- Sakha language
nativename=Саха тыла "Saxa tyla"
speakers=456,288 (2002 census) [Russian Census 2002. [http://www.perepis2002.ru/ct/doc/TOM_04_04.xls Распространенность владения языками (кроме русского)] ("Knowledge of languages other than Russian")ru icon]
fam1=Altaic [" [http://www.ethnologue.com/show_family.asp?subid=90009] Ethnologue"] (controversial)
Map showing locations of Sakha (dark blue) and Dolgan (blue)
Sakha, or Yakut, is a Turkic language with around 460,000 speakers spoken in the
Sakha Republicin the Russian Federationby the Sakha or Yakuts.
Sakha is a member of the Northern Turkic family of languages, which includes Shor, Tuvan, and Dolgan in addition to Sakha. The Northern Turkic family is a subgroup of the
Turkic languages, which some linguists believe to be member of the disputed Altaic language family. cite book | author=Krueger, John R. | title=Yakut Manual | location=Bloomington | publisher=Indiana U Press | year=1962]
Like Finnish, Hungarian, and Turkish, Sakha has
vowel harmony, is agglutinative and has no grammatical gender. Word order is usually Subject Object Verb.
Sakha is spoken mainly in the Sakha Republic. It is also used by ethnic Sakha in
Khabarovsk Regionand a small diaspora in other parts of the Russian Federation, Turkey, and other parts of the world. Dolgan, a close relative of Sakha, considered by some a dialect, is spoken by Dolgansin Krasnoyarsk Region. Sakha is widely used as a lingua francaby other ethnic minorities in the Sakha Republic - more Dolgans, Evenks, Evensand Yukagirsspeak Yakut than their own languages. About 8% of the people of other ethnicities than Yakut living in Sakha claimed knowledge of Yakut language during the 2002 census. [Russian Census 2002. [http://www.perepis2002.ru/ct/doc/TOM_04_06.xls 6. Владение языками (кроме русского) населением отдельных национальностей по республикам, автономной области и автономным округам Российской Федерации] ("Knowledge of languages other than Russian by the population of republics, autonomous oblast and autonomous districts") ru icon]
One characteristic feature of Sakha is
vowel harmony. For example, if the first vowel of a Sakha word is a front vowel, the second and other vowels of the same word are usually the same vowel or another front vowel: кэлин ("kelin") "back": э ("e") is open unrounded front, и ("i") is close unrounded front.
* [http://doydu.sakhaopenworld.org/modules/debaser/genre.php?genreid=13 Sakha Open World] - mp3's of Sakha Radio
The typical word order can be summarized as subject
adverb- object - verb; possessor - possessed; noun- adjective.
Nouns have plural and singular forms. The plural is formed with the suffix /-LAr/, which may surface as [-лар ("-lar")] , [-лэр ("-ler")] , [-лөр ("-lør")] , [-лор ("-lor")] , [-тар ("-tar")] , [-тэр ("-ter")] , [-төр ("-tør")] , [-тор ("-tor")] , [-дар ("-dar")] , [-дэр ("-der")] , [-дөр ("-dør")] , [-дор ("-dor")] , [-нар ("-nar")] , [-нэр ("-ner")] , [-нөр ("-nør")] , or [-нор ("-nor")] , depending on the preceding consonants and vowels. The plural is used only when referring to a number of things collectively, not when specifying an amount. Nouns have no gender, but the
pronounsystem distinguishes between human and non-human in the third person, using кини ("kini") to refer to human beings and ол ("ol") to refer to all other things. [cite book | author=Kirişçioğlu, M. Fatih | title=Saha (Yakut) Türkçesi Grameri | location=Ankara | publisher=Türk Dil Kurumu | year=1999 |id=ISBN 975-16-0587-3]
Personal pronouns in Sakha distinguish between first, second, and third persons and singular and plural number.
Question words in Sakha remain in-situ; they do not move to the front of the sentence. Sample question words include:туох ("tuox") "what", ким ("kim") "who", хайдах ("xaydax") "how", хас ("xas") "how much", ханна ("xanna") "where", and ханнык ("xannIPA|ɯk") "which".
The first printing in Yakut was a part of a
Nicolaas Witsen's book published in 1692in Amsterdam.
2005, Marianne Beerle-Moor, director of the Institute for Bible Translation, Russia/CIS, was awarded the “Civil Valour” Order for ... the translation of the New Testamentinto the Yakut language. [ [http://www.ibt.org.ru/english/about_en.htm Библии Перевода Институт ] ]
Semyon Novgorodov- the inventor of the first IPA-based Yakut alphabet
* [http://www.uni-bonn.de/~uzsylm/mongol/mongol_sakha.html Comparison of Yakut and Mongolian vocabulary]
* [http://www.uni-bonn.de/~uzsylm/sakha/bib/ Yakut texts with Russian translations] - heroic poetry, fairy tales, legends, proverbs, etc.
* [http://sakhalyy.helios-nw.ru/ Sakhalyy suruk] - Sakha Unicode fonts and Keyboard Layouts for PC
* [http://sakhatyla.ru Sakhatyla.ru] - On-line Yakut-Russian, Russian-Yakut dictionary
* [http://home.uchicago.edu/~straughn/sakhadic.pdf Sakha-English Dictionary]
Content in Sakha
* [http://doydu.sakhaopenworld.org/ Sakha Open World - Орто Дойду] - A platform to promote the Yakut Language on the web; News, Lyrics, Music, Fonts, Forum, VideoNews (in Yakut,
* [http://www.baayaga.narod.ru Baayaga village website] - news and stories about and by the people of Baayaga (in Yakut)
* [http://www.kyym.ru Kyym.ru] - site of Yakut newspaper
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