- Atlantic slave trade
slave trade, also known as the transatlantic slave trade, was the trade of African people supplied to the coloniesof the New Worldthat occurred in and around the Atlantic Ocean. It lasted from the 16th century to the 19th century. Most slaves were shipped from West Africaand Central Africaand taken to the New World (primarily Brazil [Thomas, Hugh."The Slave Trade". Simon and Schuster, 1997.] ). Generally slaves were obtained through coastal trading with Africans, though some were captured by European slave traders through raids and kidnapping. [cite book |title=King Leopold's Ghost: A Story of Greed, Terror, and Heroism in Colonial Africa|authorlink=Adam Hochschild|isbn=0618001905|year=1998|publisher=Houghton Mifflin Books|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=rXv8ehP_F5oC&printsec=frontcover] [Klein, Herbert S. and Jacob Klein. "The Atlantic Slave Trade". Cambridge University Press, 1999. pp. 103-139.] Most contemporary historians estimate that between 9.4 and 12 million [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/6445941.stm BBC Quick guide: The slave trade] ] [ [http://www.britannica.com/blackhistory/article-24156 Welcome to Encyclopædia Britannica's Guide to Black History] ] Africans arrived in the New World, [ [http://www.worldhistorynetwork.org/migrationsim/ Migration Simulation] ] [Ronald Segal, "The Black Diaspora: Five Centuries of the Black Experience Outside Africa" (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1995), ISBN 0-374-11396-3, page 4. "It is now estimated that 11,863,000 slaves were shipped across the Atlantic. [Note in original: Paul E. Lovejoy, "The Impact of the Atlantic Slave Trade on Africa: A Review of the Literature," in "Journal of African History" 30 (1989), p. 368.] "] although the number of people taken from their homestead is considerably higher. [Eltis, David and Richardson, David. "The Numbers Game". In: Northrup, David: "The Atlantic Slave Trade", 2nd edition, Houghton Mifflin Co., 2002. p. 95.] [Basil Davidson. "The African Slave Trade".]
The slave-trade is sometimes called the
Maafaby African and African-Americanscholars, meaning " holocaust" or "great disaster" in Swahili. The slaves were one element of a three-part economic cycle—the Triangular Tradeand its Middle Passage—which ultimately involved four continents, four centuries and millions of people.
Slaverywas practiced in Africabefore the beginning of the Atlantic slave trade. [ [http://www.britannica.com/blackhistory/article-24157 Historical survey > Slave societies] ] The African slave tradeprovided a large number of slaves to Europeans and their African agents. [Adu Boahen, "Topics In West African History", p. 110.] [Kwaku Person-Lynn, [http://www.africawithin.com/kwaku/afrikan_involvement.htm Afrikan Involvement In Atlantic Slave Trade] .]
The Atlantic slave trade is customarily divided into two eras, known as the First and Second Atlantic Systems.
The First Atlantic system was the trade of African slaves to, primarily, South American colonies of the Portuguese and Spanish empires; it accounted for only slightly more than 3% of all Atlantic slave trade. It started (on a significant scale) in about 1502 [Anstey, Roger: "The Atlantic Slave Trade and British abolition, 1760-1810". London: Macmillan, 1975,p.5.] and lasted until 1580, when
Portugalwas temporarily united with Spain. While the Portuguese traded slaves themselves, the Spanish empire relied on the asientosystem, awarding merchants (mostly from other countries) the license to trade slaves to their colonies. During the first Atlantic system most of these traders were Portuguese, giving them a near-monopoly during the era, although some Dutch, English, Spanish and French traders also participated in the slave trade. [Emmer, P.C.: The Dutch in the Atlantic Economy, 1580-1880. Trade, Slavery and Emancipation. Variorum Collected Studies Series CS614, 1998, pp.17.] After the union, Portugal stayed formally autonomous, but was weakened, with its colonial empire being attacked by the Dutch and English.
The Second Atlantic system was the trade of African slaves by mostly English, Brazilian, French and Dutch traders. The main destinations of this phase were the
Caribbeancolonies, Braziland North America, as a number of European countries built up economically slave-dependent colonial empires in the New World. Amongst the pioneers of this system were Francis Drakeand John Hawkins.
Only slightly more than 3 percent of the slaves exported were traded between 1450 and 1600, 16% in the 17th century. More than half of them were exported in the 18th century, the remaining 28.5% in the 19th century. [Lovejoy, Paul E.:"The Volume of the Atlantic Slave Trade. A Synthesis". In: Northrup, David (ed.): "The Atlantic Slave Trade". D.C. Heath and Company 1994.]
European colonists initially practiced systems of both bonded labor and
Indian slavery, enslaving many of the natives of the New World. For a variety of reasons, Africans replaced Indians as the main population of slaves in the Americas. In some cases, such as on some of the CaribbeanIslands, warfare and diseases such as smallpoxeliminated the natives completely. In other cases, such as in South Carolina, Virginia, and New England, the need for alliances with native tribes coupled with the availability of African slaves at affordable prices (beginning in the early 18th century for these colonies) resulted in a shift away from Indian slavery.
A burial ground in Campeche,
Mexico, suggests slaves had been brought there not long after Hernán Cortéscompleted the subjugation of Aztecand Mayan Mexico. The graveyard had been in use from approximately 1550 to the late 1600s. [ [http://www.livescience.com/history/060131_first_slaves.html Skeletons Discovered: First African Slaves in New World] . January 31, 2006. LiveScience.com. Accessed September 27, 2006.]
The first side of the triangle was the export of goods from Europe to Africa. A number of African kings and merchants took part in the trading of slaves from 1440 to about 1900. For each captive, the African rulers would receive a variety of goods from Europe. These included guns and ammunition and other factory made goods. The second leg of the triangle exported enslaved Africans across the Atlantic Ocean to South America, the Caribbean Islands, and North America. The third and final part of the triangle was the return of goods to Europe from the Americas. The goods were the products of slave-labor plantations and included
cotton, sugar, tobacco, molassesand rum.
However, Brazil (the main importer of slaves) manufactured these goods in South America and directly traded with African ports, thus not taking part in a triangular trade.Fact|date=October 2008
Labor and slavery
, failed to provide a sufficient workforce.
Many crops could not be sold for profit, or even grown, in Europe. Exporting crops and goods from the New World to Europe often proved to be more cost effective than producing them on the European mainland. A vast amount of labor was needed for the plantations in the intensive growing, harvesting and processing of these prized tropical crops. Western Africa (part of which became known as 'the
Slave Coast'), and later Central Africa, became the source for slaves to meet the demand for labor.
The basic reason for the constant shortage of labor was that, with large amounts of cheap land available and lots of landowners searching for workers, free European immigrants were able to become landowners themselves after a relatively short time, thus increasing the need for workers. [Solow, Barbara (ed.). Slavery and the Rise of the Atlantic System, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1991.]
African slave market
The Atlantic slave trade was not the only slave trade taking a toll on Africa, although it was one of the largest in volume and intensity. As Elikia M’bokolo wrote in "
Le Monde diplomatique": "The African continent was bled of its human resources via all possible routes. Across the Sahara, through the Red Sea, from the Indian Ocean ports and across the Atlantic. At least ten centuries of slavery for the benefit of the Muslim countries (from the ninth to the nineteenth). ... Four million slaves exported via the Red Sea, another four million through the Swahiliports of the Indian Ocean, perhaps as many as nine million along the trans-Saharan caravan route, and eleven to twenty million (depending on the author) across the Atlantic Ocean." [Elikia M’bokolo, April 2, 1998, The impact of the slave trade on Africa, " Le Monde diplomatique" [http://mondediplo.com/1998/04/02africa] ]
Europeans usually bought slaves who were captured in tribal wars between African kingdoms and chiefdoms, or from Africans who had made a business out of capturing other Africans and selling them. Europeans provided a large new market for an already-existing trade, and while an African held in slavery in his own region of Africa might escape or be traded back to his own people, a person shipped away was sure never to return. People living around the
Niger Riverwere transported from these markets to the coast and sold at European trading ports in exchange for muskets and manufactured goods such as cloth or alcohol.
The Atlantic slave trade peaked in the late 18th century,Fact|date=September 2008 when the largest number of slaves were captured on raiding expeditions into the interior of
West Africa. These expeditions were typically carried out by coastal African kingdoms, such as the Oyo empire(Yoruba) and the kingdom of Dahomey. [ [http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/slav/hd_slav.htm The Transatlantic Slave Trade] ]
Europeans rarely entered the interior of Africa, due to fear of disease and fierce African resistance. [ [http://www.britannica.com/blackhistory/article-24159 Historical survey > The international slave trade] ] The slaves would be brought to coastal outposts where they would be traded for goods. Enslavement became a major by-product of war in Africa as nation states expanded through military conflicts in many cases through deliberate sponsorship of benefiting Western European nations. During such periods of rapid state formation or expansion (
Asanteor Dahomeybeing good examples), slavery formed an important element of political life which the Europeans exploited: As Queen Sara's plea to the Portuguese courts revealed, the system became "sell to the Europeans or be sold to the Europeans". In Africa, convicted criminals could be punished by enslavement, a punishment which became more prevalent as slavery became more lucrative. Since most of these nations did not have a prison system, convicts were often sold or used in the scattered local domestic slave market.cite web|url=http://www.africanholocaust.net/articles/TRANSATLANTIC%20SLAVE%20TRADE.htm|publisher=" Hakim Adi"|title="Transatlantic Slave Trade"|] The majority of European conquests occurred toward the end or after the transatlantic slave trade. One exception to this is the conquest of Ndongoin current day Angolawhere Ndongo's slaves, warriors, free citizens and even nobilitywere taken into slavery by the Portuguese conquerors after the fall of the state.Fact|date=November 2007
African versus European slavery
Slavery in African cultures was generally indentured servitude: slaves were not
chattel, nor enslaved for life.Fact|date=August 2007 African slaves were paid wages and were able to accumulate property.Fact|date=August 2007 They often bought their own freedom and could then achieve social promotion — just as freedmenin ancient Rome— some even rose to the status of rulers (e.g. Jaja of Opoboand Sunni Ali Ber). Similar arguments were used by Western slave owners during the time of abolitionism, for example by John Wedderburn in "Wedderburn v. Knight", the case that ended legal recognition of slavery in Scotlandin 1776. Regardless of the legal options open to slave owners, rational cost-earning calculation and/or voluntary adoption of moral restraints often tended to mitigate.
lave Market Regions and Participation
There were eight principal areas used by Europeans to buy and ship slaves to the Western Hemisphere. The number of slaves sold to the new world varied throughout the slave trade. As for the distribution of slaves from regions of activity, certain areas produced far more slaves than others. Between 1650 and 1900, 10.24 million African slaves arrived in the Americas from the following regions in the following proportions:Lovejoy, Paul E. "Transformations in Slavery". Cambridge University Press, 2000]
Senegaland The Gambia): 4.8%
Upper Guinea( Guinea-Bissau, Guineaand Sierra Leone): 4.1%
Windward Coast( Liberiaand Cote d' Ivoire): 1.8%
*Gold Coast (Ghana): 10.4%
Bight of Benin( Togo, Beninand Nigeriawest of the Niger Delta): 20.2%
Bight of Biafra( Nigeriaeast of the Niger Delta, Cameroon, Equatorial Guineaand Gabon): 14.6%
*West Central Africa (
Republic of Congo, Democratic Republic of Congoand Angola): 39.4%
*Southeastern Africa (
Mozambiqueand Madagascar): 4.7%
African kingdoms of the Era
There were over 173 city-states and kingdoms in the African regions affected by the slave trade between 1502 and 1853, when
Brazilbecame the last Atlantic import nation to outlaw the slave trade. Of those 173, no fewer than 68 could be deemed nation states with political and military infrastructures that enabled them to dominate their neighbors. Nearly every present-day nation had a pre-colonial predecessor, sometimes an African Empire with which European traders had to barter and eventually battle. Below are 29 nation states by country that actively or passively participated in the Atlantic Slave Trade:
Denanke Kingdom, Kingdom of Fouta Tooro, Jolof Empire, Kingdom of Khassoand Kingdom of Saalum
Kingdom of Fouta Djallon
* Sierra Leone:
* Cote d'Ivoire:
Kong Empireand Gyaaman Kingdom
Asante Confederacyand Mankessim Kingdom
Kingdom of Dahomey
Oyo Empire, Benin Empireand Aro Confederacy
Bamunand Mandara Kingdom
Kingdom of Orungu
* Republic of Congo:
Kingdom of Loangoand Kingdom of Tio
Kingdom of Kongo, Kingdom of Ndongoand Matamba
The different ethnic groups brought to the Americas closely corresponds to the regions of heaviest activity in the slave trade. Over 45 distinct ethnic groups were taken to the Americas during the trade. Of the 45, the ten most prominent according to slave documentation of the era are listed below.Hall, Gwendolyn Midlo: "Slavery and African Ethnicities in the Americas: Restoring the Links". The University of North Carolina Press, 2006]
#The Gbe speakers of
Togo, Ghanaand Benin(Adja, Mina, Ewe, Fon)
Akanof Ghana and Cote d'Ivoire
Mbunduof Angola (includes Ovimbundu)
BaKongoof the Democratic Republic of Congoand Angola
#The Igbo of
#The Yoruba of Nigeria
Mandéspeakers of Upper Guinea
#The Makua of
The transatlantic slave trade resulted in a vast and as yet still unknown loss of life for African captives both in and outside of America. Approximately 8 million Africans were killed during their storage, shipment and initial landing in the
New World. The amount of life lost in the actual procurement of slaves remains a mystery but may equal or exceed the amount actually enslaved. [Stannard, David. "American Holocaust". Oxford University Press, 1993] If such a figure is to be believed, the total number of deaths would be between 16 and 20 million.Fact|date=August 2007
The savage nature of the trade, in which most of the slaves were prisoners from African wars, led to the destruction of individuals and cultures. The following figures do not include deaths of African slaves as a result of their actual labor, slave revolts or diseases they caught while living among New World populations.
A database compiled in the late 1990s put the figure for the Transatlantic Slave Trade at more than 11 million people. Estimates as high as 50 million have been floated.Fact|date=August 2007 For a long time an accepted figure was 15 million, although this has in recent years been revised down. Most historians now agree that at least 12 million slaves left the continent between the fifteenth and nineteenth century, but 10 to 20% died on board ships. Thus a figure of 11 million slaves transported to the Americas is the nearest demonstrable figure historians can produce. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/6445941.stm Quick guide: The slave trade; Who were the slaves?] BBC News]
David Stannard's "American Holocaust", 50% of African deaths occurred in Africa as a result of wars between native kingdoms, which produced the majority of slaves. [Stannard, David. "American Holocaust". Oxford University Press, 1993] This includes not only those who died in battles, but also those who died as a result of forced marches from inland areas to slave ports on the various coasts.Gomez, Michael A. "Exchanging Our Country Marks". Chapel Hill, 1998] The practice of enslaving enemy combatants and their villages was widespread throughout Western and West Central Africa, although wars were rarely started to procure slaves. The slave trade was largely a by-product of tribal and state warfare as a way of removing potential dissidents after victory or financing future wars. [Thornton, John. "Africa and Africans in the Making of the Atlantic World, 1400-1800" Cambridge University Press, 1998] However, some African groups proved particularly adept and brutal at the practice of enslaving such as Kaabu, Asanteman, Dahomey, the Aro Confederacyand the Imbangalawar bands. [Stride, G.T. and C. Ifeka. "Peoples ad Empires of West Africa: West Africa in History 1000-1800". Nelson, 1986] By the end of this process, no less than 18.3 million people would be herded into "factories" to await shipment to the New World.Fact|date=August 2007 In letters written by the Manikongo, Nzinga Mbemba Affonso, to the King João III of Portugal, he writes that Portuguese merchandise flowing in is what is fueling the trade in Africans. He requests the King of Portugal to stop sending merchandise but should only send missionaries. In one of his letter he writes::"Each day the traders are kidnapping our people - children of this country, sons of our nobles and vassals, even people of our own family. This corruption and depravity are so widespread that our land is entirely depopulated. We need in this kingdom only priests and schoolteachers, and no merchandise, unless it is wine and flour for Mass. It is our wish that this Kingdom not be a place for the trade or transport of slaves."
:"Many of our subjects eagerly lust after Portuguese merchandise that your subjects have brought into our domains. To satisfy this inordinate appetite, they seize many of our black free subjects.... They sell them. After having taken these prisoners [to the coast] secretly or at night..... As soon as the captives are in the hands of white men they are branded with a red-hot iron." [cite book |title=King Leopold's Ghost: A Story of Greed, Terror, and Heroism in Colonial Africa|authorlink=Adam Hochschild|isbn=0618001905|year=1998|publisher=Houghton Mifflin Books|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=rXv8ehP_F5oC&printsec=frontcover]
Before the arrival of the Portuguese, slavery had already existed in Kongo. Despite its establishment within his kingdom, Afonso believed that the slave trade should be subject to Kongo law. When he suspected the Portuguese of receiving illegally enslaved persons to sell, he wrote in to King João III in 1526 imploring him to put a stop to the practice. [ [http://www.millersville.edu/~winthrop/Thornton.html African Political Ethics and the Slave Trade] ]
The kings of
Dahomeysold their war captives into transatlantic slavery, who otherwise would have been killed in a ceremony known as the Annual Customs. As one of West Africa's principal slave states, Dahomey became extremely unpopular with neighbouring peoples. [ [http://www.museeouidah.org/Theme-Dahomey.htm Museum Theme: The Kingdom of Dahomey] ] [ [http://www.britannica.com/eb/topic-149772/Dahomey Dahomey (historical kingdom, Africa)] ] [ [http://www.finalcall.com/national/slave_trade10-08-2002.htm Benin seeks forgiveness for role in slave trade] ] Like the Bambara Empireto the east, the Khassokingdoms depended heavily on the slave trade for their economy. A family's status was indicated by the number of slaves it owned, leading to wars for the sole purpose of taking more captives. This trade led the Khasso into increasing contact with the European settlements of Africa's west coast, particularly the French. [ [http://www.histoire-afrique.org/article76.html?artsuite=5 Le Mali précolonial] ] Benin grew increasingly rich during the 16th and 17th centuries on the slave trade with Europe; slaves from enemy states of the interior were sold, and carried to the Americas in Dutch and Portuguese ships. The Bight of Benin's shore soon came to be known as the "Slave Coast". [ [http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/africa/features/storyofafrica/4chapter7.shtml The Story of Africa] ]
King Gezo of
Dahomeysaid in the 1840s::"The slave trade is the ruling principle of my people. It is the source and the glory of their wealth…the mother lulls the child to sleep with notes of triumph over an enemy reduced to slavery…" [ [http://www.theaustralian.news.com.au/story/0,20867,20855855-28737,00.html West is master of slave trade guilt] ]
In 1807, the UK Parliament passed the Bill that abolished the trading of slaves. The King of Bonny (now in
Nigeria) was horrified at the conclusion of the practice::"We think this trade must go on. That is the verdict of our oracle and the priests. They say that your country, however great, can never stop a trade ordained by God himself." [ [http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/africa/features/storyofafrica/9chapter2.shtml African Slave Owners] ]
After being marched to the coast for sale, slaves waited in large forts called factories. The amount of time in factories varied, but
Milton Meltzer's "Slavery: A World History" states this process resulted in or around 4.5% of deaths during the transatlantic slave trade. In other words, over 820,000 people would have died in African ports such as Benguela, Elminaand Bonnyreducing the number of those shipped to 17.5 million.Meltzer, Milton. "Slavery: A World History". Da Capo Press, 1993]
After being captured and held in the factories, slaves entered the infamous
Middle Passage. Meltzer's research puts this phase of the slave trade's overall mortality at 12.5%. Around 2.2 million Africans died during these voyages where they were packed into tight, unsanitary spaces on ships for months at a time. Measures were taken to stem the onboard mortality rate such as enforced "dancing" (as exercise) above deck and the practice of force-feeding slaves who tried to starve themselves. The conditions on board also resulted in the spread of fatal diseases. Other fatalities were the result of suicides by jumping over board by slaves who could no longer endure the conditions. Before the shipping of slaves was completely outlawed in 1853, 15.3 million slaves had arrived in the Americas.
Raymond L. Cohn, an economics professor whose research has focused on
economic historyand international migration, [ [http://www.econ.ilstu.edu/vitas/rlcohn.html Raymond L. Cohn] ] has researched the mortality rates among Africans during the voyages of the Atlantic slave trade. He found that mortality rates decreased over the history of the slave trade, primarily because the length of time necessary for the voyage was declining. "In the eighteenth century many slave voyages took at least 2-1/2 months. In the nineteenth century, 2 months appears to have been the maximum length of the voyage, and many voyages were far shorter. Fewer slaves died in the Middle Passage over time mainly because the passage was shorter." [Cohn, Raymond L. "Deaths of Slaves in the Middle Passage," "Journal of Economic History", September 1985.]
Meltzer also states that 33% of Africans would have died in the first year at seasoning camps found throughout the Caribbean. Many slaves shipped directly to North America bypassed this process; however most slaves (destined for island or South American plantations) were likely to be put through this ordeal. The slaves were tortured for the purpose of "breaking" them (like the practice of breaking horses) and conditioning them to their new lot in life.
Jamaicaheld one of the most notorious of these camps. All in all, 5 million Africans died in these camps reducing the final number of Africans to about 10 million.Fact|date=September 2007
The trade of enslaved Africans in the Atlantic has its origins in the explorations of Portuguese mariners down the coast of West Africa in the 15th century. Before that, contact with African slave markets was made to ransom Portuguese that had been captured by the intense North African
Barbary pirateattacks to the Portuguese ships and coastal villages, frequently leaving them depopulated. [ [http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/empire_seapower/white_slaves_01.shtml BBC - History - British Slaves on the Barbary Coast] ] The first Europeans to use African slaves in the New World were the Spaniardswho sought auxiliaries for their conquest expeditions and laborers on islands such as Cubaand Hispaniola, where the alarming decline in the native population had spurred the first royal laws protecting the native population (Laws of Burgos, 1512-1513). The first African slaves arrived in Hispaniola in 1501 [ [http://www.ukcouncilhumanrights.co.uk/webbook-chap1.html HEALTH IN SLAVERY] ] . After Portugalhad succeeded in establishing sugar plantations (engenhos) in northern Brazilca. 1545, Portuguese merchants on the West African coast began to supply enslaved Africans to the sugar planters there. While at first these planters relied almost exclusively on the native Tupani for slave labor, a titanic shift toward Africans took place after 1570 following a series of epidemics which decimated the already destabilized Tupani communities. By 1630, Africans had replaced the Tupani as the largest contingent of labor on Brazilian sugar plantations, heralding equally the final collapse of the European medieval household tradition of slavery, the rise of Brazil as the largest single destination for enslaved Africans and sugar as the reason that roughly 84% of these Africans were shipped to the New World.
Merchants from various European nations were later involved in the Atlantic Slave trade:
Portugal, Spain, France, England, Scotland, Brandenburg-Prussia, Denmark, Holland. As Britain rose in naval power and settled continental North America and some islands of the West Indies, they became the leading slave traders. At one stage the trade was the monopoly of the Royal Africa Company, operating out of London, but following the loss of the company's monopoly in 1689 [ Elkins, Stanley: "Slavery". New York: Universal Library, 1963. p.48] , Bristoland Liverpoolmerchants became increasingly involved in the trade [ Rawley, James: "London, Metropolis of the Slave Trade" 2003 ] . By the late 17th century, one out of every four ships that left Liverpool harbour was a slave trading ship.Anstey, Roger: "The Atlantic Slave Trade and British abolition, 1760-1810". London: Macmillan, 1975.] Other British cities also profited from the slave trade. Birmingham, the largest gun producing town in Britain at the time, supplied guns to be traded for slaves. 75% of all sugar produced in the plantations came to London to supply the highly lucrative coffee houses there. [Anstey, Roger: "The Atlantic Slave Trade and British abolition, 1760-1810". London: Macmillan, 1975.]
lavery and Christianity
In general, early Christians, such as Paul, St. Augustine, or
St. Thomas Aquinasdid not oppose slavery. Pope Nicholas Veven encouraged enslaving non-Christian Africans in his Papal Bull" Romanus Pontifex" of 1454. Since then other popes stated that slavery was against Christian teachings, as is now generally held. Even earlier, in 1435, Pope Eugene IVcondemned the enslavement of the inhabitants of the Canary Islands. In 1537, Pope Paul IIIforbade the enslavement of the Indians and other indigenous peoples with the papal bull " Sublimus Dei". A list of papal statements against slavery (and also claims that the popes nonetheless owned and bought slaves) is found in the discussion Christianity and Slavery.
Most Christian sects found some way to soothe the consciences of their slave-owning members. One notable exception was the
Society of Friends( Quakers), who advocated the abolition of slaveryfrom earliest times.
New World destinations
The first slaves to arrive as part of a labor force appeared in 1502 on the island of
Hispaniola(now Haitiand the Dominican Republic). Cubareceived its first four slaves in 1513. Slave exports to Hondurasand Guatemalastarted in 1526. The first African slaves to reach what would become the US arrived in January of 1526 as part of a Spanish attempt at colonizing South Carolinanear Jamestown. By November the 300 Spanish colonist were reduced to a mere 100 accompanied by 70 of their original 100 slaves. The slaves revolted and joined a nearby native population while the Spanish abandoned the colony altogether. Colombiareceived its first slaves in 1533. El Salvador, Costa Ricaand Floridabegan their stint in the slave trade in 1541, 1563 and 1581 respectively.
The 17th century saw an increase in shipments with slaves arriving in the English colony of Jamestown, Virginia in 1619. Irish immigrants brought slaves to
Montserratin 1651. And in 1655, slaves arrive in Belize.
Distribution of slaves (1450-1900) [Thomas, Hugh. "The Slave Trade". Simon and Schuster, 1997.]
Walter Rodneyhas argued that at the start of the slave trade in the 16th century, even though there was a technological gap between Europe and Africa, it was not very substantial. Both continents were using Iron Age technology. The major advantage that Europe had was in ship building. During the period of slavery the populations of Europe and the Americas grew exponentially while the population of Africa remained stagnant. Rodney contended that the profits from slavery were used to fund economic growth and technological advancement in Europe and the Americas. Based on earlier theories by Eric Williams, he asserted that the industrial revolution was at least in part funded by agricultural profits from the Americas. He cited examples such as the invention of the steam engine by James Watt, which was funded by plantation owners from the Caribbean [ [http://www.amazon.com/gp/reader/0882580965/] How Europe Underdeveloped Africa Walter RodneyISBN 0950154644] .
Other historians have attacked both Rodney's methodology and factual accuracy. Joseph C. Miller has argued that the social change and demographic stagnation (which he researched on the example of West Central Africa) was caused primarily by domestic factors. Joseph Inikori provided a new line of argument, estimating counterfactual demographic developments in case the Atlantic slave trade had not existed. Patrick Manning has shown that the slave trade did indeed have profound impact on African demographics and social institutions, but nevertheless criticized Inikori’s approach for not taking other factors (such as famine and drought) into account and thus being highly speculative. [Manning, Patrick: Contours of Slavery and Social change in Africa. In: Northrup, David (ed.): The Atlantic Slave Trade. D.C. Heath & Company, 1994, pp.148-160.]
Effect on the economy of Africa
No scholars dispute the harm done to the slaves themselves, but the effect of the trade on African societies is much debated due to the apparent influx of capital to Africans. Proponents of the slave trade, such as
Archibald Dalzel, argued that African societies were robust and not much affected by the ongoing trade. In the 19th century, European abolitionists, most prominently Dr. David Livingstone, took the opposite view arguing that the fragile local economy and societies were being severely harmed by the ongoing trade. This view continued with scholars until the 1960s and 70s such as Basil Davidson, who conceded it might have had some benefits while still acknowledging its largely negative impact on Africa. [ Basil Davidson, "Black mother : Africa and the Atlantic slave trade" Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1980.] Historian Walter Rodneyestimates that by c.1770, the King of Dahomeywas earning an estimated £250,000 per year by selling captive African soldiers and even his own people to the European slave-traders.
Effects on Europe’s Economy
Eric Williamshas attempted to show the contribution of Africans on the basis of profits from the slave trade and slavery, and the employment of those profits to finance England’s industrialization process. He argues that the enslavement of Africans was an essential element to the Industrial Revolution, and that European wealth is a result of slavery. However, he argued that by the time of its abolition it had lost its profitability and it was in Britain's economic interest to ban it. Most modern scholars disagree with this view. Seymour Drescher and Robert Anstey have both presented evidence that the slave trade remained profitable until the end, and that reasons other than economics led to its cessation. Joseph Inikori has shown elsewhere that the British slave trade was more profitable than the critics of Williams would want us to believe. Nevertheless, the profits of the slave trade and of West Indian plantations amounted to less than 5% of the British economy at the time of the Industrial Revolution. [ [http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/historyonline/con_economic.cfm Was slavery the engine of economic growth?] ]
The demographic effects of the slave trade are some of the most controversial and debated issues. More than 10 million people were removed from
Africavia the slave trade, and what effect this had on Africa is an important question. Walter Rodneyargued that the export of so many people had been a demographic disaster and had left Africa permanently disadvantaged when compared to other parts of the world, and largely explains the continent's continued poverty. [Rodney, Walter. "How Europe underdeveloped Africa." London: Bogle-L'Ouverture Publications, 1972] He presented numbers showing that Africa's population stagnated during this period, while that of Europe and Asia grew dramatically. According to Rodney, all other areas of the economy were disrupted by the slave trade as the top merchants abandoned traditional industries to pursue slaving, and the lower levels of the population were disrupted by the slaving itself.
Others have challenged this view.
J. D. Fagecompared the number effect on the continent as a whole. David Eltis has compared the numbers to the rate of emigrationfrom Europeduring this period. In the nineteenth century alone over 50 million people left Europefor the Americas, a far higher rate than were ever taken from Africa. [David Eltis "Economic Growth and the Ending of the Transatlantic slave trade"]
Other scholars accused Rodney of mischaracterizing the trade between Africans and Europeans. They argue that Africans, or more accurately African elites, deliberately let European traders join in an already large trade in slaves and were not patronized. [Thornton, John. "Africa and Africans in the Making of the Atlantic World, 1400-1800". Cambridge University Press, 1992 ]
As Joseph E. Inikori argues, the history of the region shows that the effects were still quite deleterious. He argues that the African economic model of the period was very different from the European, and could not sustain such population losses. Population reductions in certain areas also led to widespread problems. Inikori also notes that after the suppression of the slave trade Africa's population almost immediately began to rapidly increase, even prior to the introduction of modern medicines. ["Ideology versus the Tyranny of Paradigm: Historians and the Impact of the Atlantic Slave Trade on African Societies," by Joseph E. Inikori "African Economic History." 1994] Shahadah also states that the trade was not only of
demographicsignificance, in aggregate population losses but also in the profound changes to settlement patterns, exposure to epidemics, and reproductive and social development potential.cite web|url=http://www.africanholocaust.net/news_ah/african%20holocaust.htm|publisher=" Owen 'Alik Shahadah"|title="African Holocaust: Dark Voyage audio CD"]
Legacy of racism
Maulana Karengastates that the effects of slavery were "the morally monstrous destruction of human possibility involved redefining African humanity to the world, poisoning past, present and future relations with others who only know us through this stereotyping and thus damaging the truly human relations among peoples." He states that it constituted the destruction of culture, language, religion and human possibility.cite web|url=http://www.africawithin.com/karenga/ethics.htm|publisher=" Ron Karenga"|title="Effects on Africa"|]
The Atlantic slave trade was without question a long-standing system which displaced many African people from their native lands, tribes, and families. The evidence of the populations of descendant Africans is most clear in the continents of North America and South America.
End of the Atlantic slave trade
In Britain, Portugal and in some other parts of Europe, opposition developed against the slave trade. Led by the
Religious Society of Friends(Quakers) and establishment Evangelicals such as William Wilberforce, the movement was joined by many and began to protest against the trade, but they were opposed by the owners of the colonial holdings. Denmark, which had been active in the slave trade, was the first country to ban the trade through legislation in 1792, which took effect in 1803. Britain banned the slave trade (but not slavery itself) in 1807, imposing stiff fines for any slave found aboard a British ship ("see Slave Trade Act 1807"). The Royal Navy, which then controlled the world's seas, moved to stop other nations from filling Britain's place in the slave trade and declared that slaving was equal to piracyand was punishable by death. The United Statesoutlawed the importation of slaves on January 1, 1808, the earliest date permitted by the constitution for such a ban.
28 October 1787, William Wilberforcewrote in his diary: "“God Almighty has set before me two great objects, the suppression of the slave trade and the Reformation of society.”" For the rest of his life, William Wilberforce dedicated his life as a Member of Parliament to opposing the slave trade and working for the abolition of slavery throughout the British Empire. On 22 February 1807, twenty years after he first began his crusade, and in the middle of Britain’s war with France, Wilberforce and his team’s labors were rewarded with victory. By an overwhelming 283 votes for to 16 against, the motion to abolish the slave trade was carried in the House of Commons. [ [http://www.brycchancarey.com/abolition/wilberforce.htm William Wilberforce (1759-1833)] ]
After the British ended their own slave trade, they felt forced by economics to press other nations to do the same, or else the British colonies would become uncompetitive. With peace in Europe from 1815, and British supremacy at sea secured, the Navy turned its attention back to the challenge and established the West Coast of Africa Station, known as the ‘preventative squadron’, which for the next 50 years operated against the slavers. By the 1850s, around 25 vessels and 2,000 officers and men were on the station, supported by nearly 1,000 ‘Kroomen’, experienced fishermen recruited as sailors from what is now the coast of modern Liberia. Service on the
West Africa Squadronwas a thankless and overwhelming task, full of risk and posing a constant threat to the health of the crews involved. Contending with pestilential swamps and violent encounters, the mortality rate was 55 per 1,000 men, compared with 10 for fleets in the Mediterranean or in home waters. [ [http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/abolition/royal_navy_article_02.shtml The Royal Navy and the Battle to End Slavery. By Huw Lewis-Jones] ] Between 1807 and 1860, the West Africa Squadron seized approximately 1,600 ships involved in the slave trade and freed 150,000 Africans who were aboard these vessels. [ [http://www.bbc.co.uk/devon/content/articles/2007/03/20/abolition_navy_feature.shtml Sailing against slavery. By Jo Loosemore] BBC] . The last recorded slave ship to land on American soil was the Clotilde, which in 1859 illegally smuggled a number of Africans into the town of Mobile, Alabama. [ [http://www.ferris.edu/jimcrow/question/july05/ Question of the Month - Jim Crow Museum at Ferris State University ] ] The Africans on board were sold as slaves, however slavery was abolished 5 years later following the end of the civil war. The last survivor of the voyage was Cudjoe Lewiswho died in 1935. [cite book |url=http://www.amazon.com/gp/reader/0195311043/ |title=Dreams of Africa in Alabama: The Slave Ship Clotilda and the Story of the Last Africans Brought to America |isbn=0195311043 |first=Sylvianne |last=Diouf|publisher=Oxford University Press|year=2007]
Action was also taken against African leaders who refused to agree to British treaties to outlaw the trade, for example against ‘the usurping King of Lagos’, deposed in 1851. Anti-slavery treaties were signed with over 50 African rulers. [ [http://www.pdavis.nl/Background.htm#WAS The West African Squadron and slave trade] ] The British campaign against the slave trade by other nations was an unprecedented foreign policy effort.
slave tradehad become illegal, slaveryremained a reality in British colonies. Wilberforce himself was privately convinced that the institution of slavery should be entirely abolished, but understood that there was little political will for emancipation. In parliament, the Emancipation Bill gathered support and received its final commons reading on 26 July 1833. Slavery would be abolished, but the planters would be heavily compensated. "Thank God", said William Wilberforce, "that I have lived to witness a day in which England is willing to give twenty millions sterling for the Abolition of Slavery".
The last country to ban the Atlantic slave trade was
Brazilin 1831. However, a vibrant illegal trade continued to ship large numbers of slaves to Brazil and also to Cuba until the 1860s, when British enforcement and further diplomacy finally ended the Atlantic trade. [Anstey, Roger: The Atlantic Slave Trade and British abolition, 1760-1810. London: Macmillan, 1975.] [ [http://www.royalnavalmuseum.org/visit_see_victory_cfexhibition_timepost1807.htm Timeline - What happened after 1807?] ]
UNESCOdesignated August 23as International Day for the Remembrance of the Slave Trade and its Abolition. Since that occurrence, a number of events surrounding the recognition of the effect of slavery on both the enslaved and enslavers have come to pass.
At the 2001
World Conference Against Racismin Durban South Africa, African nations demanded a clear apology for slavery from the former slave-trading countries. Some EU nations were ready to express an apology, but the opposition, mainly from the United Kingdom, Portugal Spain, Netherlands, and the United Statesblocked attempts to do so. A fear of monetary compensation was one of the reasons for the oppositionFact|date=June 2008. Apologies on behalf of African nations, for their role in trading their countrymen into slavery, also remains an open issue.
January 30, 2006, Jacques Chiracsaid that 10 Maywould henceforth be a national day of remembrance for the victims of slavery in France, marking the day in 2001 when France passed a law recognising slavery as a crime against humanity. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/4662442.stm Chirac names slavery memorial day] BBC News]
November 27, 2006, Tony Blair made a partial apology for Britain's role in the African slavery trade. However African rights activists denounced it as "empty rhetoric" that failed to address the issue properly. They feel his apology stopped shy to prevent any legal retort. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk_politics/6185176.stm Blair 'sorrow' over slave trade] . November 27. 2006 BBC. Accessed March 15, 2007.] Mr Blair again apologized on March 14, 2007. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk_politics/6451793.stm Blair 'sorry' for UK slavery role] . March 14 2007BBC. Accessed March 15, 2007.]
February 24, 2007the Virginia General Assembly passed House Joint Resolution Number 728 [ [http://leg1.state.va.us/cgi-bin/legp504.exe?071+ful+HJ728H2 House Joint Resolution Number 728] ] acknowledging "with profound regret the involuntary servitude of Africans and the exploitation of Native Americans, and call for reconciliation among all Virginians." With the passing of that resolution, Virginiabecame the first of the 50 United States to acknowledge through the state's governing body their state's involvement in slavery. The passing of this resolution came on the heels of the 400th anniversary celebration of the city of Jamestown, Virginia, which was the first permanent English colony to survive in what would become the United States. Jamestown is also recognized as one of the first slave ports of the American colonies.
May 31, 2007, AlabamaGovernor Bob Rileysigned a resolution expressing "profound regret" for Alabama's role in slavery and apologizing for slavery's wrongs and lingering effects. Alabama is the fourth Southern state to pass a slavery apology, following votes by the legislatures in Maryland, Virginiaand North Carolina. [ [http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,276724,00.html Alabama Governor Joins Other States in Apologizing For Role in Slavery] ]
August 24, 2007, Mayor Ken Livingstoneof London, Englandapologized publicly for England's role in colonial slave trade. "You can look across there to see the institutions that still have the benefit of the wealth they created from slavery," he said pointing towards the financial district. He claimed that London was still tainted by the horrors of slavery. Jesse Jacksonpraised Mayor Livingstone, and added that reparations should be made. [ [http://www.dailymail.co.uk/pages/live/articles/news/news.html?in_article_id=477337&in_page_id=1770 Livingstone breaks down in tears at slave trade memorial] ]
List of topics related to Black and African people
African American history
African slave trade
Arab slave trade
Christianity and slavery
European colonization of the Americas
History of slavery
History of slavery in the United States
* Anstey, Roger: "The Atlantic Slave Trade and British abolition, 1760-1810". London: Macmillan, 1975.
* Clarke, Dr. John Henrik: "Christopher Columbus and the Afrikan Holocaust. Slavery and the Rise of European Capitalism"
* Curtin, Philip D: "Atlantic Slave Trade". University of Wisconsin Press, 1969.
* Daudin, Guillaume: "Profitability of slave and long distance trading in context : the case of eightheenth century France", Journal of Economic History, 2004.
* Diop, Er. Cheikh Anta: "Precolonial Black Africa: A Comparative Study of the Political and Social Systems of Europe and Black Africa"
title=Sources for the mutual history of Ghana and the Netherlands. An annotated guide to the Dutch archives relating to Ghana and West Africa in the Nationaal Archief, 1593-1960s
* Drescher, Seymour: "From Slavery to Freedom: Comparative Studies in the Rise and Fall of Atlantic Slavery". London: Macmillan Press, 1999.
* Emmer, P.C.: "The Dutch in the Atlantic Economy, 1580-1880. Trade, Slavery and Emancipation". Variorum Collected Studies Series CS614, 1998.
* Franklin, John Hope: "From Slavery to Freedom"
* Gomez, Michael Angelo: "Exchanging Our Country Marks (The Transformation of African Identities in the Colonial and AnteBellum South)". The University of North Carolina Press, 1998, ISBN 0807846945.
* Hall, Gwendolyn Midlo: "Slavery and African Ethnicities in the Americas: Restoring the Links". The University of North Carolina Press, 2006, ISBN 0807829730.
* Horne, Gerald: "The Deepest South: The United States, Brazil, and the African Slave Trade". NYU Press, 2007.
* James, E. Wyn: ‘Welsh Ballads and American Slavery’, "Welsh Journal of Religious History", 2 (2007), pp.59-86. ISSN 0967-3938.
* Klein, Herbert S. and Jacob Klein. The Atlantic Slave Trade. Cambridge University Press, 1999.
* Meltzer, Milton: "Slavery: A World History". Da Capo Press, 1993, ISBN 0306805367.
* Northrup, David: The Atlantic Slave Trade, 2nd edition, Houghton Mifflin Co., 2002.
* Rodney, Walter: "How Europe Underdeveloped Africa". Howard University Press; Revised edition, 1981.
* Rodriguez, Junius P., ed. "Encyclopedia of Emancipation and Abolition in the Transatlantic World" (Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe, 2007)
* Solow, Barbara (ed.). Slavery and the Rise of the Atlantic System. Cambridge University Press, 1991.
* Thomas, Hugh: "The Slave Trade: The History of the Atlantic Slave Trade 1440 - 1870". London: Picador, 1997.
* Thornton, John: "Africa and Africans in the Making of the Atlantic World, 1400-1800". Cambridge University Press, 1998.
* Williams, Chancellor: "Destruction of Black Civilization"
* Williams, Eric: "Capitalism & Slavery". Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1994 (first published 1944).
* [http://www.britannica.com/blackhistory/article-24159 Welcome to Encyclopædia Britannica's Guide to Black History]
* [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/6445941.stm BBC | Africa | Quick guide: The slave trade]
* [http://www.bbc.co.uk/devon/content/articles/2007/03/20/abolition_navy_feature.shtml Sailing against slavery. By Jo Loosemore]
* [http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part1/1p277.html Africans in America/Part 1/The Middle Passage]
* [http://www.finalcall.com/national/slave_trade10-08-2002.htm Benin seeks forgiveness for role in slave trade]
* [http://www.africanholocaust.net/ah_articles.htm African Holocaust: The legacy of Slavery remembered]
* [http://www.antislavery.org/breakingthesilence/index.shtml Breaking the Silence: Learning about the Transatlantic Slave Trade]
* [http://www.ltscotland.org.uk/abolition/ Scotland and the Abolition of the Slave Trade - schools resource]
* [http://www.parliament.uk/slavetrade Parliament & The British Slave Trade 1600 - 1807]
* [http://www.blackhistory4schools.com/slavetrade/ Teaching resources about Slavery and Abolition on blackhistory4schools.com]
* [http://www.swagga.com/maafa.htm The Maafa (African Holocaust)]
* [http://www.antislavery.org/breakingthesilence/main/04/index.shtml The Middle Passage]
* [http://www.pdavis.nl/Background.htm#WAS The West African Squadron and slave trade]
* [http://www.brycchancarey.com/slavery/chrono3.htm A Chronology of Slavery, Abolition, and Emancipation]
* [http://www.understandingslavery.com Understanding Slavery Initiative; The New Site for Teachers on the British part of the transatlantic slave trade]
* [http://www.liverpoolmuseums.org.uk/maritime/slavery/index.asp Transatlantic Slavery Gallery, Merseyside Maritime Museum]
* [http://www.internationalslaverymuseum.org.uk International Slavery Museum]
* [http://www.brycchancarey.com/abolition/wilberforce.htm William Wilberforce (1759-1833)]
* [http://www.wilberforcecentral.org/wfc Wilberforce Central site] - American site commemorating 200 years since the passing of Abolition of the Slave Trade Act
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