Brummie (sometimes Brummy) is a colloquial term for the inhabitants, accent and
dialectof Birmingham, England, as well as being a general adjective used to denote a connection with the city, locally called " Brum". The terms are all derived from " Brummagem" or Bromwichham, historical variants or alternatives to ' Birmingham'.
Examples of celebrity speakers include comedian
Jasper Carrott, historian and broadcaster Carl Chinn, BBCfinancial presenter Adrian Chiles, the Goodies actor and TV presenter Bill Oddie, rock musician Ozzy Osbourne, broadcaster Les Ross, politician Clare Short, and SAS soldier and author John "Brummie" Stokes.
It is not the only accent of the West Midlands, although the term, Brummie, is often, erroneously, used in referring to all accents of the region. It is markedly distinct,from the traditional accent of the adjacent
Black Country, although modern-day population mobility has tended to blur the distinction. For instance, Dudley-born comedian Lenny Henry, Daniel Taylor, and Smethwick-born actress Julie Waltersare sometimes mistaken for Brummie-speakers by people outside the West Midlands county. Birminghamand Coventryaccents are also quite distinct in their differences, despite the close proximity of the cities. To the untrained ear, however, all of these accents may sound very similar, just as British English speakers can find it hard to distinguish between Canadian and American accents, or Australian and New Zealand accents.
As with all English regional accents, the Brummie accent also grades into RP English. The accent of presenter
Cat Deeleyis listed by her voiceover agency, Curtis Brown, as "RP/Birmingham".
Despite there being marked differences between Brummie and Black Country dialects, there appears to be confusion by people outside the West Midlands county when it comes to distinguishing between the two. Impressions of a Brummie will often contain vowel pronunciations that belong to the
Black Country. A common example is when a Brummie impersonator will pronounce 'money' as 'mun-ay',which is a Black Countrypronunciation; Brummies actually pronounce 'money' in the same way conventional English speakers do.This is not to say that the impersonator is doing a Black Countryaccent instead of a Brummie one when this occurs; it is entirely possible that they are just doing an inaccurate Brummie stereotype which makes the mistake of adding Black Country dialect.
Below are some common features of the Brummie accent (a given speaker may not necessarily use all, or use a feature consistently). The letters enclosed in square bracketsndash IPA|  ndash use the . The corresponding example texts enclosed in double quotes (") are spelt so that a reader using
Received Pronunciation(RP) can approximate the sounds.
* The vowel of "mouth" (RP IPA| [aʊ] ) can be IPA| [ɛʊ] .
* The vowel of "goat" (RP IPA| [əʊ] ) can be close to IPA| [ɑʊ] (so to an RP speaker, "goat" may sound like "go-t").
* Final unstressed IPA|/i/, as in "happy", may be realised as IPA| [əi] , though this varies considerably between speakers.
* The letters "ng" often represent IPA|/ŋɡ/ where RP has just IPA|/ŋ/ (e.g. "singer" as IPA| [siŋɡə] ). See "Ng coalescence".
* Both the vowels of "strut" and "foot" as IPA| [ʊ] , as in northern England. See foot-strut split.
* Short 'a', IPA| [a] as opposed to IPA| [ɑː] in RP, in words like "bath", "cast" and "chance" (but "aunt" and "laugh" both have IPA| [ɑː] ). See trap-bath split.
* Final unstressed IPA|/ə/ may be realised as IPA| [a] .
* In a few cases, voicing of final IPA|/s/ (e.g. "bus" as IPA| [bʊz] ).
* Some rolling of prevocalic IPA|/r/ (some speakers; e.g. in "crime").
Recordings of Brummie speakers with phonetic features described in
SAMPAformat can be found at the "Collect Britain" dialects site referenced below.
Rhymes and vocabulary in the works of
William Shakespearesuggest that he used a local dialect (Birmingham and his birthplace, Stratford-upon-Avon, are both in the English West Midland dialect area.)
A study was conducted in 2008 where people were asked to grade the
intelligenceof a person based on their accent and the Brummie accent was ranked as the least intelligent accent. It even scored lower than being silent, an example of the stereotypeattached to the Brummie accent. [ [http://women.timesonline.co.uk/tol/life_and_style/women/the_way_we_live/article3671116.ece women.timesonline.co.uk/tol/life_and_style/women/the_way_we_live/article3671116.ece] ]
According to "Birmingham English: A Sociolinguistic Study" (
Steve Thorne, 2003), among UK listeners "Birmingham English in previous academic studies and opinion polls consistently fares as the most disfavoured variety of British English, yet with no satisfying account of the dislike".
Since, as he shows, overseas visitors in contrast find it "lilting and melodious", he argues that such dislike is driven by various linguistic myths and social factors peculiar to the UK ("social
snobbery, negative media stereotyping, the poor public image of the City of Birmingham, and the north/south geographical and linguistic divide").
For instance, despite the city's cultural and innovative history, its industrial background (as depicted by the arm-and-hammer in Birmingham's coat of arms) has led to a muscular and unintelligent stereotype: a "Brummagem screwdriver" or "Brummie screwdriver" is UK slang for a hammer.
Steve Thornealso cites the mass media and entertainment industry where actors, usually non-Birmingham, have used inaccurate accents and/or portrayed negative roles. Examples include Benny from the soap "Crossroads", a feckless character played by Paul Henry with a hybrid Birmingham- Worcesteraccent many viewers assumed to be Birmingham because of the setting, and characters played by Battersea-born actor Timothy Spall: for instance,Barry Taylor in " Auf Wiedersehen Pet" (The character Taylor was actually supposed to be from Tipton) and Andy, the sarcastic virtual realityattendant in the " Red Dwarf" episode "Back to Reality". The actor Mark Williams also specialises in amiable but stupid Birmingham characters. One of Harry Enfield's comedy characters, portrayed an exaggerated Brummie ,whose catchline was "we are considerably richer than yow". Lennie Godberis a criminal from Birmingham in the Television series, Porridge.
Advertisements are another medium where many perceive stereotypes. Journalist Lydia Stockdale, writing in the
Birmingham Post("Pig ignorant about the Brummie accent", December 2, 2004), commented on advertisers' association of Birmingham accents with pigs: the pig in the ad for Colman's Potato Bakes, Nick Park's Hells AngelPigs for British Gas and ITV's "Dave the window-cleaner pig" all had Brummie accents. More recently, a Halifax bank advertisement featuring Howard Brown, a Birmingham- born and based employee, was replaced by an animated version with an exaggerated comical accent overdubbed by a Cockneyactor. The BBChas alleged that intonation and rhythm is unvaried and that most sentences end with downward intonation. This can give a false impression of despondency and lack of imagination. Apart from intonation “Brummie” resembles other Midlands dialects. [http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A496352] Steve Thorne disagrees. Thorn insists that no accent is a monotone. If an accent lowers logically it varies. Thorn claims further that typical Birmingham speech frequently rises in tone.
Thorn recorded samples of similar people speaking with different English accents. One was Brummie. About a hundred native speakers and another hundred non-native English speakers rated the recordings. British listeners who did not distinguist between Brummie and
Black Countryaccents rated Brummie higher than Black Country. Foreign speakers rated Brummie highly. [http://www.askoxford.com/worldofwords/wordfrom/brummie/]
According to the
PhDthesis of Steve Thorneat the University of BirminghamDepartment of English, Birmingham English is "a dialectal hybrid of northern, southern, Midlands, Warwickshire, Staffordshireand Worcestershirespeech", also with elements from the languages and dialects of its Asian and Afro-Caribbean communities.
Traditional expressions include:
* "A bit black over Bill's mothers" ... Likely to rain soon (now widespread). [Commonly attributed to Black Country dialect: "Bill's mothers" features in a variety of forms - such as the reference to any obscure location being "the back of Bill's mothers".]
* "Babby" ... Variation of baby.
* "Go and play up your own end" ... Said to children from a different street making a nuisance. It has been used as the title of the autobiographical book and musical play about the Birmingham childhood of radio presenter and entertainer Malcolm Stent.
* "Gunter" ... to fix, work on or repair, mainly used a verb (example usage "I'm gonna gunter the car" equates to "I'm going to repair the car"), other forms include 'guntered' (example usage "the cars guntered" equates to "the car is fixed", alternate usage "I guntered the tele, but it still doesn't work" equates to "I worked on the television, but it is still broken").
* "Keep away from the 'oss road" / "mind the 'orse road"/ "Kip aert th'oss road" ... An admonition to travel safely, originally a warning to children in the days of horse-drawn traffic. ["Th'oss road" may also have referred to the towpath alongside the canals found throughout the region - which presented the additional hazard to the unwary of falling into the canal. These expressions too, are commonly attributed to Black Country dialect rather than that from Birmingham.]
* "Rock" ... a children's hard sweet (as in "give us a rock").
* "Snap" ... food, a meal, allegedly derived from the act of eating itself (example usage "I'm off to get my snap" equates to "I'm leaving to get my dinner").Snap ay food, it's the tin it comes in, a "Snap tin". the miners took their food down the pit in their "Snap tin"
* "Trap" ... to leave suddenly, or flee.
* "Up the cut" ... Up the canal (not uniquely Birmingham).
* "Yampy" (often "dead yampy") Mad, daft, barmy (also used is the word "Saft", as in "Yow big saft babbie") - Although, many Black Country Folk believe yampy is a black country word originating from the Dudley/Tipton area and has been stolen and claimed as their own by both Birmingham and Coventry.
Potteries dialect(North Staffordshire)
* [http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A496352 How to Speak Brummie]
* [http://www.askoxford.com/worldofwords/wordfrom/brummie/ Ask Oxford Brum]
* [http://www.talklikeabrummieday.co.uk/ Talk Like A Brummie Day] On 20th July.
* [http://www.talklikeabrummie.co.uk Talk Like A Brummie] - A wiki-based Birmingham dialect dictionary.
* [http://www.ebrummie.co.uk/ ebrummie.co.uk] Dr Steve Thorne's website devoted to the study of Brummie, including a dictionary, MP3 speech samples, discussion of his research on stereotypes, etc. No Longer Online.
* [http://classweb.gmu.edu/accent/english57.html Birmingham English sample] using a test paragraph including most English sounds: George Mason University [http://classweb.gmu.edu/accent/ Speech Accent Archive] . Compare a [http://classweb.gmu.edu/accent/english40.html Dudley] (
Black Country) sample.
* [http://www.bl.uk/soundsfamiliar Sounds Familiar?] ndash Listen to examples of regional accents and dialects from across the UK on the British Library's 'Sounds Familiar' website
* [http://www.collectbritain.co.uk/collections/dialects/ English Accents and Dialects] , British Library [http://www.collectbritain.co.uk/ Collect Britain] website features samples of Birmingham speech (wma format, with annotations on phonology, lexis and grammar): [http://www.collectbritain.co.uk/personalisation/object.cfm?uid=021MMC900S18603U00004C01 Sue Long] , [http://www.collectbritain.co.uk/personalisation/object.cfm?uid=021MMC900S18580U00016C01 Aubrey Walton] , [http://www.collectbritain.co.uk/personalisation/object.cfm?uid=021MMC900S18518U00004C01 Harry Phillips] and [http://www.collectbritain.co.uk/personalisation/object.cfm?uid=021MMC900S18508U00002C01 Billy Lucas] .
* [http://www.virtualbrum.co.uk/brummies.htm Why Brummies Why not Birmies?] Etymological article by Dr Carl Chinn
* [http://www.birminghamnet.co.uk/people/slang.html Brummie and Black Country sayings]
* [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/west_midlands/3187433.stm BBC guide to Brummie]
* [http://www.newscentre.bham.ac.uk/release.htm?releaseId=627&page=7&year=2003&showUndelivered=N Brummie is Beautiful!] University of Birmingham press release about Dr Steve Thorne's PhD thesis, "Birmingham English: A Sociolinguistic Study".
* [http://www.crossroadsnetwork.co.uk/society/paulhenry.htm Paul Henry on Benny's accent] Noele Gordon and Crossroads Appreciation Society interview
* [http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk_news/story/0,,878221,00.html Face of the Halifax given a makeover ... and a cockney's voiceover] "Guardian" January 20, 2003
* [http://www.collectbritain.co.uk/collections/dialects/ English Accents and Dialects] ,
Warwickshirespeakers - [http://www.collectbritain.co.uk/personalisation/object.cfm?uid=021SED00C908S58U00007C01 William Sewell] of Hockley Heath, [http://www.collectbritain.co.uk/personalisation/object.cfm?uid=021SED00C908S14U00002C01 Mr Calcutt] of Aston Cantlow, [http://www.collectbritain.co.uk/personalisation/object.cfm?uid=021SED00C908S14U00003C01 Mr Duckett] of Lighthorne, and [http://www.collectbritain.co.uk/personalisation/object.cfm?uid=021SED00C908S14U00004C01 Harry Cook] of Shipston-on-Stour - show progressive accent change moving south-east from Birmingham across isogloss.
* [http://www.whoohoo.co.uk/brummie-translator.asp Whoohoo Brummie translator]
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