- Laguna (province)
Infobox Philippine province
name = Laguna
sealfile = Ph seal laguna.png
capital = Santa Cruz
March 10, 1917
pop2000 = 1,965,872
pop2000rank = 6th largest
popden2000 = 1,117
popden2000rank = 3rd highest
areakm2 = 1,759.7
arearank = 17th smallest
hucities = 0
componentcities = 3
municipalities = 27
barangays = 674
districts = 4
languages = Tagalog,
governor = Teresita S. Lazaro (Lakas-CMD)
vice-governor = Ramil Hernandez (UNO)
locatormapfile = Ph locator map laguna.png
Laguna is a province of the
Philippinesfound in the CALABARZONregion in Luzón. Its capital is Santa Cruz and the province is located southeast of Metro Manila, south of the province of Rizal, west of Quezon, north of Batangasand east of Cavite. Laguna almost completely surrounds Laguna de Bay, the largest lake in the country. The province got its name from the Spanish word "lago", which means "lake" or "lagoon".
Laguna is notable for being the birthplace of
José Rizal, the country's national hero. Laguna is also famous among tourists for the Pagsanján Falls, the University of the Philippinescampus and the hot spring resorts in Los Baños on the slopes of Mount Maquiling, Pila, LagunaTown Plaza, Taytay Falls, Majayjay, the wood carvings and "papier mache" created by the people of Paeté, the "turumba" of Páquil, and Hidden Valley Springsin Alaminos.
The Province of Laguna was named after
Laguna de Bay, the body of water that forms its northern boundary. Laguna de Bay, in turn, was named after the town of Bay ("Laguna de Bay" is Spanish which means "Lake of Bay"), the first provincial capital. Captain Juan de Salcedowith a band of one hundred Spanish-Mexican soldiers and many Bisayan allies conquered the province and its surrounding regions for Spainin 1571. Seven years later, two Franciscanfriars started the work of Christianization.
In 1577, the Franciscan missionaries arrived in
Manila, and in 1578 they started evangelizing Laguna, Morong (now Rizal), Tayabas (now Quezon) and the Bicol Peninsula. Fathers Juan de Placencia and Diego de Oropesa were the earliest Franciscans sent to these places. From 1580, the towns of Bay, Caliraya, Majayjay, Nagcarlán, Liliw, Pila, Santa Cruz, Lumbán, Páñguil and Sinilóan were founded. In 1678, Fray Hernando Cabrera founded San Pablo de los Montes (now San Pablo City) and built a wooden church and convent considered as the best and finest in the province.
In 1670, delimitation of borders were made between Lucban, Majayjay and Cavite. The populous town at that time was Bay, the capital of the province until 1688, when the seat of the provincial government was moved to Pagsanján, and later, in 1858, to Santa Cruz. In 1754, the Province of Laguna and Tayabas were divided, with the Malinao River separating the towns of Majayjay and Lucbán.
The province became a bloody battle ground for the Chinese during the two instances that they rose in revolt against Spain. In 1603's, the Chinese made their last stand in the mountains of San Pablo, and in 1639, they fortified themselves in the highlands of Cavinti and Lumbán, surrendering in Pagsanján a year later.
The loyalty of the people of Laguna to the crown was tested during the British invasion (1762-1764) when thousands of Filipinos rallied to its defense. When a detachment of British troops under Captain Thomas Backhouse entered the province in search of the silver cargo of the galleon Filipino, Francisco de San Juan of Pagsanján led a band of volunteers that fought them in several engagements in and around the town which was then the provincial capital (1688-1858). Captain Backhouse plundered the town and burned its newly reconstructed church but San Juan succeeded in escaping with the precious hoard to Pampanga where the treasure greatly bolstered the defense effort of Simón de Anda. For his heroism, San Juan was made a brigade commander and alcalde mayor of Tayabas (now Quezon) province.
The people's loyalty gradually degenerated into bitter hostility. Grave abuses by the colonizers, including that of the clergy, caused the resentment of the natives to be fanned into a rising flood of insurrection. In 1840 for instance, religious intolerance led the people of Majayjay, Nagcarlán, Bay, and Biñán to join the revolt of Hermano Pule (Apolinario de la Cruz) of Lucbán, Tayabas.
Laguna was also exposed to the aspirations of its most famous son, Dr. José Rizal, who was born in Calamba. The persecution of Dr. Jose Rizal and his parents toward the end of the century further aggravated the situation, so that by 1896, thousands of patriotic inhabitants, especially of Bay, Los Baños, Nagcarlan, Magdalena, Santa Cruz, and Pagsanjan had joined the revolutionary Katipunan.
Laguna was one of the eight provinces to rise in revolt against the Spanish misrule led by Generals Paciano Rizal of Calambâ, Severino Taino of Pagsanján, Agüeda Kahabagán (woman general) of Calauan, and Miguel Malvar of Batangas. The ill-equipped Filipino forces fought the well-armed enemy until on
August 31, 1898, when the last Spanish garrison surrendered to the victorious patriots in Santa Cruz. The province was cleared of Spaniards. There had been only one respite, the Pact of Biac-na-Bató on December 14 to 15, 1897.
Laguna actively supported the first Philippine Republic proclaimed at Malolos on January 23, 1899. Her two delegates to the Malolos Congress, Don Higino Benitez and Don Graciano Cordero, were natives of Pagsanján.
Upon the outbreak of the Filipino-American War (1899-1901), General Juan Cailles and General Paciano Rizal led the defense of Laguna until June 30, 1901, when surrender became inevitable. Cailles became the first Filipino Governor of Laguna under the American flag.
The Province of Laguna progressed rapidly in peace. Roads were built, schools were established, and in 1917, the Manila Railroad Company extended its line to Laguna as far as Pagsanjan.
Japanese occupation of the Philippines(1942-1945), Laguna was a center of Filipino resistance despite the presence of Makapili collaborators. Beginning in 1945, attacks by the Filipino soldiers and local guerillas against Japanese forces in Laguna increased in anticipation of the Liberation of the Philippines by the Filipino & American forces.
Present-day Laguna shows a thriving economy. Peopled by 1,734,618 (1997 estimated population) industrious citizens and possessing a total area of 1760 km² of land, Laguna produces millions of pesos worth of coconuts, rice, sugar, citrus fruits, lanzones and other products. Tourists flock to its beauty spots, especially Pagsanjan Falls, Los Baños Hot Springs, Makiling National Park, Caliraya Lake and many others. Levels of development vary. The towns near Metro Manila have become industrialized whereas the inner towns continue to engage in agricultural production or pursue agri-based industries and cottage and small-scale industries.
Laguna was one of the first sites of the
Philippine Revolution. Calamba Cityis the birthplace of José Rizal, the country's national hero.
*Governor: Teresita "Ningning" S. Lazaro (
*Vice-Governor: Ramil L. Hernandez (PMP)
House of Representatives
*1st District: Dr. Danilo Ramon "Dan" S. Fernandez
*2nd District: Justin Marc "Timmy" S.B. Chipeco
Ma. Evita Roda Arago
Edgar S. San Luis
*David "Dave" M. Almarinez
Emilio "Emil" M. Tiongco
*Ramon "Monching" C. Carillo
*Rolando "Rolly" S. Bagnes
*Juan M. Unico
*Neil Andrew "Neil" N. Nocon
*Katherine C. Agapay
*Reynaldo D. Paras
*Benedicto Mario C. Palacol, Jr.
*Domingo G. Panganiban
*Natural Resources: Laguna is endowed with abundant natural resources. Its forests are filled with bamboo, rattan, and soft hardwood. Its wide fields and vast forests are ideal for growing rice, coconuts, vegetables, tropical fruits, orchids, and other ornamental flowers and exotic plants. The province is also rich in mineral resources such as clay, jasper and basalt glass.
There are about forty rivers in Laguna with a total area of almost 0.5 square kilometres. In the forests of Mount Makiling and in the waters of Laguna de Bay are an abundance of flora and fauna. The Laguna de Bay has an approximate area of 3800 km² broken down into 2900 km² of land and 900 km² of lake proper with 220 km shoreline.
Laguna's greatest natural resource is water. It has an estimated 300 million US gallons (1,100,000 m³) of underground water, capable of generating energy for Laguna's expanding power needs. At least seven principal water basins in the province with a total of 5,773 km² drainage area and 1,316 km² level area provide an estimated 9.238 km³ total run-off annually.
* Agricultural Activities: Crop Production, Livestock and Poultry Production, Fishing
* Investment Opportunities: Ecotourism enterprises; Convention centers; Coconut inter-cropping; Forest Trees, Cutflowers & ornamentals; Fruit & vegetable processing; Herbal medicines; Herbal essences; Gifts and housewares; Metalcraft (Industrial equipment, Engines, Surgical instruments, Agricultural machinery, tools); Service Facilities (Packaging, Warehousing, Trucking services, dryers); Electronics (Consumer electronics, Telecommunications, Computers & peripherals, Semi-conductors); and Garments and footwear; Agriculture; Fishing; Forestry; Tourism.
* Financial Institutions: Banking institutions maintain an extensive branch network in Laguna. Commercial banks, savings and mortgage banks, private development banks, stock savings and loan associations, and rural banks operated a total of 267 branches in the province.Non-bank financial institutions provide supplementary financial services to Laguna residents and businesses. A total of 394 offices have been set up by lending investors, pawnshops, financial companies, nonstock savings and loan associations, and investment houses with quasi-banking functions.
* Exports: US$7.0 Billion (1997) out of total Philippine exports of $25 BillionUS$1.5 billion (1996)
Please see the before doing any edits and/or additions.
Laguna is subdivided into 27 municipalities and 3 cities.
San Pablo City
Santa Rosa City
Laguna lies on the southern shores of
Laguna de Bay, the largest lake in the country. On the southern border of the province are Mt. Makiling(Maquiling) and Mt. Banahaw, both are long dormant volcanoes, but still sources of geothermal energy. Mt. Makiling is popular for the numerous hot spring resorts that are found on its slopes. Pagsanjan Falls, is a popular waterfall that tumbles down a deep gorge in the hills.
The eastern portion of Laguna straddles the southernmost portions of the Sierra Madre mountain range.
The province is relatively dry from November to April and wet during the rest of the year for a small portion near the southern boundary. The other parts, west of Santa Cruz municipality, experience a dry season from November to April and rainy season during the rest of the year. The eastern and southern most portions do not have distinct season, with rainfall more evenly distributed throughout the year.
Educational Attractions / Schools and Universities
*Marcelino Fule Memorial College
*La Consolacion College-Biñán
*Brent International School
De La Salle-CanlubangCampus
*Santa Catalina College
*Colegio de San Agustín
*University of Perpetual Help Dalta System (Biñán Campus)
*Saint Michael's College of Laguna
*Holy Spirit School
*Laguna State Polytechnic University (Cabuyao Campus)
*Our Lady of Assumption College-Cabuyao Campus (Mamatid, Cabuyao, Laguna)
*Malayan Colleges Laguna (Former Mapua Institute of Technology)
*Pamantasan Ng Cabuyao
*Saint Vincent College of Cabuyao (Mamatid, Cabuyao, Laguna)
*Cabuyao National Highschool
*Liceo de Cabuyao
*Liceo de Mamatid
*Colegio de San Juan de Letrán (Calambâ City, Campus)
*University of Perpetual Help Dalta System (Calambá City Campus)
*Calambâ Doctors' College (Parián, Calambá City)
*Don Bosco College (Canlubang Campus)
*Asian Computer College - Main
*Asian Computer College - Annex
*Rizal Institute - Canlubang
*Mary Help of Christians School, Inc.
*Santa Cecilia Catholic School
*St. John Colleges
*Lyceum Institute of Technology
*Laguna College of Business and Arts
University of the Philippines Los Baños
University of the Philippines Rural High School
*National Arts Centre & Philippine High School for the Arts
*UPLB Museum of Natural History
*UPLB College of Agriculture Agricultural Park
*UPLB Makiling Sining Gallery
*Makiling Botanical Gardens
*Makiling Forest Reserve
International Rice Research Institute(IRRI) Complex
*Trace Aquatic Centre and Computer College (Los Baños Campus)
*Laguna State Polytechnic University (Los Baños Campus)
*Los Baños National High School
*Los Baños Community National High School
*Pagsanjan National High School
*Liceo de Pagsanján
*Unson National High School
*AMA Computer University
*AMA Computer Learning Center
Harvard University Pagsanjan
Laguna State Polytechnic University (Pagsanjan Campus)Paete
*Eastern Laguna Colleges
*Liceo de Paeté
*Poten and Eliseo Quesada Memorial National High School
*Pila Museum, Pila, Laguna
*Liceo de Pila
San Pablo City
Ateneo de San Pablo
*Aera Museum (Escudero Private Museum)
*Laguna State Polytechnic University (San Pablo City Campus)
*San Pablo Colleges
*Dalubhasaan ng Lungsod ng San Pablo (DLSP)
*Montesorri Professional College
*MSC Institute of Technology
Polytechnic University of the Philippines(San Pedro Campus)
*Our Lady of Assumption College (San Pedro Campus)
*San Pedro College of Business Administration
*STI San Pedro
*Saint Louis Anne College
*Laguna Science and Technology College
*Colegio de San Pedro
*AMA Computer University
*AMA Computer Learning Center (ACLC)
*Pedro Guevarra Memorial National High School
*Laguna State Polytechnic University (formerly the Laguna School of Arts and Trades)
*Immaculate Conception Catholic School
*Basic Christian International School & Special Education Center
*Don Bosco High School
*Our Lady of Maulawin Educational Foundation INC.
*Saint Therese School
*Saint Jhon Bosco
*New San Luis Recreational, Educational, Culture & Sports Village
*Union Collage Of Laguna
*STI Sta. Cruz
Santa Rosa City
*The Coca-Cola Pavilion, Coca-Cola Bottlers Philippines Inc. Plant
Polytechnic University of the Philippines(Santa Rosa City Campus)
*Our Lady of Assumption College
*Holy Rosary College
*Canossa School (Intermediate Department located beside the Church and the Primary and Highschool Department located at Zavalla Street near Buena Rosa)
*Laguna State Polytechnic University (Sinilóan Campus)
*Paseo de Cabuyao (Under Construction)
*Liana's Discount City
*SM City Calamba(under construction)
*Monte Vista Resort and Hotel
*Robinsons Town Mall Los Baños
*Vega Centre and Arcade
*Splash Mountain Resort and Hotel
*City of Springs Resort and Hotel
*SEARCA Residence Hotel
*Los Baños Square
*Pagsanján Falls Lodge Resort
*Villa Monte ville
*SM Pagsanján(still being planning)
*Pagsanján PlazaSan Pablo City
*Villa Escudero Plantations and Resort
*San Pablo Shopping Centre
*Ultimart Shopping Plaza
*Centro Park Department Store and Supermarket
*Tierra de Oro Resort and Hotel
*María Paz Royal Garden Resort
*Centro Park Department Store and Supermarket
*Good Will Supermarket
*Joy Joy Supermarket
*SUC Save U Cash Discount Store
*Mega fun party,Gift & Accessories stores
*Mercury Drug Stores (Two Branches in Town)
Santa Rosa City
SM City Santa Rosa
*Robinson's City Santa Rosa
* El Cielito Inn - The First Hotel in Sta. Rosa Laguna
*Paseo de Santa Rosa
Battles of the Philippine-American War
Laguna Lake Development Authority
* Mount Maquiling
* [http://www.laguna.gov.ph Official Website of the Provincial Government of Laguna]
* [http://mysanpablo.net San Pablo City Premier Web Magazine]
* [http://www.cavinti.com Cavinti, Laguna Philippines]
* [http://www.paete.gov.ph/ Paete, Laguna, Philippines]
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