List of Portuguese monarchs

List of Portuguese monarchs

This is a list of Portuguese monarchs dating from the independence of Portugal from the kingdom of León in 1128 under Afonso Henriques, who proclaimed himself King in 1139, to the proclamation of the Portuguese Republic on October 5, 1910, during the reign of Manuel II, "the Patriot," or "the Missed King." Afonso I was recognized as king, in 1143, by Alfonso VII of León and Castile and, in 1179, by the Pope Alexander III.

It includes the Portuguese rulers from the
*Portuguese House of Burgundy, or Afonsine Dynasty (1143-1383/1385)
*House of Aviz, or Joannine Dynasty (1385-ca. 1580)
*Portuguese House of Habsburg, or Philippine Dynasty (1580-1640)
*House of Braganza, (1640-1834) and
*House of Braganza-Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, or Braganza-Wettin (1834-1910)

Historical roots of the Monarchy

Portugal originated as a distinct political and national entity in the 9th century, when the first County of Portugal was established by Vímara Peres just after the reconquista of Northern Portugal from the Moors, who ruled very briefly in this area. The County of Portugal's original territory was limited to an area between the Minho and Douro rivers in today's Northern Portugal.

The Iberian political and genealogical forerunners of the Portuguese throne were some of the following:
*Kings of the Visigoths
*Suebi Kings of Gallaecia
*Monarchs of Asturias
*Kings of Galicia
*Kings of León

House of Vímara Peres

The basis of the Portuguese nationality dates from 868 when Alfonso III of León gave Vímara Peres the lands between the Minho and Douro rivers, in the south of Galicia. In the period of Reconquista, Vímara ruled over a county named after the city of Portucale (today's Porto) and based in Guimarães.

The First County of Portugal would last for two centuries, until 1071, when Portugal lost its autonomy as the last Count, Nuno II Mendes, lost the Battle of Pedroso to Garcia II of Galicia and Portugal, son of Ferdinand I of Castile-León. Garcia II became the first monarch to use the style "King of Portugal".

One year later, in 1072, Garcia was defeated by his brothers and the Portuguese lands were again incorporated into the kingdom of León; this would only last for two decades, until the re-creation of the county of Portugal under Henry, Count of Portugal in 1093.

- bgcolor=#E6E6FA
align=center| 4 || Sancho II
| 1223 || 1247 || Sanctius II (English) || "the Pious" ("o Capelo")
"the Piteous" ("o Piedoso") || son of Afonso II
- bgcolor=#E6E6FA
align=center| 5 || Afonso III
| 1247 || 1279 || "Alphonzo III" (English),
"Alphonse III" (English),
"Affonso III" (Old Portuguese),
|| "the Bolognian" ("o Bolonhês") || brother of Sancho II
younger son of Afonso II
- bgcolor=#E6E6FA
align=center| 6 || Denis
| 1279 || 1325 || "Dinis" (Portuguese) or
"Diniz" (Old Portuguese) || "the Farmer" ("o Lavrador")
"the Poet-King" ("o Rei-Poeta")
"the Troubadour-King" ("o Rei-Trovador") || son of Afonso III
- bgcolor=#E6E6FA
align=center| 7 || Afonso IV
| 1325 || 1357 || "Alphonzo IV" (English),
"Alphonse IV" (English),
"Affonso IV" (Old Portuguese),
(Old Portuguese) || "the Brave" ("o Bravo") || son of Denis
- bgcolor=#E6E6FA
align=center| 8 || Peter I
| 1357 || 1367 || "Pedro I" (Portuguese) || "the Just" ("o Justiceiro")
or "the Cruel" ("o Cruel")
"the Vengeful" ("o Vingativo") or
"the Until-the-End-of-the-World-In-Love"
("o Até-ao-Fim-do-Mundo-Apaixonado") || son of Afonso IV
- bgcolor=#E6E6FA
align=center| 9 || Ferdinand I
| 1367 || 1383 || "Fernando I" (Portuguese) || "the Handsome" ("o Formoso")
"the Beautiful" ("o Belo")
"the Fickle" ("o Inconstante")
"the Reckless" ("o Inconsciente") || son of Peter I
- bgcolor=#E6E6FA
align=center| 10 || Beatrice (disputed)
| 1383 || 1385 || "Beatriz" (Portuguese) or "Beatrix" (English alternative)
"Brites" (Old Portuguese) ||
| daughter of Ferdinand I

House of Aviz, or Joannine Dynasty, (1385-ca. 1580)

:"Main articles: Portugal in the period of discoveries, Struggle for the throne of Portugal".

The second dynasty of Portuguese Royalty is known as the House of Aviz, after John, Master of the military Order of Aviz, who later became John I of Portugal.

The institution of House of Aviz followed the dynastic crisis that originated from the death of Ferdinand I in 1383. With the Portuguese victory in the Battle of Aljubarrota in 1385, John I, half-brother of Ferdinand and natural son of Pedro I, confirmed the kingship which had been bestowed upon him at the "Cortes" of Coimbra in April 1385.

This period of Portuguese history is considered to include the ascension of Portugal to the status of a European and world power. The first act of expansion was the conquest of Ceuta in 1415 and was followed by the exploration, colonization and commerce exercised in Africa, Asia and Brazil. It also includes the height of the Portuguese Empire during the reign of Manuel I and the beginning of its decline during John III's reign.

John III was succeeded in 1557 by his grandson Sebastian, who died, aged 24 and childless, in the Battle of Alcazarquivir. He was succeeded by his great-uncle Henry, aged 66, who, as a Catholic Cardinal, had no children either. Cardinal-King Henry died two years later and the struggle for the throne started between the different claimants, including Catherine, Duchess of Braganza, Philip II of Spain and Anthony, Prior of Crato.

Anthony was acclaimed king in several cities around the country in 1580, 20 days before Philip II of Spain invaded Portugal and defeated the supporters of Anthony in the Battle of Alcântara. Although Anthony continued to "rule the country" from the Azores Islands until 1583, the date of 1580 is generally accepted as the end of the House of Aviz as a Portuguese Royal House. The last king of the House of Aviz is subject to debate, with only some historians accepting the period of 20 days between Anthony's acclamation and the Battle of Alcântara as the reign of Anthony I of Portugal.

House of Braganza, or Brigantine Dynasty (1640-1910)

:"Main articles: Portugal from the Restoration to the 1755 Earthquake, Portugal from the Napoleonic Invasions to the Civil War"The House of Braganza ("Portuguese: Casa de Bragança") traced its origins to 1442 when the Duchy of Braganza was created by the Regent, Infante Dom Pedro, Duke of Coimbra, and offered to his brother Afonso, Count of Barcelos, a natural son of John I. The royal lineage of dukes that followed married into the House of Aviz and became one of the most important noble families of the country. Infanta Catarina, granddaughter of Manuel I and Duchess of Braganza by marriage to John, 6th Duke of Braganza (himself the heir of the dynastic rights of Jaime, Duke of Braganza, acclaimed heir to the throne in 1495 by the Cortes), joined the two houses in 1565. In 1580, she was one of the claimants to the throne, but lost it by military force to Philip I of Habsburg.

In 1640, with the Restoration of Independence, John, grandson of Catarina and 8th Duke of Braganza, was acknowledged as the legitimate heir to the throne as the great great grandson of Manuel I. The fourth dynasty saw the growth of the importance of Brazilian gold, the 1755 Lisbon earthquake, the Napoleonic invasion, the independence of Brazil and a civil war followed by Liberalism.

The growth of a republican movement during the end of the 19th century and the early years of the 20th culminated in the 1908 assassination of the second last King of Portugal, Carlos I. Two years later in 1910 the republican revolution forced Manuel II into exile, thus putting an end to the Portuguese fourth dynasty. The House of Braganza continues unofficially until today, and the title of Duke of Braganza is still used by Duarte Pio, the 24th Duke of Bragança and the presumptive heir to the throne of Portugal.

House of Braganza

The style of address to the sovereign is as follows:


ee also

* List of Portuguese monarchs by longevity
* List of Portuguese monarchs by age at ascension to the throne
* Kings of Portugal family tree
* List of Portuguese royal consorts
* History of Portugal
* Timeline of Portuguese history
* Lists of incumbents
* Burial sites of Portuguese monarchs


* Jiří Louda & Michael Maclagan (1981), "Portugal", in "Lines of Succession. Heraldry of the Royal families of Europe", London, Orbis Publishing, pp. 228-237. ISBN 0-85613-672-7. (revised and updated edition by Prentice Hall College Div - November 1991. ISBN 0028972554.)
*Luís Amaral & Marcos Soromenho Santos (2002), "Costados do Duque de Bragança", Lisboa, Guarda-Mor Edições.
*Afonso Eduardo Martins Zuquete (dir.)(1989), "Nobreza de Portugal e Brasil", vol. I, Lisboa, Editorial Enciclopédia.

External links

* [ Kings of Portugal genealogy in a Portuguese genealogical site]

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