- Avalon Peninsula
The Avalon Peninsula is a large
peninsula(10,360 km² [ [http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/index.cfm?PgNm=TCE&Params=A1ARTA0000419 The Canadian Encyclopedia: Avalon Peninsula ] ] ) that makes up the southeast portion of the island of Newfoundland.
The peninsula is home to 248,418 people (approximately 49% of Newfoundland's population in 2006), and is the location of the provincial capital, St. John's. It is connected to the main section of the island by the 5 km/3 mile wide Isthmus of Avalon. The peninsula protrudes into the rich fishing zones near the
Grand Banks. Its four major bays—Trinity Bay, Conception Bay, St. Mary's Bay, and Placentia Bay—have long been the centre of Newfoundland's fishing industry.
The peninsula was one of the first European inhabited areas in
North America, with the first permanent settlement established at Cuper's Cove in 1610. Sir George Calvert was later given a large land holding on the peninsula. The initial colony of Ferrylandgrew to a population of 100 becoming the first successful permanent settlement on Newfoundland island. In 1623 Calvert was given a Royal Charterextending the Royal lands and granting them the name "Province of Avalon" "in imitation of Old Avalonin Somersetshire wherein Glassenbury stands, the first fruits of Christianityin Britain as the other was in that party of America." Calvert wished to make the colony a refuge for Roman Catholicsfacing persecution in England. In 1625 Calvert was made the first Lord Baltimorein recognition of his achievements.
Newfoundland and Labrador] The charter created the province as a palatinate in which Calvert had absolute authority.
A series of crises and calamities led Calvert to quit the colony in 1629 for "some other warmer climate of this new world", which turned out to be Maryland, though his family was to maintain agents to govern Avalon until 1637, when the entire island of Newfoundland was granted by charter to Sir
David Kirkeand James Hamilton, 1st Duke of Hamilton.
Cæcilius Calvert, 2nd Baron Baltimore, fought against the new charter and, in 1660, gained official recognition of the old Charter of Avalon but never attempted to retake the colony.
British colonization of the Americas
Newfoundland and Labrador
* [http://www.heritage.nf.ca/avalon/default.html Heritage of Newfoundland - Colony of Avalon]
Harding, Les. Exploring the Avalon. Jesperson, 1998. ISBN 0-921692-87-0
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