Subdivisions of Malaysia
state_motto="Sabah Maju Jaya"
Sabah Tanah Airku"
16 September 1963
Yang di-Pertua Negeri
leader_title2=Chief Minister ("Ketua Menteri")
British North Borneo
established_event5=British Crown Colony
established_event6=Accession into Malaysia
demonym = Sabahan
national_postal_code=88xxx to 91xxx
license_plate=SA1 SB2 SD3 SK4 SS5 ST6 SU7 SG8
footnotes=a For Inner District b For
Kota Kinabalu& Kudatc For Lahad Datu, Sandakan& Tawau1 Kota Kinabalu& Kota Belud2 Beaufort 3 Lahad Datu4 Kudat5 Sandakan6 Tawau7 Keningau8 Sabah State Government vehicle
Sabah is a Malaysian state located on the northern portion of the island of
Borneo. It is the second largest state in Malaysia after Sarawak, which it borders on its south-west. It also shares a border with the province of East Kalimantanof Indonesiain the south. In spite of its status as a Malaysian state, Sabah remains a disputed territory, the Philippineshas a dormant claim over the territory. The capital of Sabah is Kota Kinabalu, formerly known as Jesselton. Sabah is known as "Sabah, negeri di bawah bayu", which means 'Sabah, land below the wind', because of its location being just south of the typhoon prone region around the Philippines.
North Borneowas part of the Sultanate of Brunei around the early 16th century. This was during the period when the Sultanate's influence was at its peak. In 1658 the Sultanate of Brunei ceded the north-east portion of Borneo to the Sultan of Suluin compensation for the latter's help in settling a civil warin the Brunei Sultanate. In 1761 an officer of the British East India Company, Alexander Dalrymple, concluded an agreement with the Sultan of Sulu to allow him to set up a trading post in the region. This together with other attempts to build a settlement and a military station centering around Pulau Balambanganproved to be a failure. There was minimal foreign interest in this region afterward and control over most parts of north Borneo seems to have remained under the Sultanate of Brunei.
In 1865 the American Consul of Brunei,
Claude Lee Moses, obtained a 10-year lease over North Borneo from the Sultan of Brunei. Ownership was then passed to an American trading company owned by J.W. Torrey, T.B. Harris and some Chinese merchants. They set up a base and settlement in Kimanisbut this too failed due to financial reasons. The rights of the trading company were then sold to Baron Von Overbeck, the Austrian Consul in Hong Kong, and he later obtained another 10-year renewal of the lease. The rights were subsequently transferred to Alfred Dent, whom in 1881 formed the British North Borneo Provisional AssociationLtd.
In the following year, the
British North Borneo Companywas formed and Kudatwas made its capital. In 1883 the capital was moved to Sandakanto capitalise on its potential of vast timber resources. In 1888 North Borneo became a protectorateof Great Britain. Administration and control over North Borneo remained in the hands of the Company despite being a protectorate and they effectively ruled until 1942. Their rule had been generally peaceful except for some rebellions, including one led by the Suluk-Bajau leader Mat Sallehfrom 1894 to 1900,C.Buckley: A School History of Sabah, London, Macmillan & Co. Ltd., 1968] and another led by the Muruts which is known as the Rundum resistancein 1915.
econd World War and the road to independence
From 1942 to 1945 during the
Second World War, Japanese forces occupied North Borneo. The Japanese forces landed in Labuanon January 1, 1942, and continued to invade the rest of North Borneo. Bombings by the allied forces devastated of most towns including Sandakan, which was totally razed to the ground. Resistance against Japanese occupation were concentrated on the west and north coast of North Borneo. The resistance in Jesselton was led by Albert Kwokand Jules Stephens of the Kinabalu Guerillas. Another resistance was led by Panglima Alli from Sulug Island, off the coast of Jesselton. In Kudat, there were also some resistance led by Tun Datu Mustapha. On October 10, 1943, the Kinabalu Guerrilas together with followers of Panglima Alli staged a surprise attack on the Japanese. The attack however was foiled. The 324 local residents who participated in the attacks, including Albert Kwok and Panglima Alli, were detained in Petagas and later executed on January 21, 1944. [cite news|publisher=Berita Harian|title=Panglima Alli tak takut dibunuh tentera Jepun|language=Malay|url=http://www.bharian.com.my/Current_News/BH/Sunday/Jejak/20071209022729/Article/|accessdate=2008-01-26] The site of the execution is today known as the Petagas War Memorial.
When Japan surrendered at the end of the war, North Borneo was administered by the
British Military Administrationand in 1946 it became a British Crown Colony. Jesselton was chosen to replace Sandakan as the capital. The Crown continued to rule North Borneo until 1963. On August 31, 1963 North Borneo attained self-government. There was a call for complete independence on that date by it was denied by the British Governor who remained in power until Malaysia Day. Johan M. Padasian: Sabah History in pictures (1881-1981), Sabah State Government, 1981] The intention had been to form Malaysia on August 31 but due to objection from the Philippines and Indonesia, the formation had to be postponed to September 16.Fact|date=January 2008 On September 16, 1963, North Borneo together with Malaya, Sarawakand Singaporeformed the Federation of Malaysiaand from then on, it became known as Sabah and declared independent from British sovereignty. [http://www.sabah.org.my/bi/know_sabah/history.asp "Sabah's Heritage: A Brief Introduction to Sabah's History"] , "Muzium Sabah, Kota Kinabalu". 1992] Ramlah binti Adam, Abdul Hakim bin Samuri, Muslimin bin Fadzil: "Sejarah Tingkatan 3, Buku teks", published by Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka (2005)] To safeguard the interest of North Borneo in the new federation, a 20-point agreement was entered into between the federal and the state government.
Sultanate of Suluwas granted the territory as a prize for helping the Sultan of Brunei against his enemies and from then on that part of Borneowas recognized as part of the Sultan of Sulu's sovereignty. In 1878, Baron Von Overbeck, an Austrian partner representing The British North Borneo Companyand his British partner Alfred Dent, leased the territory of Sabah. In return, the company was to provide arms to the Sultan to resist the Spaniards and 5,000 Malayan dollars annual rental based on the Mexican dollar's value at that time or its equivalent in gold. This lease was continued until the independence and formation of the Malaysian federation in 1963 together with Singapore, Sarawakand the states of Malaya. As of 2004, the Malaysian Embassy to the Philippines had been paying cession/rental money amounting to US$1,500 per year (about 6,300 Malaysian Ringgits) to the heirs of the Sultanate of Sulu. [ [http://www.royalsulu.com/issues.html] , "Cession Money/Rental Money Year 2003/2004 From Malaysian Embassy in the Philippines". Accessed August 10, 2008.]
The contract between Sri Paduka Maulana Al Sultan Mohammad Jamalul Alam, representing the sultanate as owner and sovereign of Sabah on one hand, and that of Gustavus Baron de Overbeck and Alfred Dent representing the North Borneo Company, on the other as lessees of Sabah, was executed on January 22, 1878. The Lease prohibits the transfer of Sabah to any nation, company or individual without the consent of His Majesty’s Government (“Government of the Sultan of Sulu”). [ [http://www.royalsulu.com/issues.html] , "The Deed of Sabah Lease of 1878" Accessed March 1, 2008.] . Although it is mentioned to be a permanent lease, it is contrary to international law, which states that the terms for a lease contract can only be for 99 years, as in the case of
Hong Kongand Macauwhen these were leased to Great Britain and Portugalrespectively, by Chinaand subsequently returned after the expiration of the lease.Fact|date=July 2008 This would make the lease on Sabah overdue by 130 years.Fact|date=July 2008
Less than a decade later, the Sultanate of Sulu came under the control of Spain and in 1885, Spain relinquished all of its claim to Borneo to the British in the
Madrid Protocol of 1885. [Protocol of 1885. Sabah Law. Extracted June 3 2008]
In spite of that, in 1906 and 1920 the
United Statesformally reminded Great Britainthat Sabah did not belong to them and was still part of the Sultanate of Sulu on the premise that Spain never acquired sovereignty over North Borneo to transfer all its claims of sovereignty over North Borneo to Great Britain on the Madrid Protocol of 1885. This is so because the Sultan of Sulu did not include his territory and dominion in North Borneo in signing the treaty of 1878 recognizing the Spanish sovereignty over “Jolo and its dependencies.” North Borneo was never considered a dependency of Jolo. However, the British Government ignored the reminder and still annexed the territory of North Borneo as a Crown Colony on July 10, 1946. This was in spite of the fact that the British Government was aware of the decision made by the High Court of North Borneo on December 19, 1939, that the successor of the Sultan in the territory of Sabah was the Government of the Philippine Islandsand not Great Britain. [ [http://www.royalsulu.com/transfer.html] , "Instrument of Cession of the Territory of North Borneo to the Republic of the Philippines. (7th "whereas" clause)". Accessed March 1, 2008.]
On September 12, 1962, during President
Diosdado Macapagal's administration (the father of the present Philippine president, Gloria Macapagal Arroyo), the territory of North Borneo, and the full sovereignty, title and dominion over the territory were ceded by the then reigning Sultan of Sulu, HM Sultan Muhammad Esmail E. Kiram I, to the Republic of the Philippines. [ [http://www.royalsulu.com/transfer.html] , "Sabah Transfer of Sovereignty From the Sultanate of Sulu to the Republic of the Philippines". Accessed March 1, 2008.] The cession effectively gave the Philippine government the full authority to pursue their claim in international courts. The Philippinesbroke diplomatic relations with Malaysia after the federation had included Sabah in 1963. It was revoked in 1989 because succeeding Philippine administrations have placed the claim in the back burner in the interest of pursuing cordial economic and security relations with Kuala Lumpur. [ [http://www.asianjournal.com/cgi-bin/view_info.cgi?code=5867] , "Come clean on Sabah, Sulu sultan urge gov't". Accessed March 1, 2008.] To date, Malaysia continues to consistently reject Philippine calls to resolve the matter of Sabah's jurisdiction to the International Court of Justice. [ [http://www.epilipinas.com/SabahClaim.htm] , "Philippine's Claim To Sabah". Accessed February 28, 2008.]
The western part of Sabah is generally mountainous, containing the three highest mountains in Malaysia. The most prominent range is the
Crocker Rangewhich houses several mountains of varying height from about 1,000 metres to 4,000 metres. At the height of 4,095 metres, Mount Kinabaluis the highest mountain in Malaysia and the mountain is the fourth tallest in Southeast Asia behind Hkakabo Raziof Myanmar(5881 m), Puncak Jaya(4884 m) and Puncak Trikora (4750 m) of Papua, Indonesia. The jungles of Sabah are classified as rainforestsand host a diverse array of plant and animal species. Kinabalu National Parkwas inscribed as a World Heritage Sitein 2000 because of its richness in plant diversity combined with its unique geological, topographical, and climatic conditions. [ [http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1012 Kinabalu Park - Justification for inscription] , "UNESCO World Heritage Centre". Accessed June 24, 2007.]
Lying nearby Mount Kinabalu is
Mount Tambuyukon. At a height of 2,579 metres, it is the third highest peak in the country. Adjacent to the Crocker Range is the Trus Madi Rangewhich houses the second highest peak in the country, Mount Trus Madi, at a height of 2,642 metres. There are lower ranges of hills extending towards the western coasts, southern plains, and the interior or central part of Sabah. These mountains and hills are traversed by an extensive network of river valleys and are in most cases covered with dense rainforest.
The central and eastern portion of Sabah are generally lower mountain ranges and plains with occasional hills.
Kinabatangan Riverbegins from the western ranges and snakes its way through the central region towards the east coast out into the Sulu Sea. It is the second longest river in Malaysia after Rejang Riverat a length of 560 kilometres. The forests surrounding the river valley also contains an array of wildlife habitats, and is the largest forest-covered floodplain in Malaysia. [ [http://www.panda.org/about_wwf/where_we_work/asia_pacific/where/malaysia/wwf_malaysia_conservation/kinabatangan/index.cfm About the Kinabatangan area] , "WWF". Accessed August 4, 2007.]
Other important wildlife regions in Sabah include
Maliau Basin, Danum Valley, Tabin, and Sepilok. These places are either designated as national parks, wildlife reserves, virgin jungle reserves, or protection forest reserve.
Over three quarters of the human population inhabit the coastal plains. Major
towns and urban centers have sprouted along the coasts of Sabah. The interior region remains sparsely populated with only villages, and the occasional small towns or townships.
Beyond the coasts of Sabah lie a number of
islandsand coral reefs, including the largest island in Malaysia, Pulau Banggi. Other large islands include, Pulau Jambongan, Pulau Balambangan, Pulau Timbun Mata, Pulau Bumbun, and Pulau Sebatik. Other popular islands mainly for tourism are, Pulau Sipadan, Pulau Selingan, Pulau Gaya, Pulau Tiga, and Pulau Layang-Layang.
tate government structure
Sabah has a
democratic political systemwith universal suffrage. The Yang di-Pertua Negerisits at the top of the hierarchy followed by the state legislative assembly and the state cabinet. A general electionfor state and federal level officials is held every five years. The state parliament or the state legislative assembly meets at the state capital, Kota Kinabalu. The state is divided into 25 parliamentary constituencies and 60 state assembly districts where each is represented by an elected Member of Parliament (MP) and Member of the State Legislative Assembly respectively.
The present elected state and federal government posts are held by
Barisan Nasional(BN), a coalitionof parties which includes United Malays National Organisation(UMNO), Sabah Progressive Party(SAPP), United Pasokmomogun Kadazandusun Murut Organisation(UPKO), Parti Bersatu Rakyat Sabah(PBRS), Parti Bersatu Sabah(PBS), Liberal Democratic Party (LDP), and Malaysian Chinese Association(MCA).Fact|date=December 2007
The last state election was in 2004 and as of 2006, the state legislature has 60 members. It comprises 59 BN state legislature members (Ahli Dewan Undangan Negeri) and a single independent. Of this, 32 are from UMNO, 13 from PBS, 5 from UPKO, 4 from the SAPP, 3 from LDP, and one each from MCA and PBRS. [ [http://www.sabah.gov.my/dun/utama_files/Web_Page/adun/Senarai_ADUN.htm Senarai ahli Dewan Undangan Negeri Sabah] , "sabah.gov.my". Accessed August 4, 2007.]
:"See also: Breakdown of state seats representatives in Sabah elected 2008
The political climate
Prior to the formation of Malaysia in 1963, the then
North Borneointerim government submitted a 20-point agreement to the Malayan government as conditions before Sabah would join the Federation. Sabah entered Malaysiaas an autonomous state with a Christian Kadazan-Dusunchief minister, but soon succumbed to Kuala Lumpur's vision of a one-partyunitary Islamicstate dominated by the indigenous Muslim Bajauand Brunei Malay people. This has created considerable friction and even occasional calls for secession. These tensions are further inflamed by Kuala Lumpur's colonial mentality towards Sabah, wherein 95% of the profits from Sabah's immense natural resources are taken by the federal government, leaving the state government with only 5%. Aside from nominally separate immigration controls, little evidence remains of Sabah's theoretical autonomy.
Malaysian general election, 2008, Sabah, along with the states of Kelantanand Terengganu, are the only three states in Malaysia that had ever been ruled by opposition parties not part of the ruling BN coalition. Led by Datuk Seri Joseph Pairin Kitingan, PBS formed government after winning the 1985 elections and ruled Sabah until 1994. Due to certain internal troubles, BN took over the government in 1994 despite PBS winning the elections. PBS subsequently joined the BN coalition in 2002.
A unique feature of Sabah politics was a policy initiated by the BN in 1994 whereby the chief minister's post is rotated among the coalition parties every 2 years regardless of the party in power at the time, thus theoretically giving an equal amount of time for each major ethnic group to rule the state. This extremely weakens the executive branch of the state government, which was formerly much at odds with the federal government in
Kuala Lumpur. It also serves to give a disproportionate power to the indigenous Muslim Bajauethnic group, at the expense of the mainly Christian indigenous Kadazan-Dusun, the largest ethnic group. This practice has since stopped with power now held by majority in the state assembly by the UMNO party, which also holds a majority in the national parliament.
There has been a conspiracy theory that the chief minister post rotation system was implemented to allow UMNO to control the post permanently by abolishing the whole system once it was UMNO's turn to hold the post. It has never been proven but it is considered impossible for UMNO to get a hold of the post through any other method. The conspiracy theory was brought up once again when a division from UMNO proposed to implement the same rotation system in Penang, one of the two states which is currently not controlled by UMNO but is under BN rule (the other state being
Sarawak). The proposal was raised even though UMNO abolished the system in Sabah by declaring it a failure.Fact|date=February 2007
UMNO had a quick rise to power since its entry into Sabah in 1991 where before that both eastern Malaysian states were not penetrated by the party, whose president is the de facto leader of the ruling coalition BN and automatically the Prime Minister of Malaysia. This has given rise to dissent as the chief minister rotation system was halted just as UMNO was holding the post. Thus the 2004 general elections saw widespread disillusionment, coupled with an ineffectual opposition. The state assembly is now dominated by the ruling party BN with only one seat held by an opposition politician who is an independent candidate. This was caused by a general sentiment where a number of voters were reluctant to cast votes for BN whose victory was almost assured but did not trust the opposition parties, most of which were not vigorously active before the election. Therefore many cast votes for independent candidates.
Sabah politics, as are Malaysia's, is very much based upon party lines. An effort by PBS, a component party of BN, to hatch a co-operation with the one opposition candidate within the state assembly, who conversely was a former UMNO member competing independently because he was not nominated for the constituency by his party, in an unprecedented attempt at bipartisanship, was harshly criticized by UPKO, another component party of BN.
Chief Ministers of Sabah
eco-tourism, is a major contributor to the economy of Sabah. In 2006, 2,000,000 tourists visited Sabah [ [http://www.sabahtourism.com/statistics/dec2006.htm Sabah : Visitors Arrival by Nationality 2006] , "Sabah Tourism Board". Accessed August 4, 2007.] and it is estimated that the number will continue to rise following vigorous promotional activities by the state and national tourism boards and also increased stability and security in the region. Sabah currently has six national parks. One of these, the Kinabalu National Park, was designated as a World Heritage Sitein 2000. It is the first of two sites in Malaysia to obtain this status, the other being the Gunung Mulu National Parkin Sarawak. These parks are maintained and controlled by Sabah Parksunder the Parks Enactment 1984. The Sabah Wildlife Departmentalso has conservation, utilization, and management responsibilities. [cite web |url=http://www.sabah.gov.my/jhl/About.htm |title=About Sabah Wildlife Department |accessdate=2007-11-12]
Mount Kinabalu National Park- the second highest mountain in Southeast Asiawith an altitude of 4,101 metres (13,455 ft). It is only lower than Puncak Jayain Irian Jayaon the island of New Guinea, Indonesiaat 4,884 metres.
Turtle Islands Park- conservation efforts for endangered sea turtles
Tunku Abdul Rahman Park- A national park consisting of five islands off the coast of Kota Kinabalu
Pulau Tiga National Park
Crocker Range National Park
Tawau Hills Park
Politics and governance
Mat Sallehwas a Suluk-Bajau who led a rebellion against British North Borneo Company administration in North Borneo. Under his leadership, the rebellion which lasted from 1894 to 1900 razed the British Administration Centre on Pulau Gaya and exercised control over Menggatal, Inanam, Ranau and Tambunan. The rebellion was by Bajaus, Dusuns and Muruts.
Another notable Sabahan is Donald Stephens who helped form the state of Sabah under the UN appointed Cobbold commission. He was an initial opponent of Malaysia but was persuaded by
Lee Kuan Yewwith an offer of 8 university places for Sabahan students at the University of Malaya, SingaporeFact|date=January 2008.
Donald Stephens was the first "Huguan Siou" or paramount leader of the
Kadazan-dusunand Murutpeople. Tun Datu Mustaphawas a Suluk-Kagayan Muslim political leader in Sabah through the United Sabah National Organisation (USNO) party. He was a vocal supporter of Malaysia but fell out of favor with Malayan leaders despite forming UMNO branches in Saba and deregistering USNO. Efforts to reregister USNO have not been allowed, unlike UMNO that was allowed to be reregistered under the same name. [http://www.malaysia.net/lists/sangkancil/1999-03/msg00798.html "M.G.G. Pillai"] . URL last accessed on Jan 13, 2008Fact|date=September 2007
Former Chief Minister
Joseph Pairin Kitinganis the current Huguan Siou and the President of Parti Bersatu Sabah(PBS). Pairin, the longest serving chief minister of the state and one of the first Kadazandusun lawyers, was known for his defiance of the federal government in the 1980s and 90s in promoting the rights of Sabah and speaking out against the illegal immigrant problems. Sabah was at the time one of only two states with opposition governments in power, the other being Kelantan. PBS has since rejoined BN and Datuk Pairin is currently the Deputy Chief Minister of Sabah.
The 8th and current
Attorney General of Malaysia, Abdul Gani Patail, comes from Sabah.
Penampang-born Richard Malanjum was appointed Chief Judge of Sabah and Sarawak and became the first Kadazandusunto hold such a post.
Sabah has produced a fair number of well-known media figures. Noteworthy mentions include filmmaker Tony Francis Gitom; television presenter Daphne Iking; Guess model
Amber Chia; JIAJA (Blast Off! Season 2 Champion; Band); actresses Fung Bo Bo, Chung Shuk Wai; and musicians Roger Wang, Pete Teo, Jerome Kugan, Mia Palencia, Yan Qing, Gary Cao, Maryanne Raymond (a.k.a. DJ Mary of TraxxFm), Constantine Anthony(a.k.a. DJ Constantine of TraxxFm), Shahrizan Ferouz(a.k.a. DJ The Shaz of TraxxFm), Fadhil bin Luqman (a.k.a. DJ Fad Da Dillio on TraxxFm), John Paul Lee (a.k.a. DJ Johnboy Lee of Hitz.FM & Bigfish Radio), Nikki Palikat (Malaysian Idol finalist), Richael Gimbang (Estranged), Felix Agus, Linda Nanuwil, Adam (KRU Artist), Stacy (Akademi Fantasia 6 Winner), Ayu (Winner OIAM season 2), Farish Aziz (Astro's Ronda 360 darjah and Fulus mania).
Matlan Marjanis a former player for Malaysia. He scored two goals against England in an international friendly on June 12, 1991. The English team included Stuart Pearce, David Batty, David Platt, Nigel Clough, Gary Lineker, was captained by Bryan Robson and coached by Bobby Robson. [ [http://www.englandfc.com/MatchData/showmatchdetails.php?mid=666 EnglandFC Match Data ] ] No other Malaysian player managed to achieve this.Fact|date=January 2008 In 1995, he along with six other Sabah players, were arrested on suspicion ofmatch-fixing. Although the charges were dropped, he was prevented from playing professional football and was banished to another district. [cite news | first= | last= | coauthors= | title=No charges against Sabah six | date= 1995-07-14| url = | publisher =Bernama | pages = | accessdate = 2008-01-14 | language = ] [cite news | first= | last= | coauthors= | title=Four Sabah soccer players banished to remote area | date= 1995-10-04| url = | publisher =Bernama | pages = | accessdate = 2008-01-14 | language = ] He was punished under the Internal Security Act (which allows for indefinite detention without any trial, despite being proven innocent, and even on non-security related issues).Fact|date=September 2007
Arts and entertainment
Many Sabahans contestants have attained high-placing results on local shows such as "Malaysian Idol", "Akademi Fantasia", "Gangstarz" and "Blast-Off". Some notable contestants are
Nicolette Palikat, Adam from AF2, Marsha Londoh, Felix Agus, Norlinda Nanuwil, Rich of Estranged, Stacy of E-voke, Alvin of Infinatez and the band Jiaja. Sabah's first homegrown film was "Orang Kita", starring Abu Bakar Ellah.
Some films and TV shows filmed in Sabah include the first season of reality show "", "The Amazing Race", "Eco-Challenge Borneo", films "
Bat*21", and "Sacred Planet", as well as a number of Hong Kong production films. Sabah was also featured in "Sacred Planet", a documentary hosted by Robert Redford.
Daling-daling is now the preferred dancing routine among Sabahan Suluks and Bajaus. In its original form, it was a dance which combined Arabic belly dancing and the Indian dances common in this region, complete with long artificial finger nails and golden head gear accompanied by a Suluk song called daling-daling which is a love story. Its main characteristic is the large hip and breast swings but nowadays it is danced with a faster tempo but less swings, called Igal-igal.
Sabah's first established newspaper was the
New Sabah Times. The newspaper was founded by Tun Fuad Stephens, who later became the first Chief Ministerof Sabah.
Agnes Newton Keithlived in Sandakan between 1934-1952 and wrote several books about Sabah.
In the Earl Mac Rauch novelization of "
Buckaroo Banzai" (Pocket Books, 1984; repr. 2001), and in the DVD commentary, Buckaroo's archenemy Hanoi Xan is said to have his secret base in Sabah, in a "relic city of caves."
* Gudgeon, L. W. W. 1913. "British North Borneo". Adam and Charles Black, London.
* Chin, Ung-Ho. 1999. 'Kataks', Kadazan-Dusun Nationalism and Development: The 1999 Sabah State Election (Regime Change And Regime Maintenance In Asia And The Pacific Series No 24, Department Of Political And Social Change, Research School Of Pacific And Asian Studies, Australian National University) (ISBN 0-7315-2678-3)
* [http://www.sabah.gov.my/ Sabah Government]
* [http://www.sabahlaw.com/ Laws of Sabah ]
* [http://www.kinabaluweb.com/history.html History of Sabah] - Written by C. Buckley, 1968
* [http://www.sabahtourism.com/sabah-malaysian-borneo/en/home/ Sabah Tourism Board Official Website] , the premiere information hub of the Sabah tourism industry. (Sabah Malaysian Borneo)
* [http://www.dailyexpress.com.my Daily Express, the local newspaper with the largest circulation in Sabah]
* [http://www.panda.org/heart-of-borneo/ WWF Heart of Borneo conservation initiative] - Information about the Heart of Borneo - 220,000 km² of upland montane tropical rainforest, where endangered species such as the orang-utan, rhinoceros and pygmy elephant cling for survival.
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