Newfoundland and Labrador

Newfoundland and Labrador
Newfoundland and Labrador
Flag Coat of arms
Motto: Quaerite prime regnum Dei
English: Seek ye first the kingdom of God (Matthew 6:33)
Capital St. John's
Largest city St. John's
Largest metro St. John's CMA
Official languages English (de facto)
Demonym Newfoundlander, Labradorian (see notes),[1]
Type Constitutional monarchy
Lieutenant-Governor John Crosbie
Premier Kathy Dunderdale (PC)
Legislature Newfoundland and Labrador House of Assembly
Federal representation in Canadian parliament
House seats 7 of 308 (2.3%)
Senate seats 6 of 105 (5.7%)
Confederation 31 March 1949 (12th)
Area  Ranked 10th
Total 405,212 km2 (156,453 sq mi)
Land 373,872 km2 (144,353 sq mi)
Water (%) 31,340 km2 (12,100 sq mi) (7.7%)
Proportion of Canada 4.1% of 9,984,670 km2
Population  Ranked 9th
Total (2010) 508,400 (2011)[2]
Density (2010) 1.36 /km2 (3.5 /sq mi)
Proportion of Canada 1.5% of 34,657,000
GDP  Ranked 9th
Total (2008) C$31,277 million[3]
Per capita C$61,670[4] (4th)
Postal NL (formerly NF)
ISO 3166-2 CA-NL
Time zone UTC−3.5 for Newfoundland
UTC−4 for Labrador (Black Tickle and North)
Postal code prefix A
  Pitcher plant
Picea mariana.jpg
  Black Spruce
Puffin (2).jpg
  Atlantic Puffin
Rankings include all provinces and territories

Newfoundland and Labrador /njuːfnˈlænd ənd ˈlæbrədɔr/ is the easternmost province of Canada. Situated in the country's Atlantic region, it incorporates the island of Newfoundland and mainland Labrador (located Northwest of the island) with a combined area of 405,212 square kilometres (156,500 sq mi). As of April 2011, the province's estimated population is 508,400.[2] Approximately 94 percent of the province's population resides on the Island of Newfoundland (including its associated smaller islands), of which over half live on the Avalon Peninsula. The Island of Newfoundland has its own dialects of English, French, and Irish. The English dialect in Labrador is similar to that of Newfoundland. Labrador also has its own dialects of Innu-aimun and Inuktitut.

Newfoundland and Labrador's capital and largest city, St. John's, is Canada's 20th-largest Census Metropolitan Area, and is home to nearly 40 percent of the province's population. St. John's is the seat of government, home to the House of Assembly of Newfoundland and Labrador and the highest court in the jurisdiction, the Newfoundland and Labrador Court of Appeal.

A former colony and dominion of the United Kingdom, Newfoundland and Labrador became the tenth province to enter the Canadian Confederation on March 31, 1949, as Newfoundland. On December 6, 2001, an amendment was made to the Constitution of Canada to change the province's official name to Newfoundland and Labrador.[5] In day-to-day conversation, however, Canadians generally still refer to the province itself as Newfoundland and to the region on the Canadian mainland as Labrador.

The name Newfoundland is derived from English as "New Found Land" (a translation from the Latin Terra Nova). The origin of Labrador is uncertain; it is credited to both João Fernandes Lavrador, a Portuguese explorer, and lavrador – a title meaning "landholder".[6]




The Beothuk tribe of Newfoundland is extinct. It is represented in museum, historical and archaeological records.

Human habitation in Newfoundland and Labrador can be traced back about 9000 years.[7] The Maritime Archaic peoples were groups of Archaic cultures of sea-mammal hunters in the subarctic.[8] They prospered from approximately 7,000 BC – 1,500 BC (9,000 – 3,500 years ago) along the Atlantic Coast of North America.[9] Their settlements included longhouses and boat-topped temporary or seasonal houses.[8] They engaged in long-distance trade, using as currency white chert, a rock quarried from northern Labrador to Maine.[10] The Maritime Archaic period is best known from a mortuary site in Newfoundland at Port au Choix.[8] The Maritime Archaic peoples were gradually displaced by people of the Dorset Culture (last major Paleo-Eskimo) and then by the Inuit in Labrador and the Beothuks on the island of Newfoundland. The Dorset Culture (800 BC – 1500) were highly adapted to living in a very cold climate, and much of their food came from hunting sea mammals through holes in the ice.[11] The massive decline in sea-ice which the Medieval Warm Period produced would have had a devastating impact upon their way of life.[11]

The appearance of the Beothuk culture is believed the most recent cultural manifestation of peoples who first migrated from Labrador to Newfoundland around 1 AD.[12] Inuit are the descendants of what anthropologists call the Thule culture, who emerged from western Alaska around 1000 AD and spread eastwards across the Arctic, reaching Labrador around 1300–1500.[13] Researchers believe that the Dorset culture lacked dogs, larger weapons and other technologies that gave the expanding Inuit society an advantage.[14] With the passage of time, groups started to focus on resources available to them locally. The inhabitants eventually organized themselves into small bands of a few families, grouped into larger tribes and chieftainships. The Innu are the inhabitants of an area they refer to as Nitassinan, which comprises most of what is now referred to as northeastern Quebec and Labrador. Their subsistence activities were historically centred on hunting and trapping caribou, moose, deer and small game.[15] Coastal clans also practised agriculture, fished, and managed maple sugarbush.[15] The Innu engaged in tribal warfare along the coast of Labrador with the Inuit groups that had significant populations.[16] The Míkmaq of the southern Newfoundland spent most of their time on the shores harvesting seafood; during the winter they would move inland to the woods to hunt.[17] Over time, the Mi'kmaq and Innu divided their lands into traditional "districts". Each district was independently governed and had a district chief and a council. The council members were band chiefs, elders, and other worthy community leaders.[18] In addition to the district councils, the Mi'kmaq tribes also had (have) a Grand Council or Santé Mawiómi that according to oral tradition was formed before 1600.[19]

European contact

L'Anse aux Meadows on Newfoundland, site of a Norse colony.

The oldest accounts of European contact was made over a thousand years ago as described in the Viking (Norse) Icelandic Sagas. Around the year 1001, the sagas refer to Leif Ericson landing in three places to the west,[20] the first two being Helluland (possibly Baffin Island) and Markland (possibly Labrador).[21][22][23] Leif's third landing was at a place he called Vinland (possibly Newfoundland).[24] Archaeological evidence of a Norse settlement was found in L'Anse aux Meadows, Newfoundland, which was declared a World Heritage site by UNESCO in 1978.[25][26]

Based on the Treaty of Tordesillas, the Portuguese Crown claimed it had territorial rights in the area visited by John Cabot in 1497 and 1498.[27] Historians disagree on whether Cabot, commissioned by King Henry VII of England, landed in Nova Scotia in 1497 or in Newfoundland. In 1499 and 1500, the Portuguese mariner João Fernandes Lavrador visited the north Atlantic coast, which accounts for the appearance of "Labrador" on topographical maps of the period.[28] Subsequently, in 1501 and 1502 the Corte-Real brothers explored Newfoundland and Labrador, claiming them as part of the Portuguese Empire.[29][30] In 1506, king Manuel I of Portugal created taxes for the cod fisheries in Newfoundland waters.[31] João Álvares Fagundes and Pêro de Barcelos established fishing outposts in Newfoundland and Nova Scotia around 1521; however, these were later abandoned, with the Portuguese colonizers focusing their efforts on South America.[32] Sir Humphrey Gilbert, provided with letters patent from Queen Elizabeth I, landed in St John's in August 1583, and formally took possession of the island.[33][34]

Colony of Newfoundland 1610–1728

Newfoundland became one of the first permanent English colonies in the New World[35] From 1610 to 1728, Proprietary Governors were appointed to establish colonial settlements on the island. John Guy was governor of the first settlement at Cuper's Cove. Other settlements were Bristol's Hope, Renews, New Cambriol, South Falkland and Avalon which became a province in 1623. The first governor given jurisdiction over all of Newfoundland was Sir David Kirke in 1638.

Explorers soon realized that the waters around Newfoundland had the best fishing in the North Atlantic.[36] By 1620, 300 fishing boats worked the Grand Bank, employing some 10,000 sailors; many were French or Basques from Spain. They dried and salted the cod on the coast and sold it to Spain and Portugal. Heavy investment by Sir George Calvert, 1st Baron Baltimore, in the 1620s in wharves, warehouses, and fishing stations failed to pay off. French raids hurt the business, and the weather was terrible, so he redirected his attention to his other colony in Maryland.[37] After Calvert left, small-scale entrepreneurs such as Sir David Kirke made good use of the facilities. Kirke became the first governor in 1639.[38] A triangular trade with New England, the West Indies, and Europe gave Newfoundland an important economic role. By the 1670s there were 1700 permanent residents and another 4500 in the summer months.[39]

The Newfoundland Red Ensign - civil ensign of Newfoundland from 1904 to 1965.[40]

Basque fishermen, who had been fishing cod shoals off Newfoundland's coasts since the beginning of the fifteenth century, founded Plaisance (today Placentia), a haven which started to be also used by French fishermen. In 1655, France appointed a governor in Plaisance, thus starting a formal French colonization period of Newfoundland.[41] The rest of the island was nearly conquered by New France explorer Pierre Le Moyne d'Iberville in the 1690s. The Mi'kmaq, as allies with the French, were amenable to limited French settlement in their midst. After France lost political control of the area after the Siege of Port Royal in 1710, the Mí'kmaq engaged in warfare with the British throughout Dummer's War, King George's War, Father Le Loutre's War and the French and Indian War. The French colonization period lasted until the Treaty of Utrecht, in 1713, which ended the War of the Spanish Succession. France ceded its claims to Newfoundland to the British (as well as its claims to the shores of Hudson Bay). In addition, the French possessions in Acadia were yielded to England. Afterward, under the supervision of the last French governor, the French population of Plaisance moved to Île Royale (now Cape Breton Island), part of Acadia which remained then under French control.

The Union Flag - official flag of the Dominion of Newfoundland from 1931 to 1949 and official flag of the province of Newfoundland until 1980.[40]

In the Treaty of Utrecht (1713), France acknowledged British ownership of the island. However, in the Seven Years War (1756–63), control of Newfoundland became a major source of conflict between Britain, France and Spain who all pressed for a share in the valuable fishery there. Britain's victories around the globe led William Pitt to insist that nobody other than Britain should have access to Newfoundland. The Battle of Signal Hill was fought in Newfoundland in 1762, when a French force landed and tried to occupy the island, only to be repulsed by the British. In 1796 a Franco-Spanish expedition succeeded in raiding the coasts of Newfoundland and Labrador.

By the Treaty of Utrecht (1713), French fishermen were given the right to land and cure fish on the "French Shore" on the western coast. They had a permanent base on nearby St. Pierre and Miquelon islands; the French gave up their rights in 1904. In 1783, the British signed the Treaty of Paris with the United States that gave American fishermen similar rights along the coast. These rights were reaffirmed by treaties in 1818, 1854 and 1871 and confirmed by arbitration in 1910.

In 1854 the British government established Newfoundland's Responsible government.[42] In 1855, Philip Francis Little, a native of Prince Edward Island, won a parliamentary majority over Sir Hugh Hoyles and the Conservatives. Little formed the first administration from 1855 to 1858. Newfoundland rejected confederation with Canada in the 1869 general election. Prime Minister of Canada Sir John Thompson came very close to negotiating Newfoundland's entry into Confederation in 1892.

Dominion of Newfoundland

Newfoundland remained a colony until acquiring Dominion status in 1907.[43] A dominion constituted a self-governing state of the British Empire or British Commonwealth and the Dominion of Newfoundland was relatively autonomous from British rule.[43]

Newfoundland's own regiment, the 1st Newfoundland Regiment, fought in the First World War. On July 1, 1916, the German Army nearly wiped out the entire regiment at Beaumont Hamel on the first day on the Somme.[44] The regiment went on to serve with distinction in several subsequent battles, earning the prefix "Royal." Despite people's pride in the accomplishments of the regiment, the Dominion's war debt due to the regiment and the cost of maintaining a trans-island railway led to increased and ultimately unsustainable government debt in the post-war era.

It was during this period of dominion status that the Labrador mainland and the island of Newfoundland merged into a single political entity.[43] Since the early 1800s, Newfoundland and Quebec (or Lower Canada) had been in a border dispute over the Labrador region. In 1927, however, the British government ruled that the area known as modern day Labrador was to be considered part of the Dominion of Newfoundland.[43]

Due to Newfoundland's high debt load and the loss of faith in the government the Newfoundland legislature voted itself temporarily out of existence in 1933.[45] On 16 February 1934, responsible government came to an end when the Commission of Government was sworn in, ending 79 years of responsible government.[45] The Commission consisted of seven persons appointed by the British government. For 15 years no elections took place, and no legislature was convened.[46]

When prosperity returned to the colony in 1942 agitation began to end the Commission.[47] Newfoundland, with a population of 313,000 (plus 5,200 in Labrador), seemed too small to be independent.[48] The British government decided to let Newfoundlanders deliberate and choose their own future by calling a National Convention in 1946. Chaired by Judge Cyril J. Fox, it consisted of 45 elected members one of whom was the future first premier of Newfoundland, Joey Smallwood.[49]

How the electorate voted in the 1948 referendum

The Convention set up committees to study where Newfoundland's future lay. Many members assumed that the final decision was due near the end of their deliberations, but the timeline was upset when Smallwood moved that the Convention should send a delegation to Ottawa to discuss a union in October 1946.[49] His motion was defeated, although the Convention later decided to send delegations to both London and Ottawa.[50][51]

Three main factions actively campaigned during the lead up to the referendums. One faction, led by Smallwood, was the Confederate Association (CA) advocating union with the Canadian Confederation. They campaigned through a newspaper known as The Confederate. The Responsible Government League (RGL), led by Peter Cashin, advocated an independent Newfoundland with a return to responsible government. They also had their own newspaper The Independent. A third smaller Economic Union Party (EUP), led by Chesley Crosbie, advocated closer economic ties with the United States. The EUP failed to gain much attention, and merged with the RGL after the first referendum.[52]

The first referendum took place on June 3, 1948, 44.5% of people voted for responsible government, 41.1% voted for confederation with Canada, while 14.3% voted for Commission of Government. Since none of the choices had gained over 50%, a second referendum with only the two most popular choices was held on July 22, 1948. In that referendum 52.3% voted for confederation with Canada while 47.7% voted for responsible government.[53] As the results of the binding referendum were to join Canada, Newfoundland began to negotiate with Canada to enter into Confederation. After negotiations were completed, the British Government received the terms and subsequently passed the British North America Act, 1949 in the British House of Commons. Newfoundland officially joined Canada at midnight, March 31, 1949.[53]


Churchill Falls in Labrador

Newfoundland and Labrador is the most easterly province in Canada, and is located on the north-eastern corner of North America.[54] The Strait of Belle Isle separates the province into two geographical divisions, Labrador, which is a large land mass connected to mainland Canada, and Newfoundland, which is an island surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean.[55] The province also includes over 7,000 tiny islands.[56] Newfoundland is roughly triangular, with each side being approximately 400 km (250 mi), and has an area of 108,860 km2 (42,030 sq mi).[56] Newfoundland and its associated small islands have a total area of 111,390 km2 (43,010 sq mi).[57] Newfoundland extends between latitudes 46°36′N and 51°38′N.[58][59]

Labrador is an irregular shape: the western part of its border with Quebec is the drainage divide of the Labrador Peninsula. Lands drained by rivers that flow into the Atlantic Ocean are part of Labrador, the rest belong to Quebec. Labrador’s extreme northern tip, at 60°22′N, shares a short border with Nunavut. Labrador’s area (including associated small islands) is 294,330 km2 (113,640 sq mi).[57] Together, Newfoundland and Labrador make up 4.06 % of Canada’s area.[60]

Labrador is the easternmost part of the Canadian Shield, a vast area of ancient metamorphic rock comprising much of northeastern North America. Colliding tectonic plates have shaped much of the geology of Newfoundland. Gros Morne National Park has a reputation as an outstanding example of tectonics at work,[61] and as such has been designated a World Heritage Site. The Long Range Mountains on Newfoundland's west coast are the northeasternmost extension of the Appalachian Mountains.[55]

The north-south extent of the province (46°36′N to 60°22′N), prevalent westerly winds, cold ocean currents and local factors such as mountains and coastline combine to create the various climates of the province.[62] Northern Labrador is classified as a polar tundra climate, southern Labrador has a subarctic climate while most of Newfoundland would be humid continental climate, Dfb: Cool summer subtype.


Newfoundland and Labrador is home to a variety of climates and weather.[63] One of the main reasons for this diversity is the geography of the province. The province spans 5.5 degrees of latitude, which is comparable to that of the Great Lakes.[63] The province has been divided into six climate types, but in broader terms Newfoundland has a cool summer subtype of a humid continental climate, which is greatly influenced by the sea since no part of the island is more than 100 km (62 mi) from the ocean. Northern Labrador is classified as a polar tundra climate, southern Labrador have a subarctic climate.[64]

Monthly average temperatures, rainfall and snowfall for four communities are shown in the attached graphs. St. John's represents the east coast, Gander the interior of the island, Corner Brook the west coast of the island and Wabush the interior of Labrador. The detailed information and information for 73 communities in the province is available from a government website.[65] The data used in making the graphs is the average taken over thirty years. Error bars on the temperature graph indicate the range of daytime highs and night time lows. Snowfall is the total amount which fell during the month, not the amount accumulated on the ground. This distinction is particularly important for St. John's where a heavy snowfall can be followed by rain so that no snow remains on the ground.

Surface water temperatures on the Atlantic side reach a summer average of 12 °C (54 °F) inshore and 9 °C (48 °F) offshore to winter lows of −1 °C (30 °F) inshore and 2 °C (36 °F) offshore.[66] Sea temperatures on the west coast are warmer than Atlantic side by 1 to 3 °C (1 to 5 °F). The sea keeps winter temperatures slightly higher and summer temperatures a little lower on the coast than at places inland.[66] The maritime climate produces more variable weather, ample precipitation in a variety of forms, greater humidity, lower visibility, more clouds, less sunshine, and higher winds than a continental climate.[66]

'Average daily maximum and minimum temperatures for selected locations in Newfoundland and Labrador'[67]
Location July (°C) July (°F) January (°C) January (°F)
St. John’s 20/11 68/52 −1/−9 30/16
Gander 21/11 °C 71/51 −3/−12 26/11
Corner Brook 22/13 71/55 −3/−10 28/15
Stephenville 23/15 75/59 −1/−8 30/17
Happy Valley – Goose Bay 20/10 °C 68/49 −13/−23 9/−9
Nain 15/5 59/41 −14/−23 7/−10
Newfoundland and Labrador average monthly temperatures
Newfoundland and Labrador average monthly rainfall
Newfoundland and Labrador average monthly snowfall


Newfoundland and Labrador has a population of 508,400, more than half of which lives on the Avalon Peninsula.[2][68] In recent years the population of the province has started to increase for the first time since the early 1990s, the population in 2006 stood at 505,469 after decreasing by 1.5% in five years.[69]

largest municipalities by population
Municipality 2001 2006
St. John's 99,182 100,646
Mount Pearl 24,964 24,671
Conception Bay South 19,772 21,966
Corner Brook 20,103 20,083
Grand Falls-Windsor 13,340 13,558
Paradise 9,598 12,584
Gander 9,651 9,951
Happy Valley – Goose Bay 7,969 7,572
Labrador City 7,744 7,240
Stephenville 7,109 6,588
Table source: Statistics Canada

Population of Newfoundland and Labrador since 1951

Year Population Five Year
 % change
Ten Year
 % change
Rank Among
1951 361,416 n/a n/a 9
1956 415,074 14.8 n/a 9
1961 457,853 10.3 26.7 9
1966 493,396 7.8 18.9 9
1971 522,100 5.8 14.0 9
1976 557,720 6.8 13.0 9
1981 567,681 1.8 8.7 9
1986 568,350 0.1 1.9 9
1991 568,475 0.02 0.1 9
1996 551,790 -2.9 -2.9 9
2001 512,930 -7.0 -9.8 9
2006 505,469 -1.5 -8.4 9

Source: Statistics Canada[70][71]

Rank Language Respondents Percentage
1. English 488,405 97.7%
2. French 1,885 0.4%
3. Innu-aimun 1,585 0.3%
4. Chinese 1,080 0.2%
5. Spanish 670 0.1%
6. German 655 0.1%
7. Inuktitut 595 0.1%
8. Urdu 550 0.1%
9. Arabic 540 0.1%
10. Dutch 300 0.1%
11. Russian 225 < 0%
12. Italian 195 < 0%

The largest single religious denomination by number of adherents according to the 2001 census was the Roman Catholic Church, at 36.9% of the province's population (187,405 members). The major Protestant denominations make up 59.7% of the population, with the largest group being the Anglican Church of Canada at 26.1% of the total population (132,680 members), the United Church of Canada at 17.0% (86,420 members), and the Salvation Army at 7.9% (39,955 members), with other Protestant denominations in much smaller numbers. The Pentecostal Church made up 6.7% of the population with 33,840 members. Non-Christians made up only 2.7% of the total population, with the majority of those respondents indicating "no religion" (2.5% of the total population).[72][73]

According to the 2001 Canadian census, the largest ethnic group in Newfoundland and Labrador is English (39.4%), followed by Irish (19.7%), Scottish (6.0%), French (5.5%), and First Nations (3.2%).[74] While half of all respondents also identified their ethnicity as "Canadian," 38% report their ethnicity as "Newfoundlander" in a 2003 Statistics Canada Ethnic Diversity Survey.[75]

Government and politics

Newfoundland and Labrador is ordered by a parliamentary government within the construct of constitutional monarchy; the monarchy in Newfoundland and Labrador is the foundation of the executive, legislative, and judicial branches.[76] The sovereign is Queen Elizabeth II, who also serves as head of state of 15 other Commonwealth countries, each of Canada's nine other provinces, and the Canadian federal realm, and resides predominantly in the United Kingdom. As such, the Queen's representative, the Lieutenant Governor of Newfoundland and Labrador (presently John Crosbie), carries out most of the royal duties in Newfoundland and Labrador.[77]

The direct participation of the royal and viceroyal figures in any of these areas of governance is limited, though; in practice, their use of the executive powers is directed by the Executive Council, a committee of ministers of the Crown responsible to the unicameral, elected House of Assembly and chosen and headed by the Premier of Newfoundland and Labrador (presently Kathy Dunderdale), the head of government.[78] To ensure the stability of government, the lieutenant governor will usually appoint as premier the person who is the current leader of the political party that can obtain the confidence of a plurality in the House of Assembly. The leader of the party with the second-most seats usually becomes the Leader of Her Majesty's Loyal Opposition (presently Yvonne Jones) and is part of an adversarial parliamentary system intended to keep the government in check.[79]

Each of the 48 Members of the Legislative Assembly in the House of Assembly is elected by simple plurality in an electoral district or riding. General elections must be called by the lieutenant governor on the second Tuesday in October four years after the previous election,[80] or may be called, on the advice of the premier, should the government lose a confidence vote in the legislature. There are two dominant political parties in Newfoundland and Labrador: the Liberal Party and the Progressive Conservatives. While the New Democratic Party is one of the three major parties, it has attained only minor success throughout the years and had never won more than two seats and in the legislature until the 2011 election.


All currency is in Canadian dollars.

For many years, Newfoundland and Labrador had a depressed economy. Following the collapse of the cod fishery the province saw record unemployment rates and the population decreased by roughly 60,000. However due to significant mining and offshore oil discoveries the provincial economy has seen a major turnaround in recent years. Unemployment rates decreased, the population stabilized, and saw moderate growth, and the province recorded record surpluses which rid it of its "have not" status.[81]

View of St. John's from Signal Hill

Economic growth, gross domestic product (GDP), exports and employment resumed in 2010 in Newfoundland and Labrador after suffering the impacts of the late-2000s recession. Total capital investment grew to $6.2 billion in 2010, an increase of 23.0% compared to 2009. GDP reached $28.1 billion, compared to $25.0 billion in 2009.[82]

Service industries accounted for the largest share of GDP, especially financial services, health care and public administration. Other significant industries are mining, oil production and manufacturing. The total workforce in 2010 was 263,800 people.[83][84] Per capita GDP in 2008 was 61,763, higher than the national average and third only to Alberta and Saskatchewan out of Canadian provinces.[85]

Mines in Labrador, the iron ore mine at Wabush/Labrador City, and the nickel mine in Voisey's Bay produced a total of $3.3 billion worth of ore in 2010.[82] A mine at Duck Pond (30 km (18 mi) south of the now-closed mine at Buchans), started producing copper, zinc, silver and gold in 2007 and prospecting for new ore bodies continues.[86] Mining accounted for 3.5% of the provincial GDP in 2006.[84] The province produces 55% of Canada’s total iron ore.[87] Quarries producing dimension stone such as slate and granite, account for less than $10 million worth of material per year.[88] Oil production from offshore oil platforms on the Hibernia, White Rose and Terra Nova oil fields on the Grand Banks was of 110,000,000 barrels (17,000,000 m3), which contributed to more than 15% of the province's GDP in 2006. Total production from the Hibernia field from 1997 to 2006 was 733,000,000 barrels (116,500,000 m3) with an estimated value of $36 billion. This will increase with the inclusion of the latest project, Hebron. Remaining reserves are estimated at almost 2 billion barrels (320×10^6 m3) as of December 31, 2006. Exploration for new reserves is ongoing.[84]

The Terra Nova Floating Production Storage and Offloading Vessel located in the Terra Nova oil field

On June 16, 2009, Danny Williams announced a tentative agreement to expand the Hibernia Oil Field. The government negotiated a 10-per-cent equity stake in the Hibernia South expansion which will add an estimated $10 billion to Newfoundland and Labrador's treasury.[89]

The fishing industry remains an important part of the provincial economy, employing 26,000 and contributing over $440 million to the GDP. The combined harvest of fish such as cod, haddock, halibut, herring and mackerel was 150,000 tonnes (165,000 tons) valued at about $130 million in 2006. Shellfish, such as crab, shrimp and clams, accounted for 195,000 tonnes (215,000 tons) with a value of $316 million in the same year. The value of products from the seal hunt was $55 million.[84]

Aquaculture is a new industry for the province, which in 2006 produced over 10,000 tonnes of Atlantic salmon, mussels and steelhead trout worth over $50 million.[84]

Newsprint is produced by one paper mill in Corner Brook with a capacity of 420,000 tonnes (462,000 tons) per year. The value of newsprint exports varies greatly from year to year, depending on the global market price. Lumber is produced by numerous mills in Newfoundland.

Apart from seafood processing, paper manufacture and oil refining,[90] manufacturing in the province consists of smaller industries producing food,[91] brewing and other beverage production, and footwear.[92]

Agriculture in Newfoundland is limited to areas south of St. John's, near Deer Lake and in the Codroy Valley. Potatoes, rutabagas, turnips, carrots and cabbage are grown for local consumption. Poultry and eggs are also produced. Wild blueberries, partridgeberries (lingonberries) and bakeapples (cloudberries) are harvested commercially and used in jams and wine making.[93] Dairy production is also another huge part of the Newfoundland Agriculture Industry.

Tourism is also a significant contributor to the province's economy. In 2006 nearly 500,000 non-resident tourists visited Newfoundland and Labrador, spending an estimated $366 million.[84] Tourism is highly popular throughout the months of June–September, as these months are the warmest months of the year.


King's Cove Head lighthouse in King's Cove

Within the province, the Newfoundland and Labrador Department of Transportation and Works operates or sponsors several passenger and auto ferry services which connect various communities along the province's significant coastline.

A regular passenger and car ferry service, lasting about 90 minutes, crosses the Strait of Belle Isle, connecting the province's island of Newfoundland with the region of Labrador on the mainland. The ferry MV Apollo travels from St. Barbe, Newfoundland on the Great Northern Peninsula to the port town of Blanc-Sablon, Quebec, located on the provincial border and beside the town of L'Anse-au-Clair, Labrador. The MV Sir Robert Bond once provided seasonal ferry service between Lewisporte on the island and the towns of Cartwright and Happy Valley-Goose Bay in Labrador, but has not ran since the completion of the Trans Labrador highway, allowing access from Blanc-Sablon, Quebec to major parts of Labrador. Several smaller ferries connect numerous other coastal towns and offshore island communities around the island of Newfoundland and up the Labrador coast as far north as Nain.

Inter-provincial ferry services are provided by Marine Atlantic, a federal Crown corporation which operates auto-passenger ferries from North Sydney, Nova Scotia to the towns of Port aux Basques and Argentia on the southern coast of Newfoundland island.[94]

The St. John's International Airport YYT and the Gander International Airport YQX are the only airports in the province that are part of the National Airports System.[95] The St. John's International Airport handles nearly 1,200,000 passengers a year making it the busiest airport in the province and the eleventh busiest airport in Canada.[96]



Newfoundland and Labrador has a folk musical heritage based on the Irish, English and Scottish traditions that were brought to its shores centuries ago. Though similar in its Celtic influence to neighbouring Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island, Newfoundland and Labrador are more Irish than Scottish, and have more elements imported from English and French music than those provinces. Much of the region's music focuses on the strong seafaring tradition in the area, and includes sea shanties and other sailing songs. Some modern traditional musicians include Great Big Sea, The Ennis Sisters, Shanneyganock, Sharecroppers, Ron Hynes, and The Navigators.

Provincial symbols

Provincial symbols
Official flower Purple Pitcher Plant
Official tree Black Spruce
Official bird Atlantic Puffin
Official horse Newfoundland pony
Official animal Caribou
Official game bird Ptarmigan
Official mineral Labradorite
Official dogs Newfoundland and
Labrador Retriever
Provincial anthem Ode to Newfoundland
Provincial holiday June 24, Discovery Day
Patron saint John the Baptist
Official tartan
Great seal
Coat of arms
Coat of arms of Newfoundland and Labrador.png
Arms of Newfoundland and Labrador.svg
Provincial wordmark

See also


  1. ^ Although the term "Newfie" is sometimes used in casual speech, it is considered a pejorative by some Newfoundlanders.
  2. ^ a b c "Canada's population estimates". Statistics Canada. 22 June 2011. Retrieved 22 August 2011. 
  3. ^ "Gross domestic product, expenditure-based, by province and territory". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 29 August 2011. 
  4. ^ "Study: Resource boom in Saskatchewan and Newfoundland and Labrador". Statistics Canada. 15 May 2008. Retrieved 29 August 2011. 
  5. ^ Proclamation: Constitutional Amendment 2001 (Newfoundland and Labrador)
  6. ^ Hamilton, William B. (1978): The Macmillan book of Canadian place names, Macmillan of Canada, Toronto, p. 105.
  7. ^ Tuck, James A.. "Museum Notes - The Maritime Archaic Tradition". "The Rooms" Provincial museum. Retrieved 2008-06-17. 
  8. ^ a b c Bogucki, Peter I (1999). The origins of human society. Blackwell. p. 139. ISBN 1557863490. Retrieved 2011-05-02. 
  9. ^ "Museum Notes-The Maritime Archaic Tradition". By James A. Tuck-The Rooms Provincial Art Gallery. Retrieved 2009-10-05. 
  10. ^ Tuck, J. A. (1976). "Ancient peoples of Port au Choix". The excavation of an Archaic Indian Cemetery in Newfoundland. Newfoundland Social and Economic Studies 17. St. John's: Institute of Social and Economic Research. ISBN 0919666124. 
  11. ^ a b Wonders, William C (2003). Canada's changing North. McGill-Queen's University Press. pp. 88–89. ISBN 0773525904. 
  12. ^ Marshall, Ingeborg (1998). A History and Ethnography of the Beothuk. McGill-Queen's University Press. p. 13. ISBN 077351774X. 
  13. ^ Pritzker, Barry (2000). A Native American encyclopedia: history, culture, and peoples. Oxford University Press. p. 535. ISBN 0195138775. 
  14. ^ =Smith, Eric Alden (1991). Inujjuamiut foraging strategies : evolutionary ecology of an arctic hunting economy. A. de Gruyter. p. 101. ISBN 020201181X. 
  15. ^ a b Luebering, J E (2011). Native American History. Educational Britannica Educational. p. 37. ISBN 9781615302659. 
  16. ^ Magocsi, Paul R (2002). Aboriginal peoples of Canada: a short introduction. University of Toronto Press. p. 102. ISBN 0802036309. 
  17. ^ Hornborg, Anne-Christine (2007). Mi'kmaq landscapes: from animism to sacred ecology. Burlington, VT : Ashgate. p. 4. ISBN 9780754663713.'kmaq&pg=PA4#v=onepage&q&f=true. 
  18. ^ William, Baillie Hamilton (1996). Place names of Atlantic Canada. University of Toronto Press. p. 3. ISBN 0802004717. 
  19. ^ Wicken, William (2002). Mi'kmaq treaties on trial: history, land and Donald Marshall Junior. University of Toronto Press. p. 53. ISBN 080200718X.'kmaq%20%20Grand%20Council%20formation&pg=PA53#v=onepage&q&f=true. 
  20. ^ Pálsson, Hermann (1965). The Vinland sagas: the Norse discovery of America. Penguin Classics. p. 28. ISBN 0140441549. Retrieved 2010-04-15. 
  21. ^ J. Sephton, (English, translation) (1880). "The Saga of Erik the Red". Icelandic Saga Database. Retrieved 2010-08-11. 
  22. ^ "Vikings: The North Atlantic Saga". National Museum of Natural History, Arctic Studies Center- (Smithsonian Institution). 2008. Retrieved 2010-08-11. 
  23. ^ Diamond, Jared M (2006). Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail Or Succeed. Penguin Books. p. 207. ISBN 0143036556. Retrieved 2010-04-16. 
  24. ^ Haugen, Einar (Professor emeritus of Scandinavian Studies, Harvard University). "Was Vinland in Newfoundland?". (Originally published in "Proceedings of the Eighth Viking Congress, Arhus. 24–31 August 1977". Edited by Hans Bekker-Nielsen, Peter Foote, Olaf Olsen. Odense University Press. 1981. Archived from the original on 2001-05-15. Retrieved 2010-06-21. 
  25. ^ "L’Anse aux Meadows National Historic Site". UNESCO World Heritage Centre (United Nations). 2010. Retrieved 2010-04-15. 
  26. ^ "L'Anse aux Meadows National Historic Site of Canada". Parks Canada. 2007. Retrieved 2010-04-15. 
  27. ^ "John Cabot's voyage of 1498". Memorial University of Newfoundland (Newfoundland and Labrador Heritage). 2000. Retrieved 2010-04-12. 
  28. ^ Bailey W. Diffie and George D. Winius (1977). Foundations of the Portuguese empire. University of Minnesota Press. p. 464. ISBN 0816607826. Retrieved 2010-08-13. 
  29. ^ "CORTE-REAL, MIGUEL, Portuguese explorer". University of Toronto (Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online). 2000. Retrieved 2010-04-12. 
  30. ^ Diffie, Bailey W; Winius, George D (1977). Foundations of the Portuguese empire. University of Minnesota Press. pp. 464–465. ISBN 0816607826. Retrieved 2010-08-13. 
  31. ^ "PORTUGUESE BULLS, FIRST IN NORTH AMERICA". Dr. Manuel Luciano da Silva. 2000. Retrieved 2010-04-12. 
  32. ^ Freeman-Grenville (1975). Chronology of world history: a calendar of principal events from 3000 BC to... Rowman & Littlefield. p. 387. ISBN 0874717655. 
  33. ^ Brian Cuthbertson, "John Cabot and His Historians: Five Hundred Years of Controversy." Journal of the Royal Nova Scotia Historical Society 1998 1: 16-35. Issn: 1486-5920.
  34. ^ See Samuel Eliot Morison, The European Discovery of America: The Northern Voyages (1971)
  35. ^ Sugden, John (1990). Sir Francis Drake. Barrie & Jenkins. p. 118. ISBN 0712620389. 
  36. ^ Grant C. Head, Eighteenth Century Newfoundland: A Geographer’s Perspective (1976)
  37. ^ See Allan M. Fraser, "Calvert, Sir George" Dictionary of Canadian Biography online
  38. ^ John S. Moir, "Kirke, Sir David," Dictionary of Canadian Biography online
  39. ^ Gordon W. Handcock, "So Longe as There Comes Noe Women": Origins of English Settlement in Newfoundland (1989)
  40. ^ a b "THE PROVINCES Chap XIX: Newfoundland". Retrieved 2010-06-22. 
  41. ^ "History of Placentia". Memorial University of Newfoundland. Retrieved 2010-02-26. 
  42. ^ Webb, Jeff. "Representative Government, 1832-1855". Retrieved 2008-10-17. 
  43. ^ a b c d "Newfoundland & Labrador and Canadian Federalism - History of Newfoundland & Labrador". Mapleleafweb. Retrieved 2011-02-05. 
  44. ^ Cadigan, Sean Thomas (2009). Newfoundland and Labrador: a history. University of Toronto Press. ISBN 9780802044655. 
  45. ^ a b "Collapse of Responsible Government, 1929-1934". Heritage Newfoundland and Labrador. Retrieved 2011-02-05. 
  46. ^ "The Commission of Government, 1934-1949". Heritage Newfoundland and Labrador. Retrieved 2011-02-06. 
  47. ^ Gene Long, Suspended State: Newfoundland Before Canada (1999)
  48. ^ R. A. MacKay, Newfoundland: Economic, Diplomatic, and Strategic Studies, (1946) online edition
  49. ^ a b "The Newfoundland National Convention". Retrieved 2010-12-03. 
  50. ^ Joseph Roberts Smallwood, I chose Canada: The memoirs of the Honourable Joseph R. "Joey" Smallwood (1973) p. 256
  51. ^ Richard Gwyn, Smallwood: The Unlikely Revolutionary (1972)
  52. ^ The 1948 Referendums from Library and Archives Canada
  53. ^ a b "Newfoundland Joins Canada) and Newfoundland and Confederation (1949)". Retrieved 2010-12-03. 
  54. ^ "Geography and Climate". Government of Newfoundland and Labrador. Retrieved 2011-01-10. 
  55. ^ a b Bell, Trevor; Liverman, David. "Landscape (of Newfoundland and Labrador)". Memorial University of Newfoundland. Retrieved 2008-06-16. 
  56. ^ a b "Atlas of Canada: Sea islands". Natural Resources Canada (Government of Canada). Retrieved 2008-06-16. 
  57. ^ a b "About Newfoundland and Labrador: Land Area". Government of Newfoundland and Labrador. Retrieved 2008-06-16. 
  58. ^ Bélanger, Claude. "Newfoundland Geography". Marianopolis College. Retrieved 2008-06-16. 
  59. ^ "Location and Climate". Government of Newfoundland and Labrador. Archived from the original on April 15, 2008. Retrieved 2008-06-16. 
  60. ^ "Atlas of Canada: Land and Freshwater Areas". Natural Resources Canada (Government of Canada). Retrieved 2008-06-16. 
  61. ^ "Report on the State of Conservation of Gros Morne National Park". Parks Canada. Retrieved 2008-06-16. 
  62. ^ "Newfoundland and Labrador Heritage Web Site: Climate". Memorial University of Newfoundland. Retrieved 2008-06-16. 
  63. ^ a b "Weather and Your Home: The Climate of Newfoundland". The Weather Network. Retrieved 2011-01-10. 
  64. ^ "Climate Characteristics". Memorial University of Newfoundland. Retrieved 2008-06-17. 
  65. ^ "Canadian Climate Normals or Averages 1971-2000". Environment Canada. Retrieved 2007-07-30. 
  66. ^ a b c "The Climate of Newfoundland". Environment Canada. Archived from the original on May 19, 2008. Retrieved 2008-06-17. 
  67. ^ "National Climate Data and Information Archive". Environment Canada. Retrieved 2010-09-02. 
  68. ^ "Annual Demographic Estimates:Subprovincial Areas". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 2011-01-10. 
  69. ^ "Population and dwelling counts (2006 Census)". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 2011-01-10. 
  70. ^ "Population, urban and rural, by province and territory (Newfoundland and Labrador)". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 22 August 2011. 
  71. ^ "Canada's population". Statistics Canada. 27 September 2006. Retrieved 22 August 2011. 
  72. ^ "Statistics Canada: Population by religion, by province and territory (2001 Census)". Retrieved 2010-06-22. [dead link]
  73. ^ "Religions in Canada: Newfoundland and Labrador". Retrieved 2010-06-22. 
  74. ^ "Population by selected ethnic origins, by province and territory (2006 Census)". 2009-07-28. Retrieved 2010-07-26. [dead link]
  75. ^ The Daily, Monday, September 29, 2003. Ethnic Diversity Survey
  76. ^ Canadian Heritage (February 2009). Canadian Heritage Portfolio (2nd ed.). Queen's Printer for Canada. pp. 3–4. ISBN 978-1-100-11529-0. Retrieved 23 May 2011. 
  77. ^ "The Lieutenant Governor of Newfoundland and Labrador - Role and Duties". Government of Newfoundland and Labrador. Retrieved 22 August 2011. 
  78. ^ "Dunderdale becomes 1st woman to lead N.L.". CBC. 3 December 2010. Retrieved 19 January 2011. 
  79. ^ Library of Parliament. "The Opposition in a Parliamentary System". Queen's Printer for Canada. Retrieved 23 May 2011. 
  80. ^ "An Act To Amend The House Of Assembly Act And The Elections Act, 1991". Queen's Printer for Newfoundland and Labrador. 13 December 2004. Retrieved 20 January 2011. 
  81. ^ "Have-not is no more: N.L. off equalization". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. 2008-11-03. Retrieved 2011-02-05. 
  82. ^ a b "Economic Review 2010". Government of Newfoundland and Labrador. Retrieved 2011-02-05. 
  83. ^ Stats Canada - Labour force characteristics by province, September 2010
  84. ^ a b c d e f "Economic Research and Analysis 2007". Economics and Statistics Branch, Department of Finance, Government of Newfoundland and Labrador, Office of the Queens Printer. Archived from the original on June 24, 2007. Retrieved 2008-06-17. 
  85. ^ Statistics Canada (2009-11-11). "Gross domestic product, expenditure-based, by province and territory". Retrieved 2011-05-09. 
  86. ^ "Buchans mine". Filing Services Canada Inc. Retrieved 2006-06-17. 
  87. ^ Bell, Trevor; Liverman, David. "Mineral Resources". Memorial University of Newfoundland. Retrieved 2008-06-17. 
  88. ^ "Geological survey: Dimension stone in Newfoundland and Labrador". Natural Resources, Government of Newfoundland and Labrador. Retrieved 2008-06-17. 
  89. ^ "CBC News - Nfld. & Labrador - $10B Hibernia South deal reached: Williams". 2009-06-16. Retrieved 2010-07-26. 
  90. ^ "Project Review". Newfoundland and Labrador Refining Corporation. Retrieved 2008-06-17. 
  91. ^ "Purity Factories (Newfoundland food)". Retrieved 2007-10-26. 
  92. ^ "Terra Footwear - About". Retrieved 2010-05-31. 
  93. ^ "Rodriques Winery". Retrieved 2007-10-26. 
  94. ^ "Marine Atlantic". Retrieved 2010-07-26. 
  95. ^ "National Airports Policy - Airports in the national airports category". Transportation Canada. Retrieved 29 August 2011. 
  96. ^ "Passengers enplaned and deplaned on selected services — Top 50 airports". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 29 August 2011. 

Further reading

External links

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