African American Vernacular English

African American Vernacular English
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African American Vernacular English (AAVE)—also called African American English; less precisely Black English, Black Vernacular, Black English Vernacular (BEV), or Black Vernacular English (BVE)—is an African American variety (dialect, ethnolect and sociolect) of American English. Non-linguists sometimes call it Ebonics (a term that also has other meanings or strong connotations) or jive or jive-talk.

Its pronunciation is, in some respects, common to Southern American English, which is spoken by many African Americans and many non-African Americans in the United States. Several creolists, including William Stewart, John Dillard, and John Rickford, argue that AAVE shares so many characteristics with creole dialects spoken by black people in much of the world that AAVE itself is a creole,[1] while others maintain that there are no significant parallels.[2][3][4][5][6]

As with all linguistic forms, its usage is influenced by age, status, topic and setting. There are many literary uses of this variety of English, particularly in African-American literature.



AAVE shares several characteristics with Creole English language-forms spoken by people throughout much of the world. AAVE has pronunciation, grammatical structures, and vocabulary in common with various West African languages.[7]

Many features of AAVE are shared with English dialects spoken in the American South. While these are mostly regionalisms (i.e. originating from the dialect commonly spoken in the area, regardless of color), a number of them—such as the deletion of is—are used much more frequently by black speakers, suggesting that they have their origins in black speech.[8] The traits of AAVE that separate it from Standard American English (SAE) include:

  • specific pronunciation features along definable patterns, many of which are found in creoles and dialects of other populations of West African descent and which also emerge in English dialects that may be uninfluenced by West African languages, such as Newfoundland English
  • distinctive vocabulary
  • distinctive use of verb tenses

Early AAVE contributed a number of words of African origin to Standard American English, including gumbo,[9] goober,[10] yam and banjo. AAVE has also contributed slang expressions such as cool and hip.[11]


While it is clear that there is a strong relationship between AAVE and Southern American English, the unique characteristics of AAVE are not fully explained and its origins are still a matter of debate.

One theory is that AAVE arose from one or more slave creoles that arose from the trans-Atlantic African slave trade and the need for African captives to communicate among themselves and with their captors.[12] According to this theory, these captives developed what are called pidgins, simplified mixtures of two or more languages. As pidgins form from close contact between members of different language communities, the slave trade would have been exactly such a situation. Dillard quotes slave ship Captain William Smith:[13]

As for the languages of Gambia, they are so many and so different, that the Natives, on either Side of the River, cannot understand each other.… [T]he safest Way is to trade with the different Nations, on either Side of the River, and having some of every Sort on board, there will be no more Likelihood of their succeeding in a Plot, than of finishing the Tower of Babel.

By 1715, this African pidgin had made its way into novels by Daniel Defoe, in particular, The Life of Colonel Jacque. In 1721, Cotton Mather conducted the first attempt at recording the speech of slaves in his interviews regarding the practice of small-pox inoculation.[14]

By the time of the American Revolution, varieties among slave creoles were not quite mutually intelligible.[clarification needed] Dillard quotes a recollection of "slave language" toward the latter part of the 18th century:[13]

Kay, massa, you just leave me, me sit here, great fish jump up into da canoe, here he be, massa, fine fish, massa; me den very grad; den me sit very still, until another great fish jump into de canoe; but me fall asleep, massa, and no wake 'til you come…

Not until the time of the American Civil War did the language of the slaves become familiar to a large number of educated whites. The abolitionist papers before the war form a rich corpus of examples of plantation creole. In Army Life in a Black Regiment (1870), Thomas Wentworth Higginson detailed many features of his soldiers' language.

Recently, Shana Poplack has provided corpus-based evidence[4][5] from isolated enclaves in Samaná and Nova Scotia peopled by descendants of migrations of early AAVE-speaking groups (see Samaná English), that suggests that the grammar of early AAVE was closer to that of contemporary British dialects than modern urban AAVE is to current American dialects, suggesting that the modern language is a result of divergence from mainstream varieties, rather than the result of decreolization from a widespread American creole.[15]

Linguist John McWhorter maintains that the contribution of West African languages to AAVE is minimal. In an interview on National Public Radio's Talk of the Nation, Dr. McWhorter characterized AAVE as a "hybrid of regional dialects of Great Britain that slaves in America were exposed to because they often worked alongside the indentured servants who spoke those dialects..." According to Dr. McWhorter, virtually all linguists who have carefully studied the origins of AAVE "agree that the West African connection is quite minor."

Distinctive features

Although the distinction between AAVE and Standard American English is clear to speakers, some characteristics, notably double negatives and the omission of certain auxiliaries (see below) such as the has in has been are also characteristic of general colloquial American English.


There is near uniformity of AAVE grammar, despite vast geographic area.[16] This may be due in part to relatively recent migrations of African Americans out of the South (see Great Migration and Second Great Migration) as well as to long-term racial segregation.[17] Phonological features that set AAVE apart from forms of Standard English (such as General American) include:

  • Word-final devoicing of /b/, /d/, and /ɡ/, whereby for example cub sounds like cup.[18]
  • Reduction of certain diphthong forms to monophthongs, in particular, /aɪ/ is monophthongized to [aː] (this is also a feature of many Southern American English dialects). The vowel sound in boil (/ɔɪ/ in Standard English) is also monophthongized, especially before /l/, making it indistinguishable from ball.[19] Conversely, older speakers in some regions (such as the American South) may use [oɪ] in words like coach and road that have [oʊ] in SE (i.e. [koɪtʃ], [roɪd]).[20]
  • AAVE speakers may not use the fricatives [θ] (the th in thin) and [ð] (the th of then) that are present in SE. The actual alternative phone used depends on the sound's position in a word.[21]
    • Word-initially, /θ/ is normally the same as in SE (so thin is [θɪn]).
    • Word-initially, /ð/ is [d] (so this is [dɪs]).
    • Word-medially and -finally, /θ/ is realized as either [f] or [t] (so [mʌmf] or [mʌnt] for month); /ð/ as either [v] or [d] (so [smuːv] for smooth).
  • Realization of final ng /ŋ/, the velar nasal, as the alveolar nasal [n] in function morphemes and content morphemes with two syllables like -ing, e.g. tripping is pronounced as trippin. This change does not occur in one-syllable content morphemes such as sing, which is [sɪŋ] and not *[sɪn]. However, singing is [sɪŋɪn]. Other examples include wedding[wɛɾɪn], morning[mɔɹnɪn], nothing[ˈnʌfɪn]. Realization of /ŋ/ as [n] in these contexts is commonly found in many other English dialects.[22]
  • A marked feature of AAVE is final consonant-cluster reduction. There are several phenomena that are similar but are governed by different grammatical rules. This tendency has been used by creolists to compare AAVE to West African languages since such languages do not have final clusters.[23]
    • Final consonant clusters that are homorganic (have the same place of articulation) and share the same voicing are reduced. E.g. test is pronounced [tɛs] since /t/ and /s/ are both voiceless; hand is pronounced [hæn], since /n/ and /d/ are both voiced; but pant is unchanged, as it contains both a voiced and a voiceless consonant in the cluster.[24] Note also that it is the plosive (/t/ and /d/) in these examples that is lost rather than the fricative or nasal. Speakers may carry this declustered pronunciation when pluralizing so that the plural of test is [tɛsəs] rather than [tɛsts].[25] The clusters /ft/, /md/, are also affected.[26]
    • More often, word-final /sp/, /st/, and /sk/ are reduced, again with the final element being deleted rather than the former.[27]
    • For younger speakers, /skr/ also occurs in words that other varieties of English have /str/ so that, for example, street is pronounced [skrit].[20]
    • Clusters ending in /s/ or /z/ exhibit variation in whether the first or second element is deleted.[28]
  • Similarly, final consonants may be deleted (although there is a great deal of variation between speakers in this regard). Most often, /t/ and /d/ are deleted. As with other dialects of English, final /t/ and /k/ may reduce to a glottal stop. Nasal consonants may be lost while nasalization of the vowel is retained (e.g., find may be pronounced [fãː]). More rarely, /s/ and /z/ may also be deleted.[29]
  • Use of metathesised forms like aks for "ask"[30] or graps for "grasp".
  • Like other non-rhotic varieties, the rhotic consonant /r/ is usually dropped when not followed by a vowel; it may also manifest as an unstressed [ə] or the lengthening of the preceding vowel.[31] Intervocalic /r/ may also be dropped, e.g. SE story ([stɔri]) can be pronounced [stɔ.i], though this doesn't occur across morpheme boundaries.[32] /r/ may also be deleted between a consonant and a back rounded vowel, especially in words like throw, throat, and through.[33]
  • /l/ is often vocalized in patterns similar to that of /r/ (though never between vowels)[34] and, in combination with cluster simplification (see above), can make homophones of toll and toe, fault and fought, and tool and too. Homonymy may be reduced by vowel lengthening and by an off-glide [ɤ].[35]
  • Before nasal consonants (/m/, /n/, and /ŋ/), /ɛ/ and /ɪ/ are both pronounced [ɪ], making pen and pin homophones.[19] This feature is also present in other dialects.
  • The distinction between /ɪ/ and /iː/ before liquid consonants is frequently reduced, making feel and fill homophones. Before /r/ specifically, /uː/ and /oʊ/ also merge.[19]
  • Lowering of /ɪ/ before /ŋ/ causing pronunciations such as [θɛŋ] or [θæŋ] for thing.[20]

In addition to these, there are a handful of multisyllabic words that differ from SE in their stress placement so that, for example, police, guitar and Detroit are pronounced with initial stress instead of ultimate stress.[36]

Tense and aspect

Although AAVE doesn't necessarily feature the preterite marker of other English varieties (that is, the -ed of worked), it does feature an optional tense system with four past and two future tenses or (because they indicate tense in degrees) phases.[37]

Phases/Tenses of AAVE[38]
Phase Example
Past Pre-recent I been flown it
Recent I done fly ita
Pre-present I did fly it
Past Inceptive I do fly it
Present I be flying it
Future Immediate I'm a-fly it
Post-immediate I'm a-gonna fly it
Indefinite future I gonna fly it

^a Syntactically, I flew it is grammatical, but done (always unstressed) is used to emphasize the completed nature of the action.[39]

As phase auxiliary verbs, been and done must occur as the first auxiliary; when they occur as the second, they carry additional aspects:[38]

He been done work means "he finished work a long time ago".
He done been work means "until recently, he worked over a long period of time".

This latter example highlights one of the most distinguishing features of AAVE, which is the use of be to indicate that performance of the verb is of a habitual nature. In SAE, this can only be expressed unambiguously by using adverbs such as usually.[40]

This aspect-marking form of been or BIN[41] is stressed and semantically distinct from the unstressed form: She BIN running ('She has been running for a long time') and She been running ('She has been running').[42] This aspect has been given several names, including perfect phase, remote past, and remote phase (this article uses the third).[43] As shown above, been places action in the distant past. However, when been is used with stative verbs or gerund forms, been shows that the action began in the distant past and that it is continuing now. Rickford (1999) suggests that a better translation when used with stative verbs is "for a long time". For instance, in response to "I like your new dress", one might hear Oh, I been had this dress, meaning that the speaker has had the dress for a long time and that it isn't new.[43]

To see the difference between the simple past and the gerund when used with been, consider the following expressions:

I been bought her clothes means "I bought her clothes a long time ago".
I been buyin' her clothes means "I've been buying her clothes for a long time".
AAVE grammatical Aspects
Aspect Example SE Meaning
Habitual/continuative aspect[44] He be working Tuesdays. He works frequently or habitually on Tuesdays.
Intensified continuative (habitual) He stay working. He is always working.
Intensified continuative (not habitual)[45] He steady working. He keeps on working.
Perfect progressive He been working. He has been working.
Irrealis He finna go to work. He is about to go to work.a
  • ^a Finna corresponds to "fixing to" in other varieties;[46] it is also written fixina, fixna, fitna, and finta[47]

In addition to these, come (which may or may not be an auxiliary[48]) may be used to indicate speaker indignation, such as in Don't come acting like you don't know what happened and you started the whole thing ('Don't try to act as if you don't know what happened, because you started the whole thing').[49]


Negatives are formed differently from standard American English:[50]

  • Use of ain't as a general negative indicator. As in other dialects, it can be used where Standard English would use am not, isn't, aren't, haven't and hasn't. However, in marked contrast to other varieties of English in the U.S., some speakers of AAVE also use ain't instead of don't, doesn't, or didn't (e.g., I ain't know that).[51] Ain't had its origins in common English, but became increasingly stigmatized since the 19th century. See also amn't.
  • Negative concord, popularly called "double negation", as in I didn't go nowhere; if the sentence is negative, all negatable forms are negated. This contrasts with Standard English, where a double negative is considered incorrect to mean anything other than a positive (although this wasn't always so; see double negative). There is also "triple" or "multiple negation", as in the phrase I don't know nothing about no one no more (in Standard English "I don't know anything about anyone anymore").
  • In a negative construction, an indefinite pronoun such as nobody or nothing can be inverted with the negative verb particle for emphasis (e.g. Don't nobody know the answer, Ain't nothin' goin' on.)

While these are features that AAVE has in common with Creole languages,[52] Howe and Walker use data from early recordings of African Nova Scotian English, Samaná English, and the recordings of former slaves to demonstrate that negation was inherited from nonstandard colonial English.[50]

Other grammatical characteristics

  • The copula be is often dropped, as in Russian, Hebrew, Arabic and other languages. For example: You crazy ("You're crazy") or She my sister ("She's my sister"). The phenomenon is also observed in questions: Who you? ("Who're you?") and Where you at? ("Where are you (at)?"). On the other hand, a stressed is cannot be dropped: She is my sister. The general rules are:
    • Only the forms is and are (of which the latter is anyway often replaced by is) can be omitted.
    • These forms cannot be omitted when they would be pronounced with stress in Standard English (whether or not the stress serves specifically to impart an emphatic sense to the verb's meaning).
    • These forms cannot be omitted when the corresponding form in Standard English cannot show contraction (and vice-versa). For example, I don't know where he is cannot be reduced to *I don't know where he just as in Standard English the corresponding reduction *I don't know where he's is likewise impossible. (I don't know where he at is possible, paralleling I don't know where he's at in Standard English.)
    • Possibly some other minor conditions apply as well.[53]
  • Present-tense verbs are uninflected for number/person: there is no -s ending in the present-tense third-person singular. Example: She write poetry ("She writes poetry"). Similarly, was is used for what in standard English are contexts for both was and were.[54]
  • The genitive -'s ending may or may not be used.[55] Genitive case is inferrable from adjacency. This is similar to many creoles throughout the Caribbean. Many language forms throughout the world use an unmarked possessive; it may here result from a simplification of grammatical structures. Example: my momma sister ('my mother's sister')
  • The words it and they denote the existence of something, equivalent to Standard English there is, or there are.[56]
  • Altered syntax in questions: In Why they ain't growin'? ('Why aren't they growing?') and Who the hell she think she is? ('Who the hell does she think she is?') lack the inversion of standard English. Because of this, there is also no need for the auxiliary DO.[57]

Lexical features

AAVE shares much of its lexicon with other varieties of English, particularly that of informal and Southern dialects. There are some notable differences between the two, however. It has been suggested that some of the vocabulary unique to AAVE has its origin in West African languages, but etymology is often difficult to trace and, without a trail of recorded usage, the suggestions below cannot be considered proven; in many cases, the postulated etymologies are not recognized by linguists or the Oxford English Dictionary.[58]

AAVE also has words that either are not part of Standard American English or have strikingly different meanings from their common usage in SAE. For example, there are several words in AAVE referring to white people which are not part of mainstream SAE; these include the use of gray as an adjective for whites (as in gray dude), possibly from the color of Confederate uniforms, possibly an extension of the slang use for "Irish",[64] Ofay, which is pejorative, is another general term for a white; it might derive from the Yoruba word ofe, spoken in hopes of disappearing from danger such as that posed by European traders. However, most dictionaries simply refer to this word as having an unknown etymology.[65] Kitchen refers to the particularly curly or kinky hair at the nape of the neck, and siditty or seddity means snobbish or bourgeois.[66]

AAVE has also contributed various words and phrases to other varieties of English; including chill out, main squeeze, soul, funky, and threads.[67]

Social context

Linguists maintain that there is nothing intrinsically wrong with AAVE as a variety since, like all dialects, AAVE shows consistent internal logic and is used earnestly to express thoughts and ideas.[68] However, non-specialist attitudes towards AAVE can be negative, especially among African Americans, as it both deviates from the standard and its use is interpreted, at best, as a sign of ignorance or laziness.[69][70] Perhaps because of this attitude (as well as similar attitudes outside the African American community), most speakers of AAVE are bidialectal, being able to use Standard American English to varying degrees as well as AAVE. Such linguistic adaptation in different environments is called code-switching[71][72]–though Linnes (1998) argues that the situation is actually one of diglossia[73]–Each dialect, or code, is applied in different settings. Generally speaking, the degree of exclusive use of AAVE decreases with increasing socioeconomic status (although AAVE is still used by even well educated African Americans).[74][75][76][77]

Ogbu (1999) argues that the use of AAVE carries racially affirmative political undertones as its use allows African Americans to assert their cultural upbringing. Nevertheless, use of AAVE also carries strong social connotations; Sweetland (2002) presents a white female speaker of AAVE who is accepted as a member into African American social groups despite her race.

Amid related research in the 1960s and 1970s–including William Labov's groundbreaking thorough grammatical study, Language in the Inner City–there was doubt as to the existence of a distinct variety of English spoken by African Americans; Williamson (1970) noted that distinctive features of African American speech were present in the speech of Southerners and Farrison (1970) argued that there were really no substantial vocabulary or grammatical differences between the speech of blacks and that of other English dialects.[78]

In literature and media

There has been a long-standing tradition of representing the speech of blacks in American literature. A number of researchers[79] have looked into the ways that American authors have depicted the speech of black characters, investigating the ways that black identity is established and how it connects to other characters. Brasch (1981:x) argues that early mass media portrayals of black speech are the strongest historical evidence that a separate variety of English existed for blacks.[80] Early popular works are also used to determine the similarities that historical varieties of black speech have in common with modern AAVE.[81][82]

The earliest depictions of black speech came from works written in the eighteenth-century,[83] primarily from white authors. A notable exception includes Clotel, the first novel written by an African American (William Wells Brown).[84] Depictions have largely been restricted to dialogue and the first novel written entirely in AAVE was June Jordan's His Own Where (1971),[85] though Alice Walker's epistolary novel The Color Purple is a much more widely known work written entirely in AAVE.[86] Lorraine Hansberry's 1959 play A Raisin in the Sun also depicts near exclusive use of AAVE.[87]

Some other notable works that have incorporated representations of black speech (with varying degrees of perceived authenticity) include the following:[88]

As there is no established spelling system for AAVE,[91] depicting it in literature is instead often done through spelling changes to indicate its phonological features,[92] or to contribute to the impression that AAVE is being used (eye dialect).[93] More recently, authors have begun focusing on grammatical cues,[84] and even the use of certain rhetorical strategies.[94]

Portrayals of black characters in movies and television are also done with varying degrees of authenticity.[95] In Imitation of Life (1934), the speech and behavioral patterns of Delilah (an African American character) are reminiscent of minstrel performances that set out to exaggerate stereotypes, rather than depict black speech authentically.[96] More authentic performances occur when certain speech events (such as rapping), specialized vocabulary, and certain syntactic features are used to indicate AAVE usage; some examples:[97]

Linguistic cues are also used to mark the speech of young urban African Americans, such as in Laurel Avenue (1993), Fresh (1994), and the television show The Fresh Prince of Bel Air.[98]

In education

AAVE has been the center of controversy about the education of African American youths, the role AAVE should play in public schools and education, and its place in broader society.[99] Educators have held that attempts should be made to eliminate AAVE usage through the public education system. Criticism from social commentators and educators has ranged from asserting that AAVE is an intrinsically deficient form of speech to arguments that its use, by being considered unacceptable in most cultural contexts, is socially limiting.[100] Some of the harshest criticism of AAVE or its use has come from other African Americans.[101][102][103] A conspicuous example was the "Pound Cake speech", in which Bill Cosby criticized many African Americans for various social behaviors, including exclusive use of AAVE.

Faced with such attitudes, the Conference on College Composition and Communication (CCCC), a division of National Council of Teachers of English (NCTE), issued a position statement on students' rights to their own language. This was adopted by CCCC members in April 1974 and appeared in a special issue of College Composition and Communication in Fall of 1974. The resolution was as follows:[104]

"We affirm the students' right to their own patterns and varieties of language—the dialects of their nurture or whatever dialects in which they find their own identity and style. Language scholars long ago denied that the myth of a standard American dialect has any validity. The claim that any one dialect is unacceptable amounts to an attempt of one social group to exert its dominance over another. Such a claim leads to false advice for speakers and writers and immoral advice for humans. A nation proud of its diverse heritage and its cultural and racial variety will preserve its heritage of dialects. We affirm strongly that teachers must have the experiences and training that will enable them to respect diversity and uphold the right of students to their own language."

Around this time, pedagogical techniques similar to those used to teach English to speakers of foreign languages were shown to hold promise for speakers of AAVE. William Stewart experimented with the use of dialect readers—sets of text in both AAVE and SAE.[105] The idea was that children could learn to read in their own dialect and then shift to Standard English with subsequent textbooks.[106] Simpkins, Holt & Simpkins (1977) developed a comprehensive set of dialect readers, called bridge readers, which included the same content in three different dialects: AAVE, a "bridge" version that was closer to SAE without being prohibitively formal, and a Standard English version.[107] Despite studies that showed promise for such "Standard English as a Second Dialect" (SESD) programs, reaction to them was largely hostile[108] and both Stewart's research and the Bridge Program were rejected for various political and social reasons, including strong resistance from parents.[106][109][110]

A more formal shift in the recognition of AAVE came in the "Ann Arbor Decision" of 1979 (Martin Luther King Junior Elementary School Children et al., v. Ann Arbor School District). In it, a federal judge ruled that in teaching black children to read, a school board must adjust to the children's dialect, not the children to the school,[106] and that, by not taking students’ language into consideration, teachers were contributing to the failure of such students to read and use mainstream English proficiently.[111]

National attitudes towards AAVE were revisited when a controversial resolution from the Oakland (California) school board (Oakland Unified School District) on December 18, 1996, called on "Ebonics" to be recognized as a language of African Americans.[112] The proposal was to implement a program similar to the Language Development Program for African American Students (LPDAAS) in Los Angeles, which began in 1988 and uses methods from the SESD programs mentioned above.[113]

Like other similar programs,[114] the Oakland resolution was widely misunderstood as intended to teach AAVE and "elevate it to the status of a written language."[115] It gained national attention and was derided and criticized, most notably by Jesse Jackson and Kweisi Mfume who regarded it as an attempt to teach slang to children.[116] The statement that "African Language Systems are genetically based" also contributed to widespread hostility because "genetically" was popularly misunderstood to imply that African Americans had a biological predisposition to a particular language.[117] In an amended resolution, this phrase was removed and replaced with wording that states African American language systems "have origins in West [sic] and Niger–Congo languages and are not merely dialects of English. . . ."[118]

In reality, the belief underlying the Oakland proposal was that black students would perform better in school and more easily learn standard American English if textbooks and teachers incorporated AAVE in teaching black children to speak Standard English rather than mistakenly[111][119] equating nonstandard with substandard and dismissing AAVE as the latter. Baratz & Shuy (1969:93) point to these linguistic barriers, and common reactions by teachers, as a primary cause of reading difficulties and poor school performance.[120]

More recently, research has been conducted on the overrepresentation of African Americans in special education.[121] Van Keulen, Weddington & DeBose (1998:112–113) argue that this is because AAVE speech characteristics are often erroneously considered to be signs of speech development problems, prompting teachers to refer children to speech pathologists.[122]

According to Smitherman, the controversy and debates concerning AAVE in public schools imply deeper deterministic attitudes towards the African-American community as a whole. Smitherman describes this as a reflection of the "power elite's perceived insignificance and hence rejection of Afro-American language and culture".[123] She also asserts that African Americans are forced to conform to European American society in order to succeed, and that conformity ultimately means the "eradication of black language . . . and the adoption of the linguistic norms of the white middle class." The necessity for "bi-dialectialism" (AAVE and SAE) means "some blacks contend that being bi-dialectal not only causes a schism in the black personality, but it also implies such dialects are 'good enough' for blacks but not for whites."[124]

See also

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  1. ^ William A. Stewart, Non-standard Speech and the Teaching of English (Washington, D.C.: Center for Applied Linguistics), 1964; William A. Stewart, "On the use of Negro dialect in the teaching of reading", in Joan Baratz, ed., Teaching Black Children to Read (Washington, D.C.: Center for Applied Linguistics, 1969) pp. 156-219; J. L. Dillard, Black English: Its History and Usage in the United States (New York: Random House, 1972); John R. Rickford, "Prior creolization of AAVE? Sociohistorical and textual evidence from the 17th and 18th centuries", Journal of Sociolinguistics 1 (1997): 315-336; all as cited in Salikoko Mufwene, "What is African American English?", and Guy Bailey, "The relationship between African American Vernacular English and White Vernaculars in the American South: A sociocultural history and some phonological evidence", both in Sonja Lanehart, ed., Sociocultural and Historical Contexts of African American English, Varieties of English around the World (Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 2001).
  2. ^ Smith and Crozier (1998:113–114)
  3. ^ Wardhaugh (2002:341)
  4. ^ a b Poplack (2000)
  5. ^ a b Poplack & Tagliamonte (2001)
  6. ^ The Oakland school board's resolution "was about a perfectly ordinary variety of English spoken by a large and diverse population of Americans of African descent. . . . [E]ssentially all linguists agree that what the Oakland board was dealing with is a dialect of English." Pullum (1997)
  7. ^ See Howe & Walker (2000) for more information
  8. ^ Labov (1972:8)
  9. ^ Shorter OED, 5th edition, cf Bantu kingumbo
  10. ^ Shorter OED, 5th edition, Kikongo nguba
  11. ^ Webster's New World Dictionary of the American Language, 1984, Guralnik, ed.
  12. ^ Wolfram (1998:112)
  13. ^ a b Dillard (1972:??)
  14. ^ Read (1939:247)
  15. ^ William Labov, in the Foreword to Poplack & Tagliamonte (2001), says "I would like to think that this clear demonstration of the similarities among the three diaspora dialects and the White benchmark dialects, combined with their differences from creole grammars, would close at least one chapter in the history of the creole controversies."
  16. ^ Labov (2001:506–508)
  17. ^ Wardhaugh (2002:339)
  18. ^ Green (2002:116)
  19. ^ a b c Labov (1972:19)
  20. ^ a b c Green (2002:123)
  21. ^ Green (2002:118–119)
  22. ^ Green (2002:121–122) although her examples are different.
  23. ^ Green (2002:107)
  24. ^ Rickford (1997:??)
  25. ^ Green (2002:107–116)
  26. ^ Labov (1972:15)
  27. ^ Labov (1972:15–16)
  28. ^ Labov (1972:17–18)
  29. ^ Labov (1972:18–19)
  30. ^ See Baugh (2000:92–94) on "aks" and metathesis, on the frequency with which "aks" is brought up by those who ridicule AAVE (e.g.Cosby (1997)), and on the linguistic or cognitive abilities of a speaker of standard English who would take "aks" to mean "axe" in a context that in standard English calls for "ask".
  31. ^ Green (2002:119–121)
  32. ^ Green (2002:121), citing Wolfram & Fasold (1974:140)
  33. ^ Labov (1972:14)
  34. ^ Green (2002:121)
  35. ^ Labov (1972:14–15)
  36. ^ Green (2002:131)
  37. ^ Fickett (1972:17–18)
  38. ^ a b Fickett (1972:19)
  39. ^ Green (2002:60–62)
  40. ^ Aspectual be: Green (2002:47–54)
  41. ^ In order to distinguish the stressed and unstressed forms, which carry different meaning, linguists often write the stressed version as BIN
  42. ^ Green (2002:54–55)
  43. ^ a b Rickford (1999:??)
  44. ^ Fickett (1972:17) refers to this as a combination of "punctuative" and "imperfect" aspects.
  45. ^ Green (2002:71–72)
  46. ^ Green (2002:71).
  47. ^ Green (2002:70–71), citing DeBose & Faraclas (1993).
  48. ^ See Spears (1982:850)
  49. ^ Green (2002:73–74)
  50. ^ a b Howe & Walker (2000:110)
  51. ^ Labov (1972:284)
  52. ^ Winford (1992:350)
  53. ^ "Why Ebonics Is No Joke.". Lingua Franca [transcript of interview with grammarian Geoff Pullum]. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 17 October 1998. Retrieved 03-04-2010. .
  54. ^ Green (2002:38)
  55. ^ Green (2002:102–103)
  56. ^ Green (2002:80)
  57. ^ Green (2002:84–89)
  58. ^ eg: OED, "dig", from ME vt diggen
  59. ^ Smitherman (2000) s.v. "Dig"
  60. ^ Random House Unabridged, 2001
  61. ^ Rickford & Rickford (2000:146).
  62. ^ Rickford & Rickford (2000:146)
  63. ^ Smitherman (1977:??) cited in Rickford and Rickford, Spoken Soul, 240.
  64. ^ or of paddyroller Gray: Smitherman, Black Talk, s.v. "Gray". Paddy: Dictionary of American Regional English, s.v. "Paddy".
  65. ^ Smitherman (2000) suggests either a general West African or the Pig Latin origin. "Ofay".
  66. ^ Smitherman (2000) s.v. "Kitchen". Kitchen, siditty: Dictionary of American Regional English, s.vv. "Kitchen", "Siditty".
  67. ^ Lee (1999:381–386)
  68. ^ Green (2002:217), citing Burling (1973) Labov (1969)
  69. ^ Green (2002:221)
  70. ^ Lanehart (2001:4–6) furthermore argues that it is no coincidence that a population that has historically been "ridiculed and despised" would have its characteristic speech variety treated the same.
  71. ^ DeBose (1992:157)
  72. ^ Wheeler & Swords (2006)
  73. ^ Cited in Kendal & Wolfram (2009:306)
  74. ^ Coulmas (2005:177)
  75. ^ Rickford & Rickford (2000:8)
  76. ^ DeBose (1992:159)
  77. ^ Linnes (1998)
  78. ^ Cited in Green (2002:218)
  79. ^ For example,Holloway (1978), Holloway (1987), Baker (1984), and Gates (1988)
  80. ^ cited in Green (2002:166)
  81. ^ Green (2002:166), citing Dillard (1992)
  82. ^ Walser (1955:269)
  83. ^ Rickford & Rickford (2000:13)
  84. ^ a b Rickford & Rickford (2000:19)
  85. ^ Rickford & Rickford (2000:21)
  86. ^ Rickford & Rickford (2000:22)
  87. ^ Rickford & Rickford (2000:28)
  88. ^ Examples listed in Rickford & Rickford (2000:14)
  89. ^
  90. ^
  91. ^ Green (2002:238)
  92. ^ Green (2002:168, 196)
  93. ^ Rickford & Rickford (2000:23)
  94. ^ Green (2002:196)
  95. ^ Green (2002)
  96. ^ Green (2002:202)
  97. ^ Green (2002:206–209, 211)
  98. ^ Green (2002:206, 211)
  99. ^ Green (2002:217–218)
  100. ^ Wardhaugh (2002:343–348)
  101. ^ Lippi-Green (2000:200)
  102. ^ Lanehart (2001:6)
  103. ^ "Black critics [of Black English] use all the different arguments of the white critics, and spare us the more or less open embarrassment that all white Americans feel when publicly criticizing anything or anyone Black. So, of course, they can be even more wrong-headed and self-righteously wrong-headed than anyone else . . ." Quinn (1982:150–51).
  104. ^ Smitherman (1999:357)
  105. ^ Stewart (1975:??)
  106. ^ a b c Wardhaugh (2002:345)
  107. ^ Simpkins, Holt & Simpkins (1977:??)
  108. ^ Morgan (1999:181)
  109. ^ Downing (1978:341)
  110. ^ Morgan (1999:182)
  111. ^ a b Green (2002:222)
  112. ^ Coulmas (2005:213)
  113. ^ Morgan (1999:184–185)
  114. ^ Green (2002:230, 232)
  115. ^ Coulmas (2005:214)
  116. ^ Morgan (1999:173)
  117. ^ Wolfram (1998:114)
  118. ^ Golden (1997:?)
  119. ^ Nonstandard language is not the same as substandard, as explained for example by the cognitive scientist Steven Pinker in The Language Instinct (pp. 28 et seq. (Pinker's comments on dialects in general and AAVE in particular go unmentioned by Geoffrey Sampson in Educating Eve, a book-length attempted debunking of The Language Instinct.) The same point is made in various introductions to language and sociolinguistics, e.g. Radford et al. (1999:17) and Schilling-Estes (2006:312) et seq.; and also in surveys of the English language, e.g. Crystal (2003), sec. 20, "Linguistic Variation".
  120. ^ Cited in Green (2002:229)
  121. ^ Green (2002:227), citing Artiles & Trent (1994) and Harry & Anderson (1995)
  122. ^ Cited in Green (2002:227)
  123. ^ Smitherman (1977:209)
  124. ^ Smitherman (1977:173)


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