name = Cloudberry
image_width = 240px
image_caption = From "Bilder ur Nordens Flora" (1917-1926)
genus = "
species = "R. chamaemorus"
binomial = "Rubus chamaemorus"
binomial_authority = L.
The cloudberry ("Rubus chamaemorus"), also called bakeapple in Newfoundland and Labrador,
Cape Breton Islandand southern Nova Scotia, is a slow-growing alpine or sub-Arctic species of " Rubus", producing amber-colored edible fruit. The botanical name ("chamæmorus") derives from the Greek "khamai" ("on the ground") and "moros" (" mulberry"). Cloudberry is the name for both the plant and the fruit. Cloudberry should not be confused with salmonberry, although the fruit looks similar.
The cloudberry grows to 10-25 cm high. The leaves alternate between having 5 and 7 soft, handlike lobes on straight, branchless stalks. After pollination, the white (sometimes reddish-tipped)
flowers form raspberry-sized berries. Encapsulating between 5 and 25 drupelets, each fruit is initially pale red, ripening into an amber colour in early autumn.
Distribution and ecology
Cloudberries occur naturally throughout the
Northern Hemispherefrom 78°N, south to about 55°N, and very scattered south to 44°N mainly in mountainous areas. In Europe and Asia, they grow in the Nordic countries, especially in Finland; sometimes in the moorlands of Britain and Ireland, much in the Baltic states, and across northern Russiaeast to the Pacific Ocean. Small populations are also found further south, as a botanical vestige of the Ice Ages; it is found in Germany's Weserand Elbevalleys, where it is under legal protection. In North America, cloudberries grow wild across most of Canada/ Alaska, and in the lower 48 states of the United Statesin northern Minnesota, New Hampshire, Maine, and a small population on Long Island, New York.
The cloudberry can withstand cold temperatures down to well below -40°C, but is sensitive to
saltand to dry conditions. It grows in bogs, marshes and wet meadows and requires sunny exposures in acidic ground (between 3.5 and 5 "p"H).
Cloudberry leaves are food for
caterpillars of several Lepidopteraspecies. The moth" Coleophora thulea" has no other known foodplants. See also List of Lepidoptera that feed on Rubus.
s which can develop extensive berry patches. Cuttings of these taken in May or August are successful in producing a genetic clone of the parent plant. [cite journal
title=Vegetativ oppformering av molte ("Rubus chamaemorus" L.)
journal=Jord og Myr
Despite its modern demand as a delicacy exceeding supply (particularly in Norway) the cloudberry is primarily a wild plant. Wholesale prices vary widely based on the size of the yearly harvest, but can reach 10€/kg. [cite web|url=http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=10000085&sid=aFoIHwZwFtyk&refer=europe|title=Record Cloudberry Crop Lures Thousands of Finns to Lapland Bogs|accessdate=2006-05-24]
Since the middle of the 1990s, however, the species has formed part of the " [http://www.uku.fi/northernberries/ Northernberries] " research project. The Norwegian government, in cooperation with Finnish, Swedish and Scottish counterparts, has vigorously pursued the aim of enabling commercial production of various wild berries (Norway imports 200 - 300
tonnes of cloudberries per year from Finland). Beginning in 2002, selected cultivars have been available to farmers, notably "Apolto" (male), "Fjellgull" (female) and "Fjordgull" (female). The cloudberry can be cultivated in Arctic areas where few other crops are possible, for example along the northern coast of Norway.
The ripe fruits are golden-yellow, soft and juicy, and are rich in
vitamin C. When eaten fresh, cloudberries have a distinctive tart taste. When over-ripe, they have a creamy texture and flavor somewhat like yogurt. They are often made into jams, juices, tarts, and liqueurs. In Finland, the berries are eaten with " Leipäjuusto" (a local cheese; the name translates to "bread-cheese"), and lots of cream and sugar. In Sweden, cloudberries are used as topping for ice cream or waffles. In Norway, they are eaten with whipped cream and lots of sugar, or in cakes that often contain marzipan. In Canada, cloudberries are used to flavour a special beer. Canadians also use them for jam, but not on the same scale as Scandinavians.In Alaska, the berries are mixed with seal oil, reindeer or caribou fat (which is diced up and made fluffy with the seal oil) and sugar to make "Eskimo Ice Cream" or Agutuk. The recipes vary by region. Along the Yukon and Kuskokwim river areas, white fish(pike,whitefish) along with Crisco and sugar is used.Due to its high vitamin C content, the berry is valued both by Nordic seafarers and by Canadian Inuitas protection against scurvy. Its high benzoic acidcontent acts as a natural preservative.
Tea made from cloudberry leaves was used in ancient Scandinavian herbal medicine to cure urinary tract infections.
In Nordic countries traditionally liqueurs such as "
Lakkalikööri" (a Finnish liqueur) are made of cloudberry. It has a strong taste and a high sugar content. Cloudberry has also served as a spice for aquavit. Dogfish Head Breweryhas made an [http://www.ratebeer.com/beer/dogfish-head-arctic-cloudberry-imperial-wheat/54557/2778/ Arctic Cloudberry Imperial Wheat] beer, which was inspired by the [http://www.ratebeer.com/Beer/cantillon-soleil-de-minuit/5962/ cloudberry lambic] dubbed Soleil de Minuit made by Brasserie Cantillonfor the Akkurat pub in Stockholm.
Rodrigues Winery [http://www.rodrigueswinery.com] located in Newfoundland, Canada makes a cloudberry wine and a cloudberry liqueurfrom Newfoundland and Labrador grown berries.
A cloudberry liqueur is also made in the north eastern Quebec region of Canada. The liqueur is known as chicoutai, which is the local Aboriginal name for the cloudberry.
Other names for the cloudberry include:
Canada: _fr. plaquebiere, " _fr. chicoutai" or " _fr. chicoutée" (in Quebec) _en. bakeapple(in Newfoundland and Labrador and Cape Breton Island)
* Cup'ig: "atsar atsakutag" (plural)
*, " _nl. gele bosbraam"
* (commonly used); " _et. kaarlad", " _et. kaarmed", " _et. kaarnad", " _et. käbalad", " _et. muuramed" (locally used)
*, " _fi. suomuurain", " _fi. hilla", " _fi. muurain", " _fi. lintti", " _fi. valokki", " _fi. nevamarja
*, " _fr. plaquebière", " _fr. ronce des tourbières", " _fr. ronce petit-mûrier", " _fr. mûre arctique
*, " _de. Multebeere", " _de. Multbeere" (from Danish); " _de. Torfbeere" (peat berry)
* (" _gr. βατόμουρο")
*, " _hu. Sarki szeder", " _hu. Lápi málna", " _hu. tőzegmálna" " _hu. mocsári hamvasszeder"
* or Unicode|ᐊᖅᐱᒃ
*, " _no. multe", " _no. multebær", " _no. myrbær" (whilst unripe)
*, " _pl. moroszka"
* Sakha: "Unicode|ыт тиҥилэҕэ" ("yt tingileghe")
* Siberian Yup'ik: "akavsik" (plural)
*, " _es. mora ártica", " _es. mora de ronces", " _es. camemoro", " _es. camemoro ártico"
* (commonly used); " _sv. multebär", " _sv. myrbär", " _sv. snåtterblomma", " _sv. solbär", " _sv. snåttren/snattren" (locally used)
* Yup'ik: "naunraq", "atsalugpiaq"
The Norwegian municipality of
Nessebyhas a cloudberry in its coat-of-arms. The cloudberry fruit and leaves are also displayed on the national side of the Finnish €2 coins.
*Resvoll, T. R., 1925. "Rubus chamaemorus" L. A morphological - biological study. Nytt Magasin for Naturvidenskapene, 67: 55-129.
*Resvoll, T. R., 1925. "Rubus chamaemorus" L. Die geographische Verbreitung der Pflanze und ihre Verbreitungsmittel. Veröffentlichungen des Geobotanischen Institutes Rübel in Zürich, 3: 224-241.
* [http://www.uku.fi/northernberries/ "Northernberries" project: Domestication of Northern Berries]
* [http://www.pfaf.org/database/plants.php?Rubus+chamaemorus Plants for a Future database report]
* [http://linnaeus.nrm.se/flora/di/rosa/rubus/rubuchav.jpgDen virtuelle floran - Distribution]
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