512,000 Ibanag 320,000
Major foreign languages
In 1593, the first printing press in the Philippines was founded. In the 17th century, Spanish religious orders founded the first universities in the Philippines, some of which are considered the oldest in Asia. During colonial rule through Mexico City, Spanish was the language of education, trade, politics and religion, and by the 19th century, it became the country's lingua franca although it was only ever used by a small population. In 1863, a Spanish decree introduced a system of public education, creating free public schooling in Spanish. In the 1890s, the Philippines had a prominent group of Spanish-speaking scholars called the Ilustrados, such as José Rizal. Some of these scholars participated in the Philippine Revolution and later in the struggle against American occupation. In 1899, the short-lived First Philippine Republic established Spanish as the country's official language; both the Malolos Constitution and the Lupang Hinirang (national anthem) were written in Spanish.
The use of Spanish began to decline after Spain ceded the islands to the United States as a result of the Spanish–American War of 1898. Under U.S. rule, the English language began to be promoted instead of Spanish. In 1940, there were six million people with Spanish speaking skills in the Philippines. The 1950 Census stated that Filipinos who spoke Spanish as a first or second language made up only 6% of the population. In 1990, the census reported that the number had dwindled to just 2500. Spanish ceased to be an official language in 1973 and a college requirement in 1987, during Corazón Aquino's administration. However, the language is still spoken today by Filipino-Spanish mestizos and Spanish families, who are mainly concentrated in Metro Manila, Iloílo and Cebú. It remains a required subject in many universities, such as the University of Santo Tomás of Manila and the University of San Carlos in Cebú. President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo, a third-language Spanish speaker, has introduced legislation to re-establish the instruction of Spanish since 2009.
Many historical documents, land titles, and literature were written in the Spanish language, and many of these documents often were never translated, although some of them as land titles still have legal value. There are thousands of Spanish loanwords in Tagalog, Cebuano, and other languages.
- Chavacanos of Luzón:
- Chavacanos of Mindanao:
- Zamboangueño Chavacano (Chavacano de Zamboanga / Zamboangueño Chavacano), spoken in Zamboanga City, Zamboanga Sibugay, Zamboanga del Sur, Zamboanga del Norte, Basilan Province, Sulu Province, Tawi-Tawi Province and Semporna, Sabah, Malaysia (360,000 native speakers-Zamboanga City alone as per 2000 census, the most spoken creole language)
- Cotabateño (Chabacano de Cotabato), spoken in Cotabato
- Davaoeño Abakay (Davaoweño Zamboanguenyo), spoken in Davao City
The first exposure to English occurred in 1762, when the British invaded Manila. However, use of English in that era was minimal and had no lasting influence. English became an important language in the Philippines in the period between 1898 and 1946, when the Philippines was under U.S. sovereignty. Today, English remains an official language in the Philippines.
Today, English is the dominant language in business, government, the legal system, medicine, the sciences and education. Filipinos tend to want their textbooks for subjects like calculus, physics, chemistry, biology, etc., written in English rather than Filipino. By way of contrast, the native languages are often heard in colloquial settings, and in the home, with family and friends, most people use their vernaculars. The use of English may be thought to carry an air of formality, given its use in school, government and various ceremonies. A percentage of the media such as cable television and newspapers are also in English; major television networks (i.e. ABS-CBN and GMA) and all AM radio stations are in Filipino. English proficiency sustains a significant call center industry for American companies.
A large influx of English words has been assimilated into Tagalog and the other native languages called Taglish. There is a debate, however, on whether there is diglossia or bilingualism, or even semilingualism, between Filipino and English. Filipinos would use Filipino both in formal and informal situations, while, save for a very few, English will only be used for formal gatherings such as education and governance. Though the masses would prefer to speak in Filipino, government officials tend to speak in English when they do their government duties. Until now, there is still resistance in the use of Filipino in courts and the drafting of national statutes.
On August 22, 2007, three Malolos City regional trial courts in Bulacan decided to use Filipino, instead of English, in order to promote the national language. Twelve stenographers from Branches 6, 80 and 81, as model courts, had undergone training at Marcelo H. del Pilar College of Law of Bulacan State University College of Law following a directive from the Supreme Court of the Philippines. De la Rama said it was the dream of Chief Justice Reynato Puno to implement the program in other areas such as Laguna, Cavite, Quezón, Nueva Écija, Batangas, Rizal and Metro Manila.
Advocates of English say that it is the wave of the future, with science, world trade and the Internet become more important every decade. However, Philippine-language advocates respond that although the growing influence of English may be unstoppable, English is an exogenous language that is difficult for the mass of Filipinos to acquire fluently, while tens of millions are acquiring the lingua franca and using it extensively on a daily basis. English will remain a second language in the country, while the endogenous Austronesian languages will come to play a more important role in both speech and writing. National census results show that there are very few native speakers of English in the Philippines, a few percent from a small stratum of wealthy and highly educated families, and this is not increasing very rapidly. On the other hand, Filipino, Cebuano, and Ilocano continue to grow vigorously, as lingua francas, second languages, and as first languages as well.
Diplomatic ties with the Ming dynasties among some established states or kingdoms in Luzon and direct interactions and trade overall within the archipelago as a whole go perhaps as far back as early 10th century. Mandarin Chinese is the medium of instruction in Chinese schools and lingua franca of the mainland and overseas Chinese. The Lan-nang variant of the Hokkien (Min Nan) is the language of the majority the Chinese in the Philippines, who immigrated from the Fujian (pronounced locally as Fukien or Hokkien) province in China. Another Chinese language, Cantonese, is spoken among the Chinese in the Philippines who are descendants of people from Guangdong province in China.
Arabic is used by some members of the Muslim population and has functioned as a liturgical and instructional language since the arrival of Islam in the 14th century. It is primarily used in religious instruction in madrasahs (Muslim schools) and rarely for official events. Historically, Arabic, along with Malay, was the lingua franca in the Malay Archipelago among Muslim traders and the Malay aristocracy in various parts of the archipelago. Arabic is taught for free and promoted in some Islamic centres and used for Islamic activities. According to the 1987 Constitution, Arabic, along with Spanish, is to be promoted on a voluntary basis.
The Japanese first came to the Philippines around the 11th Century C.E., the first country they emigrated to, as well as in waves from the 15th century, 17th century, late 19th century, 1900s, 1930s, and the 1940s. There is a small Japanese community and a school for Japanese in Metro Manila due to the number of Japanese companies. Also there is a large community of Japanese and Japanese descendants in Laguna province, Baguio City, and in the Davao region. Davao City is a home to a large population of Japanese descendants. Japanese laborers were hired by American companies like the National Fiber Company (NAFCO) in the first decades of the 20th century to work in abaca plantations. Japanese were known for their hard work and industry. During World War II, Japanese schools were present in Davao City.
Malay is spoken among Muslim people in the southern Philippines as a lingua franca.
Old Malay and Indonesian cultures and civilizations in ancient Sumatra and Java have had a large influence on the history, lifestyles, and culture of various Philippine peoples. The Malay language, along with Philippine languages belonging to the Malayo-Polynesian language family, has also had an immense influence on many if not most of the languages spoken in the Philippines. Roughly a third of all commonly used verbs and nouns used in the Philippines are of Old Malay origin.
When the Spanish had first arrived in the Philippines in the 16th century, Old Malay was spoken among the aristocracy.
It is believed that Ferdinand Magellan’s Moluccan slave Enrique could converse with local leaders in Cebu island, confirming to Magellan his arrival in Southeast Asia. An example of Old Malay and Javanese languages spoken in Philippine history can be seen in the language of the Laguna Copperplate Inscription.
South Asian languages
Since pre-Spanish times, there have been small Indian communities in the Philippines. Indians tend to be able to speak Tagalog and the other native languages, and are often fluent in English. Among themselves, Sindhi and Punjabi are used. Urdu is spoken among the Pakistani community. Only few South Asians, such as Pakistani, as well as the recent newcomers like the Marathi, Nepali, and Tamil retain their own native languages.
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- Carl Ralph Galvez Rubino. "The Philippine National Proverb". Translated into various Philippine languages. http://iloko.tripod.com/philproverb.html. Retrieved July 28, 2005.
- Sundita, Christopher Allen (2002). In Bahasa Sug: An Introduction to Tausug. Lobel & Tria Partnership, Co.. ISBN 971-92226-6-2.
- Christopher Sundita. "Languages or Dialects?". Understanding the Native Tongues of the Philippines. Archived from the original on 2006-06-16. http://web.archive.org/web/20060616023054/http://www.geocities.com/csundita/filipiniana/rplanguages.html. Retrieved July 28, 2005.
- Yap, Fe Aldave (1977). A Comparative Study of Philippine Lexicons. Institute of Philippine languages, Department of Education, Culture, and Sports. ISBN 971-8705-05-8.
- R. David Zorc (1977). "The Bisayan dialects of the Philippines: Subgrouping and reconstruction". Pacific Linguistics, C (44).
- R. David Zorc (2001). "Hiligaynon". Facts About the World's Languages: an Encyclopedia of the World's Major Languages, Past and Present.
- Joseph Reylan B. Viray (2006). "Dagang Simbahan". Makata International Journal of Poetry, 7 (12).
- Luciano de la Rosa (1960). "El Filipino: Origen y Connotación". El renacimiento filipino.
- Dedaić, Mirjana N.; Nelson, Daniel N. (2003). At War With Words. Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 3110176491. http://books.google.com/?id=BZ4fbMPV3k0C&pg=PA372&lpg=PA372&dq=exogenous+language. Retrieved 2007-10-04
- Hamers, Josiane F. (2000). Bilinguality and Bilingualism. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521648432. http://books.google.com/?id=ata9lBT5euwC&pg=PA31&lpg=PA31&dq=exogenous+language. Retrieved 2007-10-04
- Ricardo Maria Nolasco on the diversity of languages in the Philippines
- Lawrence R. Reid webpage of Dr. Lawrence A. Reid. Researcher Emeritus of linguistics at the University of Hawai'i at Manoa. Has researched Philippine languages for decades.
- The Metamorphosis of Filipino as a National Language
- Carl Rubino webpage of Dr. Carl Rubino. A Filipino linguist who has studied Philippine languages.
- Literatura hispanofilipina: siglos XVII al XX by Edmundo Farolan Romero, with a brief Philippine poetry anthology in Spanish.
- Salita Blog by Christopher Sundita. A blog about a variety of issues concerning the languages of the Philippines.
- Espaniero An Online Spanish conversation group for Pinoys
- Philippine Language Tree
- The Language Planning Situation in the Philippines, by Andrew González, FSC
- kaibigankastila webpage of the Spanish culture in the Philippines.
- Linguistic map of the Philippines at Muturzikin.com
- On linguistic mutual intolerance in the Philippines
- Filipino Translator
- Tagalog Translator Online Online dictionary for translating Tagalog from/to English, including expressions and latest headlines regarding the Philippines.
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