Style (manner of address)

Style (manner of address)

A style of office, or honorific, is a term which by tradition or law precedes a reference to a person who holds a post or title, or to the political office itself. An honorific can also be awarded to an individual in a personal capacity. Such styles are particularly associated with monarchies, where they may be used by a wife of an office holder or of a prince of the blood, for the duration of their marriage. They are also almost universally used for presidents in republics and in many countries for members of legislative bodies, higher-ranking judges and senior constitutional office holders. Leading religious figures also have styles.

Examples of styles

Law courts

*The Honorable (abbreviation "Hon.", oral address "Your Honor") — Judges and Justices in the United States
*His/Her Honour Judge X, (abbreviation HHJ X, oral address "Your Honour"); Circuit judges in England and Wales.
*Lord/Lady X (abbreviation X LJ, referential "His Lordship/Her Ladyship; oral address "My Lord/Lady" or "Your Lordship/Your Ladyship"); Judges of the High Court of Justice, Court of Appeal of England and Wales, High Court of Justiciary, Court of Session, House of Lords and the Old Bailey in the United Kingdom.
* Oral address "Your Worship" - Justices of the Peace (Magistrates) in the United Kingdom


*His Most Reverend Excellency (abbreviation Most Rev. Ex., oral address "Your Excellency") - The Apostolic Nuncio, because his rank is equal to an extraordinary and plenipotentiary ambassador and he is simultaneously a higher prelate.
*His/Her Excellency (abbreviation "HE", oral address "Your Excellency") — most Ambassadors, High Commissioners and Permanent Representatives to International Organizations; sometimes also the Presidents of the Republics, Governors of provinces and the Prime Minister.
*The Honorable (oral address "Mr./Madam Ambassador") — U.S. Ambassadors


*His Holiness (abbreviation HH), Holy Father "or" Our Most Holy Lord ("Sanctissimus Dominus Noster") (oral address Your Holiness, Holy Father or Our Most Holy Lord) — The Coptic Orthodox Pope and Roman Catholic Pope.
*His Highness the Aga Khan (abbreviation "HH the Aga Khan.", oral address "Your Highness" and then "Sir") — The Head of the Ismalii group of Shi'ite Muslims.
*His All Holiness (abbreviation "HAH", oral address "Your All Holiness") — the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople
*His Holiness (abbreviation "HH", oral address "Your Holiness") — the Dalai Lama and holders of certain other Tibetan Buddhist lineages, and the Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia
*Her Holiness (abbreviation "HH", oral address "Your Holiness") — the Nisut-Bity of the Kemetic Orthodox Faith
*His Beatitude (oral address "Your Beatitude") — Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, and Catholic Patriarchs and the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Major Archbishop of Kyiv-Halych.
*His Eminence (abbreviation "HE", oral address "Your Eminence") — Cardinals of the Catholic Church
*His Excellency "or" The Most Reverend (abbreviation "The Most Rev.", oral address "Your Excellency") — Catholic Archbishops and Bishops in the United States.
*His Grace "or" The Most Reverend (abbreviation for latter "The Most Rev.", oral address "Your Grace") — Catholic Archbishops in Commonwealth countries; and Catholic Bishops in Ireland
*His Grace "or" The Right Reverend (abbreviation for latter "The Rt. Rev.", oral address "Your Grace") — Eastern Orthodox Bishops
*His Lordship "or" The Right Reverend (abbreviation for latter "The Rt Rev.", oral address "My Lord") — Catholic Bishops in Commonwealth countries.
*The Most Reverend and Right Honourable (abbreviation "The Most Rev. and Rt Hon.", oral address "Your Grace") — Anglican Archbishops who are Privy Counsellors, usually the Archbishops of Canterbury and York
*The Most Reverend (abbreviation "The Most Rev.", oral address "Your Grace") — Anglican Archbishops, Primates, Metropolitans, Presiding bishops, and Moderators, including the Archbishop of Wales, Archbishop of Armagh, Archbishop of Dublin, and Primus of the Scottish Episcopal Church
*The Most Reverend (abbreviation "The Most Rev.", oral address "Father") — The Leader of "The People of the Aten"
*The Most Reverend (abbreviation "The Most Rev.", oral address "My Lord") — Anglican Bishop of Meath and Kildare (because, historically, being the most senior bishop in Ireland)
*The Most Reverend (abbreviation "The Most Rev.", oral address "Presiding Bishop") — the Presiding Bishop of the Methodist Church Ghana
*The Right Reverend and Right Honourable Monsignor (abbreviation "The Rt Rev. and Rt Hon. Mgr", oral address "Monsignor", or according to personal preference) — Prelate of Honour who is also a Privy Counsellor (The Right Reverend and Right Honourable Monsignor Graham Leonard KCVO)
*The Right Reverend and Right Honourable (abbreviation "The Rt Rev. and Rt Hon.", oral address "Bishop") — Anglican Bishop who is a Privy Counsellor, usually the Bishop of London
*The Right Reverend (abbreviation "The Rt Rev.", oral address "Bishop") — other Anglican Bishops
*The Right Reverend (abbreviation "The Rt Rev.", oral address "Reverend") — Moderator of the United Church of Canada
*The Right Reverend Father (abbreviation "The Rt. Rev. Fr.", oral address "Father") — Eastern Orthodox archimandrites
*The Right Reverend (abbreviation "The Rt. Rev.", oral address "Father" or "Father Abbot") — Catholic abbots
*The Right Reverend (abbreviation "The Rt Rev.", oral address "Bishop") — diocesan bishop of the Methodist Church Ghana
*Bishop (oral address "Bishop") an area bishop in The United Methodist Church. The Right Reverend has never been pervasive in The United Methodist Church.
*The Very Reverend (abbreviation "The Very Rev. ", oral address "Father") — Catholic vicars general, judicial vicars, judges, rectors of seminaries, vicars forane, episcopal vicars, general superiors of religious orders of priests, provincial superiors, priors of monasteries or friaries
*The Very Reverend Father (abbreviation "The Very Rev. Fr.", oral address "Father") — Eastern Orthodox archpriests
*The Very Reverend (abbreviation "The Very Rev. ", oral address "Mr Dean" or "Mr Provost", as appropriate, or "Very Reverend Sir") — Anglican Deans and Provosts of Cathedrals, the Deans of Westminster Abbey and St George's Chapel, Windsor, and, for historical reasons, a few parish priests, such as the Dean of Bocking. Sometimes an Anglican Cathedral Dean has previously been a bishop, in which case he is styled as a bishop, except that on formal occasions he may be addressed, "Mr Dean".
*The Very Reverend (abbreviation "The Very Rev. ", oral address "Very Reverend Sir" or "Mr Dean") — Deans of some Anglican Seminaries, especially those in the USA
*The Very Reverend (abbreviation "The Very Rev. ", oral address Osofo Panin) — Superintendent Minister in the Methodist Church Ghana
*The Very Reverend (abbreviation "The Very Rev.", oral address "Reverend") — former Moderators of the United Church of Canada
*The Reverend Monsignor (abbreviation "The Rev. Msgr.", oral address "Monsignor") — Catholic Church protonotaries apostolic, honorary prelates, chaplains of his holiness
*The Venerable (oral address "Venerable Sir" or "Mr. Archdeacon") — Anglican Archdeacons
*Venerable (abbreviation "Ven.", oral address "Venerable" or "Venerable ") — fully ordained Buddhist monks and nuns
*The Reverend and Right Honourable (abbreviation "The Revd and Rt Hon.") — Protestant ordained ministers who are members of the Privy Council (Dr Ian Paisley)
*The Reverend the Honourable (abbreviation "The Rev. the Hon.", oral address according to ecclesiastical or other status) — ordained son of an earl, viscount, or baron, or ordained daughter of a viscount or baron (unless also a privy counsellor or peer)
*The Very Reverend (abbreviation "The Very Rev.", oral address: "Overseer") In the Anglican-Apostolic Communion (Pentecostal)tradition, the Overseer is the lowest level of Prelate (only Non-Consecrated Bishop Prelate), with oversight to a specific work or department, directly responsible to the Primate/Presiding Bishop or a Bishop (Ordinary/Diocesan).
*The Reverend (abbreviation "The Rev.", or, occasionally, "The Revd") — Protestant ordained ministers (common variants include "Pastor", "Parson", "Vicar", or simply "Reverend" (Rev.), as used in American English; see: The Reverend) ); some Jewish cantors also use this style
*The Reverend Canon (abbreviation "The Rev. Canon", oral address "Canon") — Catholic and Anglican Canons
*The Reverend Doctor (abbreviation "The Rev. Dr.", oral address "Father" or "Doctor") — priests with a Doctorate
*The Reverend Father (abbreviation "The Rev. Fr.", oral address "Father") — Catholic (and many Anglican) priests
*The Reverend Mother (abbreviation "The Rev. Mo.", oral address "Mother") — Abbesses (also, some female Anglican priests)
*The Reverend Mister (abbreviation "The Rev. Mr.", oral address "Deacon") — Catholic transitional deacons, i.e. those preparing for priesthood. Transitional Deacons belonging to religious orders (monastic and non-monastic) are titled Reverend Brother, (similar situations and modifications apply to Anglican deacons as in "The Rev. Fr.", above)
*Mister (abbreviation "Mr.", oral address often "Deacon") — Catholic permanent deacons
*Mister (abbreviation "Mr.", oral address "Mister") — Catholic Sulpician priests
*Mister (abbreviation "Mr.", oral address often "Mister") — Catholic seminarians and scholastics (members preparing for priesthood) of "some" religious orders (notably, Jesuits)
*Brother (abbreviation "Br.", oral address "Brother") — Catholic members of religious orders under vows (both monastic and non-monastic) who are not priests
*Sister (oral address "Sister") - Catholic members of religious orders under vows (both monastic and non-monastic) who are not abbesses
*Grand Rabbi (oral address "Rabbi";) - Hasidic Jewish rabbis, who are scions of a Hasidic Dynasty
*Rabbi (oral address "Rabbi"; if holder of the appropriate degree, "Doctor" both in oral and written communication) - Jewish rabbis
*Cantor (oral address "Cantor"; some cantors use "The Reverend" as style, as above) - Jewish cantors


*His/Her Imperial Majesty, (abbreviation "HIM", oral address "Your Imperial Majesty") — Emperors and Empresses
*His/Her Imperial and Royal Majesty (abbreviation "HI&RM", oral address "Your Imperial and Royal Majesty") — Emperors and Empresses who were simultaneously Kings and Queens, such as the German Emperor and Emperor of Austria
*His/Her Apostolic Majesty (abbreviation "HAM", oral address "Your Apostolic Majesty") — the King of Hungary, usually styled Imperial Majesty or Imperial and Royal Majesty as Emperor of Austria and King of Hungary, also sometimes Imperial and Royal Apostolic Majesty
*His/Her Catholic Majesty (abbreviation "HCM", oral address "Your Catholic Majesty") — the King of Spain
*His/Her Most Faithful Majesty (abbreviation "HFM", oral address "Your Most Faithful Majesty") — the King of Portugal
*His/Her Majesty (abbreviation "HM", oral address "Your Majesty") — Kings, Queens and Sultans
*His/Her Imperial Highness (abbreviation "HIH", oral address "Your Imperial Highness") — other members of an imperial House
*His/Her Imperial and Royal Highness (abbreviation "HI&RH", oral address "Your Imperial and Royal Highness") — Archdukes of the Habsburg family, the German Crown Prince, German Crown Princess and members of the Brazilian Imperial Family; also women with one style by birth and the other by marriage
*His/Her Royal Highness (abbreviation "HRH", oral address "Your Royal Highness") — other members of a Royal House, reigning grand dukes, members of some grand ducal houses, some princes consort
*His/Her Grand Ducal Highness (abbreviation "HGDH", oral address "Your Grand Ducal Highness") — junior members of some grand ducal houses
*His/Her Highness (abbreviation "HH", oral address, "Your Highness") — reigning dukes and members of reigning ducal houses, members of some grand ducal houses, junior members of some royal houses, emirs and sheikhs, also princes or princesses of nobility in several European countries, not belonging to a royal house
*His/Her Ducal Serene Highness (abbreviation "HDSH", oral address, "Your Ducal Serene Highness" — members of some ducal houses
*His/Her Serene Highness (abbreviation "HSH", oral address "Your Serene Highness") — sovereign or mediatized "Fürst" ("Prince") and his family - this is a mistranslation from German Durchlaucht, the correct form should be His/Her Serenity
*His/Her Illustrious Highness (abbreviation "HIllH", oral address " Your Illustrious Highness") — sovereign or mediatized Count and his family - this is a mistranslation too, from German Erlaucht; it should be correctly His/Her Illustriousness
*His/Her Highborn - counts, barons in several European countries, and also marquesses and viscounts in the Netherlands
*His/Her Grace - peers of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.
*His/Her High Well-born - knights and untitled noble persons in several European countries, and also barons in the Netherlands
*His/Her Excellency (abbreviation "HE", oral address "Your Excellency") — Governors-General

The English style Serene Highness and even more Illustrious Highness goes back to an incorrect translation. These styles originally did not exist in English-speaking countries.

His/Her Serene Highness = German: Seine/Ihre Durchlaucht;His/Her Illustrious Highness = German: Seine/Ihre Erlaucht; Italian: Sua Illustrissima; Spanish: Su Ilustrísima


*His/Her Excellency (abbreviation "HE", oral address "Your Excellency") —Presidents.

*The President of the United States is officially forbidden to use the style "His/Her Excellency"; instead "The Honorable" or more commonly "Mr. President" are used. Nonetheless, in an international context the President of the USA is often addressed as "His Excellency".

*The custom in France, Ireland or Czech Republic is to call office-holders acting within their official capacity "Mr" ("Monsieur") or "Ms" ("Madame") followed by the name of their offices. Thus, the President of the Republic is "M le President" or "M le President de la République" if a male, "Madame.." if a female; this may occasionally lead to situations when there are presidents of various bodies. Styles such as "excellency" or similar are not used, except for talking about foreign dignitaries. In some countries, "Citizen" may be used instead of Mr. Ms.

*In Italy, members of the parliament are usually styled "honourable". The style was originally introduced in the Kingdom of Italy because being a member of the parliament was a "honorary" post, i.e. with no indemnity. This style is still commonly used today, even though they are now paid. [] [] []


Traditional forms of address at German-speaking universities:
*His/Her Magnificence - rector (president) of a university
*His/Her Notability (Seine Spektabilität; Professors have the privilege to use the Latin Spectabilis) - dean of a faculty
*Most Learned Sir (Hochgelehrter Herr Professor) - a professor
*Very Learned Sir (Sehr gelehrter Herr Doktor) - a doctor
*Well Learned Sir (Wohlgelehrter Herr Magister) - a master
*Learned Sir (Gelehrter Herr) - a bachelor or candidate (student after the first pre-examen)

Traditional forms of address at Dutch-speaking universities:
*His/Her great honour (De edelgrootachtbare heer/vrouwe) - rector magnificus (president) of a university
*The highly learned Sir/Madam (De hooggeleerde heer/vrouwe) - dean of a faculty (a professor)
*The highly learned Sir/Madam (De hooggeleerde heer/vrouwe) - a professor
*The (noble) very learned Sir/Madam (De weledelzeergeleerde heer/vrouwe) - a doctor
*The (noble) learned Sir/Madam (De weledelgeleerde heer/vrouwe) - a doctorandus, a master
*The (noble) strictly Sir/Madam (De weledelgestrenge heer/vrouwe) - a doctorandus or master in laws, a university engineer


*Doctor - consultants, junior doctors, general practitioners
*Mister/Ms. - surgeons (UK)

Commonwealth countries

Commonwealth prime ministers are usually addressed just as "Prime Minister", but the form of address "Mr. Prime Minister" is also often used in certain countries. "Mr. Prime Minister" remains a common form of address in international diplomacy, "Prime Minister" alone remains more common within domestic politics.

Legislative bodies

*The Right Honourable Member for... — British and some Commonwealth countries' MPs who are Privy Counsellors, some Commonwealth Realm prime ministers
*The Honourable Member for... —
**In the United Kingdom: Members of Parliament who are not Privy Counsellors when being referred to in the chamber of the House of Commons. Outside the House of Commons Members who are not entitled to another style or title are described as, for example, John Smith, Esq., MP.
**In Australia: Members of the Federal Executive Council
**In Canada: Members of the Parliament of Canada who are not ministers or secretaries.
*Senator... — in some Commonwealth countries' whose upper House is called the Senate.

Local government

*The Right Honourable — Lord Mayors of London, Cardiff, Belfast, York and Bristol (England and Wales and Northern Ireland in the United Kingdom); Lord Provosts of Edinburgh and Glasgow (Scotland in the United Kingdom); and (rarely used nowadays) Lord Mayors of all state and territorial capital cities of Australia
*The Right Worshipful — all other Lord Mayors and Mayors of cities and the original Cinque Ports (United Kingdom), and (rarely used nowadays) Lord Mayors of certain large cities of Australia
*The Worshipful — all other Mayors or other municipal governors
*His/Her Worship (oral address "Your Worship") — municipal leaders in Commonwealth Realms.


*His/Her Excellency - Governor-General and his wife and all state Governors (but not their wives/husbands)
*The Honourable - Justices of the High Court of Australia, the Federal Court of Australia, the Family Court of Australia and state Supreme Courts
*The Honourable - all current and former members of the Federal Executive Council and all current members of State Executive Councils and certain former members of State Executive Councils and long-serving members of State Legislative Councils (upper houses of State parliaments) that have been given the right to keep the title by permission of the Governor of that state.


*His/Her Majesty — King/Queen of Canada
*His/Her Excellency — Governor General and Vice-regal consort "in office"
*The Right Honourable — former and current Governors General, Prime Ministers, Chief Justices of Canada & certain eminent Canadians "for life"
*His/Her Honour — Lieutenant-Governors and Viceregal consorts "in office"
*The Honourable
**"For life" — Members of the Queen's Privy Council for Canada, Senators & Lieutenant-Governors
**"In office only" — Speaker of the Senate, Speaker of the House of Commons, Minister Members of Parliament, Judges of provincial courts, Premiers of Provinces and Territories, Territorial commissioners & Provincial and Territorial cabinet ministers
***Note: Members of Parliament are often referred to as "the honourable member for" (their riding) but do not use the style "honourable" with their name.
*The Honourable Mr/Madam Justice — Chief Justices of province & Justices of superior courts
*His/Her Worship (oral address Your Worship) — Justices of the Peace, magistrates and Municipal leaders "in office"

United Kingdom

*The Most Noble "or" His Grace (oral address "Your Grace") — Dukes. Occasionally the Archbishop of Canterbury, the Archbishop of York and other Archbishops are also styled His Grace.
*The Most Honourable (abbreviation "The Most Hon.") — Marquesses
*The Right Honourable (abbreviation "The Rt Hon.") — Earl, Viscounts, Barons/Lords of Parliament and members of the Privy Councils
*The Right Honourable and Learned — as the previous explanation, but if the holder is also a Queen's Counsel
*The Right Honourable and Gallant — as the previous explanation, but if the holder is also a serving military officer
*The Honourable (abbreviation "The Hon.") — younger sons of Earls, all children of Viscounts and Barons/Lords of Parliament
*The Much Honoured (abbreviation "The Much Hon.") — Scottish Lairds and feudal Barons

tyles existing through marriage

Styles can be acquired through marriage, though traditionally this applies more to wives of office-holders than to husbands. Thus, in the United Kingdom, Anne, Princess Royal is styled "Her Royal Highness" (HRH), her husband, Timothy Laurence, has no style and there would have to be a special arrangement to give him one. In contrast, when Sophie Rhys-Jones married Prince Edward, she became "The Princess Edward, Countess of Wessex" (&c.) and automatically acquired an HRH, by virtue of her marriage to a royal prince.

This gender differentiation continues into the next generation in traditional royal families. Thus, while the sons of The Prince of Wales and the daughters of The Duke of York have HRH styles, the children of The Princess Royal have no styles. (She requested that they, like her husband, be given no courtesy titles or peerages, though they could have been: the key point is that they did not automatically receive any.)

Styles and titles can terminate when a marriage is dissolved. Diana, Princess of Wales held the style "Her Royal Highness" or "HRH" during her marriage to HRH The Prince of Wales and the title Princess of Wales. Her marital status was indicated by the title "Princess of Wales". When the couple divorced, she lost her title and her style, which had existed only by virtue of her marriage to a royal prince: she became instead "Diana, Princess of Wales", although she was still entitled to the style "Lady" as the daughter of an Earl.

The style "Princess of Wales" — not preceded by a definite article — indicated that she was a "former" Princess of Wales; when applied to the current Princess of Wales, the style includes a definite article ("The Princess of Wales"). If she had remarried the style Princess of Wales would also lapse.

While there was the option of awarding an "HRH" style to Diana, Princess of Wales in her "personal" capacity (which could be justified, given that she was the mother of a future king), it was decided not to award her the style. As a result, from the moment of her divorce until her death, she ceased to hold any royal style or title, though out of courtesy or ignorance many people still applied the style 'HRH' to her. Similarly, when Sarah, Duchess of York was divorced from her husband, "HRH" The Duke of York, she too lost her HRH style and title.

In 1936, Wallis Simpson was not given the HRH style by George VI when she married his brother, the former Edward VIII, by then known as "HRH" The Duke of Windsor. There was no precedent for a divorced woman marrying a member of the royal family and it was feared that, if the couple divorced (she had already divorced two husbands) she would lose the style but could conceivably still try to use it anyway, undermining its status.


*His/Her Illustrious Excellency- The President of the Philippines. This is a throwback to Spanish colonial practice when the Royal Governor General of the Philippines used the same title. The full title of the current Philippine President is "Her Illustrious Excellency, The Right Honourable the President for the Republic of the Philippines, Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo".
*His/Her Excellency- Governors of Philippine Provinces. The full title of a Philippine Governor is "His/Her Excellency, The Honourable the Governor for the Province of X".
*His/Her Honour- Vice Governors of Provinces. The full title of a Philippine Vice Governor is "His/Her Honour, The Honourable the Vice Governor for the Province of X".
*Sir/Madame- The Presidential or Gubernatorial Consort has no constitutional title, but it is common custom to address the Consort with these titles. The titles "Don" and "Doña" are used occasionally.

United States

In general, all government officials in the U.S., particularly elected officials and judges, are styled "The Honorable" in formal circumstances, i.e. ("The Honorable Michael Bloomberg, Mayor of the City of New York"). They are generally addressed as "Mister" or "Madam" and their title ("Mr. President," "Madam Mayor") or simply by name and title ("Councilman Jones", "Chairwoman Smith").
*Judges are all, in general, addressed as "Your Honor", or "His/Her Honor", or else as "Judge Smith" or "Justice Jones" (the form, "Mr. Justice Jones" for members of the Supreme Court of the United States is considered archaic and is no longer used by the court, although at present "Mr. Chief Justice" is still used to address the Chief Justice of the United States).
*In some municipalities (e.g., New York City and Chicago), mayors are addressed as "Your Honor" -- this may be a vestige of the fact that the mayor of New York City (and some others) were also magistrates of the court system.
*His/Her Excellency (oral address Excellency, Your Excellency) was customarily used of governors of states in general, though this has given way to the generic "honorable" for the most part, except in such states as the Commonwealth of Virginia, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, and of the states of Connecticut, Maine, and New Hampshire which retain the older form.
*Members of the House of Representatives, referred to as Members of Congress, are similarly styled The Honorable, sometimes with "M.C." after their names in certain circumstances, or else their simple title (that is, "The Honorable John Jones, M.C.", or "Representative John Jones", or "Congressman John Jones"). Senators similarly are "The Honorable" or "Senator Smith." On the actual floor of the houses during debate, members commonly refer to one another as the gentleman/gentlewoman "from such-and-such a state" - "As my friend, the distinguished gentleman from Ohio, just said..." or "I yield three minutes to the gentleman from New York, Mr. Smith". In the Senate, it is customary to refer to colleagues as the junior or senior senator from a state, as in "I disagree with my dear friend, the junior senator from Ohio...".
*Though it has no legal meaning in the U.S. and may, in theory, be used by anyone (or at least, customarily, by any male), the term "esquire," abbreviated "Esq." after the name (John Jones, Esq.) is used almost exclusively by lawyers and may generally be regarded on business cards or stationery as an indication that the person is a member of the bar. Although some authorities previously urged that use of "Esq." should be restricted to male lawyers, today the term is used in addressing both male and female attorneys.
*In academic fields, it is customary to refer to those holding professorships as "Professor Jones". Lecturers and adjunct instructors may be referred to as "Dr. Jones" if they hold a doctorate.


In the Republic of Ireland, Holders of offices with Irish names are usually addressed in English by its nominative form (so, 'Taoiseach' and 'Tánaiste'), though the Irish vocative forms differ ("a Thaoisigh" and "a Thánaiste"). The President may be styled 'His/Her Excellency' (Irish: "A Shoilse" IPA| [ə hɘʎʃ̪ʲə] /"A Soilse" IPA| [ə sɘʎʃ̪ʲə] ) and addressed 'Your Excellency' (Irish: "A Shoilse"), or simply 'President' (Irish: "A Uachtaráin" IPA| [ɘ uːəxt̪ˠɘɾaːn̥] ). The titles 'Minister' and 'Senator' are used as forms of address; only the latter as a style. A TD ("Teachta Dála") is formally addressed and styled as 'Deputy', though often simply "Mr", "Mrs", etc. Similarly, county and city councillors can be addressed as 'Councillor', abbreviated "Cllr." which is used as a written style, but are just as frequently addressed as "Mr", "Mrs" etc.

Former styles

All former monarchies had styles, some, as in the Bourbon monarchy of France, extremely complicated depending on the status of the office or office-holder. Otto von Habsburg, who was Crown Prince of Austria-Hungary (1916-1918), had the style 'His Imperial and Royal Highness'. He was last addressed as such by church figures during the funeral of his late mother, Empress-Queen Zita of Austria-Hungary in 1989, although the use of these styles has been prohibited in Austria since 1920. []

For the styles of address to government officials in Imperial Russia, see Table of Ranks.

The names of some offices are also titles, which are retained by the office holder for life. For example, in Finland, the President of the Republic from 1994 to 2000, Martti Ahtisaari, retains the title "President", and is called "President Ahtisaari", in contrast to the current President of the Republic Tarja Halonen.

tyles and titles of deposed monarchs

General tradition indicates that where a monarch has been deposed but has not abdicated, they retain the use of their style and title for the duration of their lifetime, but both die with them. Hence Greece's deposed king is still technically "His Majesty King Constantine II of the Hellenes", as a "personal" title, not a constitutional office, since the abolition of the monarchy by the Hellenic Republic in 1974. Similarly, until his death the last King of Italy, King Umberto II, was technically entitled to be called "His Majesty the King of Italy" or "Your Majesty". In contrast, the "ex-King Michael I of Romania", who abdicated his throne in 1947, technically lost the use of his title, though out of politeness, he may still be called "His Majesty King Michael" or "Your Majesty".

While this rule is generally observed, and indeed some exiled monarchs are allowed diplomatic passports by their former state, other states take offence at the use of such titles. The current Hellenic Republic has long challenged King Constantine's right to use his title; in 1981, the then Greek President Constantine Karamanlis declined to attend the wedding of the Prince of Wales when it was revealed that Greece's deposed monarch, a friend of the Prince, had been referred to as 'King' in his invitation. However, King Constantine now travels in and out of Greece without any problems, on a Danish royal passport (as "King Constantine of Greece"), and has done so several times in the past few years. Because of the Schengen agreements the Greek government cannot refuse him entry.

Other parallel symbols

Styles were often among the range of symbols that surrounded figures of high office. Everything from the manner of address to the behaviour of a person on meeting that personage was surrounded by traditional symbols. Monarchs were to be bowed to by men and curtsied to by women. Senior clergy, particularly in the Roman Catholic Church, were to have their rings (the symbol of their authority) kissed by lay persons while they were on bended knee, while cardinals in an act of homage at the papal coronation were meant to kiss the feet of the Supreme Pontiff, the Pope.

Many of these traditions have lapsed or been partially abandoned. At his inauguration as pope in 1978 (itself the abandonment of the traditional millennium-old papal coronation), Pope John Paul II himself kissed cardinals on the cheeks, rather than follow the traditional method of homage of having his feet kissed. Curtsies have for many years been no longer obligatory when meeting members of the British Royal Family; indeed some royal highnesses positively hate being curtsied to.Fact|date=August 2007 One described the experience of a row of curtsying women, bobbing up and down, as leaving them 'sea-sick'.

Similarly, styles, though still used, are used less often. The current President of Ireland, Mary McAleese, is usually referred to as "President Mary McAleese", not "President McAleese", as had been the form used for the first six presidents, from President Hyde to President Hillery. Tony Blair asked initially to be called "Tony". In a break with tradition, though as the second in line to the throne and a son of a royal prince, Prince William of Wales formally has a HRH style, he chose while at university not to use it. The United States has become one of the most informal countries in the worldFact|date=August 2007, with styles such as "Excellency" now largely abandoned or ignored, even by those who legally have them. First names, or even nicknames, are often widely used among politicians in the US, even in formal situations (as an extreme example, President James Earl "Jimmy" Carter chose to take the Oath of Office using his nickname). One notable exception involves judges: a judge of any court is almost invariably addressed as "Your Honor" while presiding over his or her court, and often at other times as well. This style has been removed in the Republic of Ireland, where judges are addressed only as "Judge".

However, styles are still widely used in formal documents and correspondence between heads of state, such as in a Letter of Credence accrediting an ambassador from one head of state to another.


The term "self-styled" roughly means awarding a "style" to yourself, often without adequate justification or authority. However, often people style themselves with "titles", rather than true "styles".


1 Though the Republic of Ireland does not possess a Privy Council, the style is still used. The Lord Mayor of Dublin is still styled the Right Honourable, as previous lord mayors of Dublin were "ex-officio" members of the former Irish Privy Council until its abolition in 1922.

ee also

*Canadian honorifics
*Royal and noble styles
*Styles in the United Kingdom
*Suffix (name)
*Use of courtesy titles and honorifics in professional writing
*T-V distinction


# [ Austrian law on noble titles]

External links

* [ Table of titles to be used in Canada (Department of Canadian Heritage)]
* [ Styles of Address (Department of Canadian Heritage)]
* [ Forms of Address for use orally and in correpondence (UK Crown Office)]
* [ Forms of Address] from Infoplease

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