A red flag with a large Union Jack in the upper left corner and a shield, consisting of St. George's Cross over a left-facing bison standing on a rock, on the right side A central shield depicting a bison standing on a rock, under a St George's Cross. On top of the shield sits a helmet decorated with a red and white billowing veil. On top of the helmet sits a beaver with a crown on its back, holding a prairie crocus. To the right of the shield is a rearing white unicorn wearing a collar of white and green maple leaves, from which hangs a green cart-wheel pendant. To the left of the shield is a rearing white horse wearing a collar of Indian beadwork, from which hangs a green cycle of life medallion. The animals and shield stand on a mound, with a wheat field beneath the unicorn, prairie crocuses beneath the shield, and spruces beneath the horse. Beneath the mound are white and blue waves, under which is a orange scroll bearing the words "GLORIOSUS ET LIBER"
Flag Coat of arms
Motto: Latin: Gloriosus et Liber
("Glorious and free")
Map showing the location of Manitoba, in the centre of Southern Canada, in orange. The province has a coast on Hudson Bay to the northeast, and has a large lake slightly to the south of its centre
Capital Winnipeg
Largest city Winnipeg
Largest metro Winnipeg
Official languages English (de facto & de jure), French (de jure)
Demonym Manitoban
Type Constitutional monarchy
Lieutenant Governor Philip S. Lee
Premier Greg Selinger (NDP)
Legislature Legislative Assembly of Manitoba
Federal representation in Canadian parliament
House seats 14
Senate seats 6
Confederation July 15, 1870 (5th)
Area  Ranked 8th
Total 649,950 km2 (250,950 sq mi)
Land 548,360 km2 (211,720 sq mi)
Water (%) 101,593 km2 (39,225 sq mi) (15.6%)
Population  Ranked 5th
Total (2010) 1,232,654 (est.)[1]
Density 2.14 /km2 (5.5 /sq mi)
GDP  Ranked 6th
Total (2009) C$50.973  billion[2]
Per capita C$38,001 (8th)
Postal MB
ISO 3166-2 CA-MB
Time zone UTC–6, (DST −5)
Postal code prefix R
  Prairie Crocus
Picea glauca Fairbanks.jpg
  White Spruce
Great Gray Owl - Bird of Prey exhibit at Waddington Air Show - - 1570223.jpg
  Great Grey Owl
Rankings include all provinces and territories

Manitoba Listeni/ˌmænɨˈtbə/ is a Canadian prairie province with an area of 649,950 square kilometres (250,900 sq mi). The province has over 110,000 lakes and has a largely continental climate because of its flat topography. Agriculture, mostly concentrated in the fertile southern and western parts of the province, is vital to the province's economy; other major industries are transportation, manufacturing, mining, forestry, energy, and tourism. The largest ethnic group in Manitoba is English Canadian, but there is a significant Franco-Manitoban minority and a growing aboriginal population.

Manitoba's capital and largest city, Winnipeg, is Canada's eighth-largest Census Metropolitan Area, and home to 60% of the population of the province. Winnipeg is the seat of government, home to the Legislative Assembly of Manitoba and the highest court in the jurisdiction, the Manitoba Court of Appeal. Four of the province's five universities, all four of its professional sports teams, and most of its cultural activities (including Festival du Voyageur and Folklorama) are located in Winnipeg.

The name Manitoba (meaning "strait of the spirit" or "lake of the prairies") is believed to be derived from the Cree, Ojibwe or Assiniboine language. Fur traders first arrived during the late 17th century. Manitoba became a province of Canada in 1870 after the Red River Rebellion. A general strike took place in Winnipeg in 1919, and the province was hit hard by the Great Depression. This led to the creation of what would become the New Democratic Party of Manitoba, one of the province's major political parties and currently in power led by premier Greg Selinger.



Manitoba is bordered by the provinces of Ontario to the east and Saskatchewan to the west, the territories of Nunavut and Northwest Territories to the north, and the US states of North Dakota and Minnesota to the south. It adjoins Hudson Bay to the northeast, and is the only prairie province with a coastline.

Map of Manitoba.

Hydrography and terrain

The province has a saltwater coastline bordering Hudson Bay and contains over 110,000 lakes,[3] covering approximately 15.6% or 101,593 square kilometres (39,225 sq mi) of its surface area.[4] Manitoba's major lakes are Lake Manitoba, Lake Winnipegosis, and Lake Winnipeg, the tenth-largest freshwater lake in the world and the largest located entirely within southern Canada.[5] Some traditional Native lands and boreal forest on the east side of Lake Winnipeg are a proposed UNESCO World Heritage Site.[6]

Major watercourses include the Red, Assiniboine, Nelson, Winnipeg, Hayes, Whiteshell and Churchill Rivers. Most of Manitoba's inhabited south lies in the prehistoric bed of Glacial Lake Agassiz. This region, particularly the Red River Valley, is flat and fertile; there are hilly and rocky areas throughout the province left behind by receding glaciers.[7]

Baldy Mountain is the highest point in the province at 832 metres (2,730 ft) above sea level,[8] and the Hudson Bay coast is the lowest at sea level. Riding Mountain, the Pembina Hills, Sandilands Provincial Forest, and the Canadian Shield are also upland regions. Much of the province's sparsely inhabited north and east lie on the irregular granite Canadian Shield, including Whiteshell, Atikaki, and Nopiming Provincial Parks.[9]

Extensive agriculture is found only in the southern half of the province, although there is grain farming in the Carrot Valley Region (near The Pas). The most common agricultural activity is cattle farming (34.6%), followed by assorted grains (19.0%) and oilseed (7.9%).[10] Around 12% of Canadian farmland is located in Manitoba.[11]


A funnel cloud touching down in the middle of a small stand of pine trees
Canada's first reported Fujita Scale F5 tornado approaching Elie

Manitoba has an extreme continental climate; temperatures and precipitation generally decrease from south to north, and precipitation decreases from east to west.[12] Manitoba is far removed from the moderating influences of both mountain ranges and large bodies of water, and because of the generally flat landscape, it is exposed to cold Arctic high-pressure air masses from the northwest during January and February. In the summer, air masses sometimes come out of the Southern United States, as warm humid air is drawn northward from the Gulf of Mexico.[13]

Southern parts of the province, located just north of Tornado Alley, experience tornadoes each year, with 15 confirmed touchdowns in 2006. In 2007, on June 22 and June 23, numerous tornadoes touched down, the largest of which was an F5 Tornado that devastated parts of Elie (the strongest officially recorded tornado in Canada).[14] Temperatures exceed 30 °C (86 °F) numerous times each summer, and the combination of heat and humidity can bring the humidex value to the mid-40s.[15] Carman, Manitoba holds the record for the highest humidex in Canada, with 53.0.[16]

According to Environment Canada, Manitoba ranked first for clearest skies year round, and ranked second for clearest skies in the summer and for sunniest province in the winter and spring.[17] Portage la Prairie has the most sunny days in summer in Canada; Winnipeg has the second-clearest skies year-round and is the second-sunniest city in Canada in the spring and winter.[18] Southern Manitoba has a long frost-free season of between 125 and 135 days in the Red River Valley,[19] decreasing to the northeast.

The northern sections of the province (including the city of Thompson) fall in the subarctic climate zone (Köppen climate classification Dfc). This region features long and extremely cold winters and brief, warm summers with little precipitation.[20] Overnight temperatures as low as −40 °C (−40 °F) occur on several days each winter.[20]

Southern Manitoba (including the city of Winnipeg), falls into the humid continental climate zone (Köppen Dfb). This area is cold and windy in the winter and frequently experiences blizzards because of the openness of the landscape. Summers are warm with a decent length, and this region is the most humid area in the prairie provinces with moderate precipitation.

Southwestern Manitoba, though under the same climate classification as the rest of Southern Manitoba, is closer to the semi-arid interior of Palliser's Triangle. The area is drier and more prone to droughts than other parts of southern Manitoba.[21] This area is cold and windy in the winter and frequently experiences blizzards because of the openness of the landscape.[21] Summers are generally warm to hot, with low to moderate humidity.[21]

Average daily maximum and minimum temperatures for selected cities in Manitoba[22]
City July (°C) July (°F) January (°C) January (°F)
Winnipeg 26/13 79/55 −13/−20 9/−4
Portage la Prairie 25/13 77/55 −12/−23 10/−9
Dauphin 25/12 77/54 −12/−23 10/−9
Brandon 25/11 77/52 −13/−24 9/−11
The Pas 23/12 73/54 −16/−26 3/−15
Thompson 23/9 73/48 −19/−31 −2/−24

Flora and fauna

A bear with white fur and black eyes
Polar bears are common in northern Manitoba

The eastern, southeastern, and northern reaches of the province range through boreal coniferous forests, muskeg, Canadian Shield and a small section of tundra bordering Hudson Bay. Forests make up about 263,000 square kilometres (102,000 sq mi), or 48 percent, of the province's land area.[23] The forests consist of pines (mostly Jack Pine, some Red Pine), spruces (white, black), larch, poplars (Trembling Aspen, balsam poplar), birch (white, swamp) and small pockets of Eastern White Cedar.[23] The tallgrass prairie dominates the southern parts of the province, and is notable for its endangered Western Prairie Fringed Orchid.[24][25]

Manitoba is home to a diverse species of animals. The province is especially noted for its polar bear population; Churchill is commonly referred to as the "Polar Bear Capital".[26] Other large animals, such as moose, deer, and wolves, are common throughout the province, especially in the provincial and national parks. There is a large population of garter snakes near Narcisse; the dens there are home to the largest concentration of snakes in the world.[27] Manitoba has over 145 species of birds, including the Great Grey Owl, the province's official bird, and the endangered peregrine falcon.[28] Manitoba's lakes host 18 species of game fish, particularly species of trout, pike, and goldeye, as well as many smaller fish.[29]


First Nations and European settlement

The geographical area of modern-day Manitoba was inhabited by the First Nations people shortly after the last ice age glaciers retreated in the southwest approximately 10,000 years ago; the first exposed land was the Turtle Mountain area.[30] The Ojibwe, Cree, Dene, Sioux, Mandan, and Assiniboine peoples founded settlements, and other tribes entered the area to trade. In Northern Manitoba, quartz was mined to make arrowheads. The first farming in Manitoba was along the Red River, where corn and other seed crops were planted before contact with Europeans.[31] The name "Manitoba" is likely derived from the languages of the Cree or Ojibwe, and means "strait of the Manitou (spirit)". It may also be from the Assiniboine for "Lake of the Prairie".[32]

Red flag with British Union Jack in upper left corner and the letters HBC in lower right corner
Historical flag of the Hudson's Bay Company from its days as a British trading company

In 1611, Henry Hudson was one of the first Europeans to sail into what is now known as Hudson Bay, where he was abandoned by his crew.[33] The first European to reach present-day central and southern Manitoba was Sir Thomas Button, who travelled upstream along the Nelson River to Lake Winnipeg in 1612 in an unsuccessful attempt to find and rescue Hudson.[34] The Nonsuch, a British ship, sailed into Hudson Bay in 1668–1669, becoming the first trading vessel to reach the area; that voyage led to the formation of the Hudson's Bay Company, which was given absolute control of the entire Hudson Bay watershed by the British government. This watershed was named Rupert's Land, after Prince Rupert, who helped to subsidize the Hudson's Bay Company.[35] York Factory was founded in 1684 after the original fort of the Hudson's Bay Company, Fort Nelson (built in 1682), was destroyed by rival French traders.[36]

Pierre Gaultier de Varennes, sieur de La Vérendrye, visited the Red River Valley in the 1730s to help open the area for French exploration and trade.[37] As French explorers entered the area, a Montreal-based company, the North West Company, began trading with the Métis. Both the North West Company and the Hudson's Bay Company built fur-trading forts; the two companies competed in southern Manitoba, occasionally resulting in violence, until they merged in 1821 (the Hudson's Bay Company Archives in Winnipeg preserve the history of this era).[35]

Great Britain secured the territory in 1763 as a result of their victory over France in the Seven Years War (also known as the French and Indian War; 1754–1763). The founding of the first agricultural community and settlements in 1812 by Lord Selkirk, north of the area which is now downtown Winnipeg, resulted in conflict between British colonists and the Métis.[38] Twenty colonists, including the governor, and one Métis were killed in the Battle of Seven Oaks in 1816.[39]


When Canada was formed in 1867 its provinces were a relatively narrow strip in the southeast, with vast territories in the interior. It grew by adding British Columbia in 1871, P. E. I. in 1873, the British Arctic Islands in 1880, and Newfoundland in 1949; meanwhile, its provinces grew both in size and number at the expense of its territories.
Evolution of Canadian provinces 1867–present.

Rupert's Land was ceded to Canada by the Hudson's Bay Company in 1869 and incorporated into the Northwest Territories; a lack of attention to Métis concerns caused Métis leader Louis Riel to establish a local provisional government as part of the Red River Rebellion. In response, Prime Minister John A. Macdonald introduced the Manitoba Act in the Canadian House of Commons, the bill was given Royal Assent and Manitoba was brought into Canada as a province in 1870.[40] Louis Riel was pursued by British army officer Garnet Wolseley because of the rebellion, and Riel fled into exile.[41] The Métis were blocked by the Canadian government in their attempts to obtain land promised to them as part of Manitoba's entry into confederation. Facing racism from the new flood of white settlers from Ontario, large numbers of Métis moved to what would become Saskatchewan and Alberta.[40]

Numbered Treaties were signed in the late 19th century with the chiefs of various First Nations that lived in the area. These treaties made specific promises of land for every family. As a result, a reserve system was established under the jurisdiction of the Federal Government.[42] The prescribed amount of land promised to the native peoples was not always given; this led to efforts by aboriginal groups to assert rights to the land through aboriginal land claims, many of which are still ongoing.[43]

The original province of Manitoba was a square 1/18 of its current size, and was known as the "postage stamp province".[44] Its borders were expanded in 1881, but Ontario claimed a large portion of the land; the disputed portion was awarded to Ontario in 1889. Manitoba grew progressively, absorbing land from the Northwest Territories until it attained its current size by reaching 60°N in 1912.[44]

The Manitoba Schools Question showed the deep divergence of cultural values in the territory. The Catholic Franco-Manitobans had been guaranteed a state-supported separate school system in the original constitution of Manitoba, but a grassroots political movement among English Protestants from 1888 to 1890 demanded the end of French schools. In 1890, the Manitoba legislature passed a law removing funding for French Catholic schools.[45] The French Catholic minority asked the federal government for support; however, the Orange Order and other anti-Catholic forces mobilized nationwide to oppose them.[46]

The federal Conservatives proposed remedial legislation to override Manitoba, but they were blocked by the Liberals, led by Wilfrid Laurier, who opposed the remedial legislation because of his belief in provincial rights.[45] Once elected Prime Minister in 1896, Laurier implemented a compromise stating that Catholics in Manitoba could have their own religious instruction for 30 minutes at the end of the day if there were enough students to warrant it, implemented on a school-by-school basis.[45]

Modern times

Large group of people in the middle of a city street beside a large concrete building
Crowd gathered outside the old City Hall during the Winnipeg General Strike, June 21, 1919.
A concrete and metal structure spans a section of choppy water
Control gates at the inlet to the Floodway.

By 1911, Winnipeg was the third largest city in Canada, and remained so until overtaken by Vancouver in the 1920s.[47] A boomtown, it grew quickly around the turn of the century, with outside investors and immigrants contributing to its success.[48] The drop in growth in the second half of the decade was a result of the opening of the Panama Canal in 1914, which reduced reliance on transcontinental railways for trade, as well as a decrease in immigration due to the outbreak of World War I.[49] Over 18,000 Manitoba residents enlisted in the first year of the war; by the end of the war, fourteen Manitobans had received the Victoria Cross.[50]

After World War I ended, severe discontent among farmers (over wheat prices) and union members (over wage rates) resulted in an upsurge of radicalism, coupled with a polarization over the rise of Bolshevism in Russia.[51] The most dramatic result was the Winnipeg General Strike of 1919. It began May 15 and collapsed on June 25, 1919, as the workers gradually returned to their jobs, and the Central Strike Committee decided to end the movement.[52]

Government efforts to violently crush the strike, including a Royal Northwest Mounted Police charge into a crowd of protesters that resulted in multiple casualties and one death, had led to the arrest of the movement's leaders.[52] In the aftermath, eight leaders went on trial, and most were convicted on charges of seditious conspiracy, illegal combinations, and seditious libel; four were aliens who were deported under the Canadian Immigration Act.[53]

The Great Depression (1929–c.1939) hit especially hard in Western Canada, including Manitoba. The collapse of the world market combined with a steep drop in agricultural production due to drought led to economic diversification, moving away from a reliance on wheat production.[54] The Manitoba Co-operative Commonwealth Federation, forerunner to the New Democratic Party of Manitoba (NDP), was founded in 1932.[55]

Canada entered World War II in 1939. Winnipeg was one of the major commands for the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan to train fighter pilots, and there were air training schools throughout Manitoba. Several Manitoba-based regiments were deployed overseas, including Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry. In an effort to raise money for the war effort, the Victory Loan campaign organised "If Day" in 1942. The event featured a simulated Nazi invasion and occupation of Manitoba, and eventually raised over C$65 million.[56]

Winnipeg was inundated during the 1950 Red River Flood and had to be partially evacuated. In that year, the Red River reached its highest level since 1861 and flooded most of the Red River Valley. The damage caused by the flood led then-Premier Duff Roblin to advocate for the construction of the Red River Floodway; it was completed in 1968 after six years of excavation. Permanent dikes were erected in eight towns south of Winnipeg, and clay dikes and diversion dams were built in the Winnipeg area. In 1997, the "Flood of the Century" caused over C$400 million in damages in Manitoba, but the floodway prevented Winnipeg from flooding.[57]

In 1990, Prime Minister Brian Mulroney attempted to pass the Meech Lake Accord, a series of constitutional amendments to persuade Quebec to endorse the Canada Act 1982. Unanimous support in the legislature was needed to bypass public consultation. Manitoba politician Elijah Harper, a Cree, opposed because he did not believe First Nations had been adequately involved in the Accord's process, and thus the Accord failed.[58]


Manitoba has a population of 1,213,815, more than half of which is in the Winnipeg Capital Region; Winnipeg is Canada's eighth-largest Census Metropolitan Area, with a population of 694,668 (2006 Census[59]). Although initial colonization of the province revolved mostly around homesteading, the last century has seen a shift towards urbanization; Manitoba is the only Canadian province with over fifty-five percent of its population located in a single city.[60]

Largest cities by population
City 2001 2006
Winnipeg 619,544 633,451
Brandon 39,716 41,511
Thompson 13,256 13,446
Portage la Prairie 12,976 12,728
Steinbach 9,227 11,066
Selkirk 9,752 9,515
Winkler 7,943 9,106
Dauphin 8,085 7,906
Table source: Statistics Canada

Population of Manitoba since 1871

Year Population Five Year
 % change
Ten Year
 % change
Rank Among
1871 25,228 n/a n/a 8
1881 62,260 n/a 146.8 6
1891 152,506 n/a 145 5
1901 255,211 n/a 67.3 5
1911 461,394 n/a 80.8 5
1921 610,118 n/a 32.2 4
1931 700,139 n/a 14.8 5
1941 729,744 n/a 4.2 6
1951 776,541 n/a 6.4 6
1956 850,040 9.5 n/a 6
1961 921,686 8.4 18.7 6
1966 963,066 4.5 13.3 5
1971 988,245 2.3 7.2 5
1976 1,021,505 3.4 6.1 5
1981 1,026,241 0.4 3.8 5
1986 1,063,015 3.6 4.1 5
1991 1,091,942 2.7 6.4 5
1996 1,113,898 2.0 4.8 5
2001 1,119,583 0.5 2.5 5
2006 1,177,765 5.2 5.7 5
Source: Statistics Canada[61][62]

According to the 2006 Canadian census,[59] the largest ethnic group in Manitoba is English (22.9%), followed by German (19.1%), Scottish (18.5%), Ukrainian (14.7%), Irish (13.4%), North American Indian (10.6%), Polish (7.3%), Métis (6.4%), French (5.6%), Dutch (4.9%), and Russian (4.0%). Almost one-fifth of respondents also identified their ethnicity as "Canadian".[63] There is a significant indigenous community: aboriginals (including Métis) are Manitoba's fastest-growing ethnic group, representing 13.6% of Manitoba's population as of 2001 (some reserves refused to allow census-takers to enumerate their populations).[64] There is a significant Franco-Manitoban minority (148,370) and a growing aboriginal population (192,865, including the Métis). Other ethnic groups include Germans (216,755 - the second-largest group), Scots (209,170), and the Irish (155,915). Manitoba is one of the most important centres of Ukrainian culture outside Ukraine (there are 167,175 Ukrainian-Manitobans), and Gimli, Manitoba is home to the largest Icelandic community outside of Iceland.

Most Manitobans belong to a Christian denomination: on the 2001 census, 758,760 Manitobans (68.7%) reported being Christian, followed by 13,040 (1.2%) Jewish, 5,745 (0.5%) Buddhist, 5,485 (0.5%) Sikh, 5,095 (0.5%) Muslim, 3,840 (0.3%) Hindu, 3,415 (0.3%) Aboriginal spirituality and 995 (0.1%) pagan.[65] 201,825 Manitobans (18.3%) reported no religious affiliation.[65] The largest Christian denominations by number of adherents were the Roman Catholic Church with 292,970 (27%); the United Church of Canada with 176,820 (16%); and the Anglican Church of Canada with 85,890 (8%).[65]


Skyline of an urban area with several tall skyscrapers surrounded by trees
Downtown Winnipeg from the south

Manitoba has a moderately strong economy based largely on natural resources. Its Gross Domestic Product was C$50.834 billion in 2008.[2] The province's economy grew 2.4% in 2008, the third consecutive year of growth; in 2009, it neither increased nor decreased.[66][67] The average individual income in Manitoba in 2006 was C$25,100 (compared to a national average of C$26,500), ranking fifth-highest among the provinces.[68] As of October 2009, Manitoba's unemployment rate was 5.8%.[69]

Manitoba's economy relies heavily on agriculture, tourism, energy, oil, mining, and forestry. Agriculture is vital and is found mostly in the southern half of the province, although grain farming occurs as far north as The Pas. Around 12% of Canadian farmland is in Manitoba.[11] The most common type of farm found in rural areas is cattle farming (34.6%),[10] followed by assorted grains (19.0%) and oilseed (7.9%).[10]

Manitoba is the nation's largest producer of sunflower seed and dry beans,[70] and one of the leading sources of potatoes. Portage la Prairie is a major potato processing center, and is home to the McCain Foods and Simplot plants, which provide French fries for McDonald's, Wendy's, and other commercial chains.[71] Can-Oat Milling, one of the largest oat mills in the world, also has a plant in the municipality.[72]

Manitoba's largest employers are government and government-funded institutions, including crown corporations and services like hospitals and universities. Major private-sector employers are The Great-West Life Assurance Company, Cargill Ltd., and James Richardson and Sons Ltd.[73] Manitoba also has large manufacturing and tourism sectors. Churchill's Arctic wildlife is a major tourist attraction; the town is a world capital for polar bear and beluga whale watchers.[74] Manitoba is the only province with an Arctic deep-water seaport, which links to the shortest shipping route between North America, Europe and Asia.[75]

Economic history

A line of wooden carts with wagon wheels pulled by oxen move down a path through a prairie
Red River cart train.

Manitoba's early economy depended on mobility and living off the land. Aboriginal Nations (Cree, Ojibwa, Dene, Sioux and Assiniboine) followed herds of bison and congregated to trade among themselves at key meeting places throughout the province. After the arrival of the first European traders in the 17th century, the economy centred on the trade of beaver pelts and other furs.[76] Diversification of the economy came when Lord Selkirk brought the first agricultural settlers in 1811,[77] though the triumph of the Hudson's Bay Company (HBC) over its competitors ensured the primacy of the fur trade over widespread agricultural colonization.[76]

HBC control of Rupert's Land ended in 1868; when Manitoba became a province in 1870, all land became the property of the federal government, with homesteads granted to settlers for farming.[76] Transcontinental railways were constructed to simplify trade. Manitoba's economy depended mainly on farming, which persisted until drought and the Great Depression led to further diversification.[54]


An industrial seaport sits on the coast of a large body of water
The Port of Churchill.

Transportation and warehousing contribute approximately C$2.2 billion to Manitoba's GDP. Total employment in the industry is estimated at 34,500, or around 5% of Manitoba's population.[78] Trucks haul 95% of land freight in Manitoba, and trucking companies account for 80% of Manitoba's merchandise trade to the United States.[79] Five of Canada's twenty-five largest employers in for-hire trucking are headquartered in Manitoba.[79] C$1.18 billion of Manitoba's GDP comes directly or indirectly from trucking.[79]

Greyhound Canada, Grey Goose Bus Lines and Jefferson Lines offer domestic and international bus service from the Winnipeg Bus Terminal. The terminal was relocated from downtown Winnipeg to the airport in 2009, and is a Greyhound hub.[80] Municipalities also operate localized transit bus systems.

Manitoba has two Class I railways: Canadian National Railway (CN) and Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR). Winnipeg is centrally located on the main lines of both carriers, and both maintain large inter-modal terminals in the city. CN and CPR operate a combined 2,439 kilometres (1,516 mi) of track in Manitoba.[79] Via Rail offers transcontinental and Northern Manitoba passenger service from Winnipeg's Union Station. Numerous small regional and short-line railways also run trains within Manitoba: the Hudson Bay Railway, the Southern Manitoba Railway, Burlington Northern Santa Fe Manitoba, Greater Winnipeg Water District Railway, and Central Manitoba Railway. Together, these smaller lines operate approximately 1,775 kilometres (1,103 mi) of track in the province.[79]

Two canoes sit on the rocky bank of a river in front of a large concrete bridge with vehicles driving across it
The Kichi Sipi Bridge (Provincial Road 373).

Winnipeg James Armstrong Richardson International Airport, Manitoba's largest airport, is one of only a few 24-hour unrestricted airports in Canada and is part of the National Airports System.[81] It has a range of passenger and cargo services, processing over 3.5 million passengers in 2007; the current terminal was designed to handle a maximum capacity of 600,000.[81] The airport is undergoing major redevelopment, with the construction of a new terminal, parkade, and luxury hotel. The airport handles approximately 195,000 tonnes (430,000,000 lb) of cargo annually, making it the third largest cargo airport in the country.[81]

Eleven regional passenger airlines and nine smaller and charter carriers operate out of the airport, as well as eleven air cargo carriers and seven freight forwarders.[79] Winnipeg is a major sorting facility for both FedEx and Purolator, and receives daily trans-border service from UPS.[79] Air Canada Cargo and Cargojet Airways use the airport as a major hub for national traffic.[79]

The Port of Churchill, owned by OmniTRAX, is nautically closer to ports in Northern Europe and Russia than any other port in Canada.[75] The port is the only Arctic deep-water port in Canada and a part of the closest shipping route between North America and Asia.[75] It has four deep-sea berths for the loading and unloading of grain, general cargo and tanker vessels.[79] The port is served by the Hudson Bay Railway (also owned by OmniTRAX). Grain represented 90% of the port's traffic in the 2004 shipping season.[79] In that year, over 600,000 tonnes (1.3×109 lb) of agricultural products were shipped through the port.[79]


A large concrete building with Classical-style columns and a green dome topped by a golden statue
Manitoba Legislature, meeting place of the Legislative Assembly of Manitoba

After the control of Rupert's Land was passed from Great Britain to the Government of Canada in 1869, Manitoba attained full-fledged rights and responsibilities of self-government as the first Canadian province carved out of the Northwest Territories.[82] The Legislative Assembly of Manitoba was established on July 14, 1870. Political parties first emerged between 1878 and 1883, with a two-party system (Liberals and Conservatives).[83] The United Farmers of Manitoba appeared in 1922, and later merged with the Liberals in 1932.[83] Other parties, including the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation (CCF), appeared during the Great Depression; in the 1950s, Manitoban politics became a three-party system, and the Liberals gradually declined in power.[83] The CCF became the New Democratic Party of Manitoba (NDP), which came to power in 1969.[83] Since then, the Conservatives and the NDP have been the dominant parties.[83]

Like all Canadian provinces, Manitoba is governed by a unicameral legislative assembly.[84] The executive branch is formed by the governing party; the party leader is the premier of Manitoba, the head of the executive branch. The head of state, Queen Elizabeth II, is represented by the Lieutenant Governor of Manitoba, who is appointed by the Governor General of Canada on advice of the Prime Minister.[85] The head of state is primarily a ceremonial role, although the Lieutenant Governor has the official responsibility of ensuring that Manitoba has a duly constituted government.[85]

The Legislative Assembly consists of the fifty-seven Members elected to represent the people of Manitoba.[86] The premier of Manitoba is Greg Selinger of the NDP, who replaced Gary Doer to lead the NDP majority government of thirty-six seats.[87] The Conservative Party holds nineteen seats, and the Liberal Party has two seats but does not have official party status in the Manitoba Legislature.[87] The last provincial general election was held Tuesday, May 22, 2007.[87] The province is represented in federal politics by fourteen Members of Parliament and six Senators.[88][89]

Manitoba's judiciary consists of the Court of Appeal, the Court of Queen's Bench, and the Provincial Court. The Provincial Court is primarily for criminal law; 95% of criminal cases in Manitoba are heard here.[90] The Court of Queen's Bench is the highest trial court in the province. It has four jurisdictions: family law (child and family services cases), civil law, criminal law (for indictable offences), and appeals. The Court of Appeal hears appeals from both benches; its decisions can only be appealed to the Supreme Court of Canada.[91]

Official languages

English and French are the official languages of the legislature and courts of Manitoba, according to §23 of the Manitoba Act, 1870 (part of the Constitution of Canada). In April 1890, the Manitoba legislature attempted to abolish the official status of French, and ceased to publish bilingual legislation. However, in 1985 the Supreme Court of Canada ruled in the Reference re Manitoba Language Rights that §23 still applied, and that legislation published only in English was invalid (unilingual legislation was declared valid for a temporary period to allow time for translation).[92]

Although French is an official language for the purposes of the legislature, legislation, and the courts, the Manitoba Act does not require it to be an official language for the purpose of the executive branch (except when performing legislative or judicial functions).[93] Hence, Manitoba's government is not completely bilingual. The Manitoba French Language Services Policy of 1999 is intended to provide a comparable level of provincial government services in both official languages.[94] According to the 2006 Census, 89.8% of Manitoba's population speak only English, 0.2% speak only French, 9.1% speak both, and 0.9% speak neither.[95]


The first school in Manitoba was founded in 1818 by Roman Catholic missionaries in present-day Winnipeg; the first Protestant school was established in 1820.[96] A provincial board of education was established in 1871; it was responsible for public schools and curriculum, and represented both Catholics and Protestants. The Manitoba Schools Question led to funding for French Catholic schools largely being withdrawn in favour of the English Protestant majority.[97] Legislation making education compulsory for children between seven and fourteen was first enacted in 1916, and the leaving age was raised to sixteen in 1962.[98]

Public schools in Manitoba fall under the regulation of one of thirty-seven school divisions within the provincial education system (except for the Manitoba Band Operated Schools, which are administered by the federal government).[99] Public schools follow a provincially mandated curriculum in either French or English. There are sixty-five funded independent schools in Manitoba, including three boarding schools.[100] These schools must follow the Manitoban curriculum and meet other provincial requirements. There are forty-four non-funded independent schools, which are not required to meet those standards.[101]

There are five universities in Manitoba, regulated the Ministry of Advanced Education and Literacy.[102] Four of these universities are in Winnipeg: the University of Manitoba, the largest and most comprehensive; Collège universitaire de Saint-Boniface, the province's only French-language university; Canadian Mennonite University, a religion-based institution; and the University of Winnipeg, a smaller campus located downtown. The Collège universitaire de Saint-Boniface, established in 1818 and now affiliated with the University of Manitoba, is the oldest university in Western Canada. Brandon University, formed in 1899 and located in Brandon, is the province's newest university and the only one not in Winnipeg.[103]

Manitoba has thirty-eight public libraries; of these, twelve have French-language collections and eight have significant collections in other languages.[104] Twenty-one of these are part of the Winnipeg Public Library system. The first lending library in Manitoba was founded in 1848.[105]


Manitoba has four professional sports teams: the Winnipeg Blue Bombers (Canadian Football League), the Winnipeg Jets (National Hockey League), the Winnipeg Goldeyes (American Association), and the Winnipeg Alliance (Canadian Major Indoor Soccer League). The province was previously home to another team called the Winnipeg Jets, which played in the World Hockey Association and National Hockey League from 1972 until 1996, when financial troubles prompted a sale and move of the team, which is now the Phoenix Coyotes.[106] Manitoba has one junior-level hockey team, the Western Hockey League's Brandon Wheat Kings.

Manitoba is represented in university athletics by the University of Manitoba Bisons, the University of Winnipeg Wesmen, and the Brandon University Bobcats. All three teams compete in the Canada West Universities Athletic Association (the regional division of Canadian Interuniversity Sport).[107]


Manitoba's culture has been influenced by both traditional (Aboriginal and Métis) and modern Canadian artistic values, as well as by the cultures of its immigrant populations and American neighbours. The Minister of Culture, Heritage, Tourism and Sport is responsible for promoting and, to some extent, financing Manitoban culture.[108] Manitoba is the birthplace of the Red River Jig, a combination of aboriginal pow-wows and European reels that was popular among early settlers.[109] Manitoba's traditional music has strong roots in Métis and Aboriginal culture, in particular the old-time fiddling of the Métis.[110] Manitoba's cultural scene also incorporates classical European traditions. The Royal Winnipeg Ballet (RWB), based in Winnipeg, is Canada's oldest ballet and the longest continuously operating ballet company in North America; it was granted its royal title in 1953 under Queen Elizabeth II.[111] The Winnipeg Symphony Orchestra (WSO) performs classical music and new compositions at the Centennial Concert Hall.[112][113]

Le Cercle Molière (founded 1925) is the oldest French-language theatre in Canada,[114] and Manitoba Theatre Centre (founded 1958) is Canada's oldest English-language regional theatre.[115] Manitoba Theatre for Young People was the first English-language theatre to win the Canadian Institute of the Arts for Young Audiences Award, and offers plays for children and teenagers as well as a theatre school.[116] The Winnipeg Art Gallery (WAG), Manitoba's largest art gallery and the sixth largest in the country, hosts an art school for children; the WAG's permanent collection comprises over twenty thousand works, with a particular emphasis on Manitoban and Canadian art.[117][118]

The 1960s pop supergroup The Guess Who was the first Canadian band to have a No. 1 hit in the United States;[119] Guess Who guitarist Randy Bachman later created Bachman–Turner Overdrive (BTO).[120] Fellow rocker Neil Young played with Stephen Stills in Buffalo Springfield, and again in Crosby, Stills, Nash & Young.[121] Soft-rock band Crash Test Dummies formed in the late 1980s in Winnipeg and were the 1992 Juno Awards Group of the Year.[122]

Several prominent Canadian films were produced in Manitoba, such as The Stone Angel, based on the Margaret Laurence book of the same title, The Saddest Music in the World, Foodland, For Angela, and My Winnipeg. Major films shot in Manitoba include The Assassination of Jesse James by the Coward Robert Ford and Capote,[123] both of which received Academy Award nominations.[124] Falcon Beach, an internationally broadcast television drama, was filmed at Winnipeg Beach, Manitoba.[125]

Manitoba has a strong literary tradition. Manitoban writer Bertram Brooker won the first-ever Governor General's Award for Fiction in 1936.[126] Cartoonist Lynn Johnston, author of the comic strip For Better or For Worse, was nominated for a Pulitzer Prize and inducted into the Canadian Cartoonist Hall of Fame.[127] Margaret Laurence's The Stone Angel and A Jest of God were set in Manawaka, a fictional town representing Neepawa; the latter won the Governor General's Award in 1966.[128] Carol Shields won both the Governor General's Award and the Pulitzer Prize for The Stone Diaries.[129] Gabrielle Roy, a Franco-Manitoban writer, won the Governor General's Award three times.[126] A quote from her work is featured on the Canadian $20 bill.[130]

Festivals and museums

A group of eight young people wearing plaid kilts, green shirts, knee-high socks and navy berets stand on stage in a line, four playing bagpipes, four playing drums
Folklorama 2005, Scottish Pavilion

Festivals take place throughout the province, with the largest centred in Winnipeg. The Festival du Voyageur is an annual ten-day event held in Winnipeg's French Quarter, and is Western Canada's largest winter festival.[131] It celebrates Canada's fur-trading past and French heritage and culture. Folklorama, a multicultural festival run by the Folk Arts Council, receives around 400,000 pavilion visits each year, of which about thirty percent are from non-Winnipeg residents.[131][132] The Winnipeg Fringe Theatre Festival is an annual alternative theatre festival, the second-largest festival of its kind in North America (after the Edmonton International Fringe Festival).[133]

Manitoban museums document different aspects of the province's heritage. The Manitoba Museum is the largest museum in Manitoba and focuses on Manitoban history from prehistory to the 1920s.[134] The full-size replica of the Nonsuch is the museum's showcase piece.[135] The Manitoba Children's Museum at The Forks presents exhibits for children.[136] There are two museums dedicated to the native flora and fauna of Manitoba: the Living Prairie Museum, a tall grass prairie preserve featuring 160 species of grasses and wildflowers, and FortWhyte Alive, a park encompassing prairie, lake, forest and wetland habitats, home to a large herd of bison.[137] The Canadian Fossil Discovery Centre houses the largest collection of marine reptile fossils in Canada.[138] Other museums feature the history of aviation, marine transport, and railways in the area. The Canadian Museum for Human Rights will on completion be the first Canadian national museum outside of the National Capital Region.[139]


Winnipeg has two daily newspapers: the Winnipeg Free Press, a broadsheet with the highest circulation numbers in Manitoba, and the Winnipeg Sun, a smaller tabloid-style paper. There are several ethnic weekly newspapers,[140] including the weekly French-language La Liberté, and regional and national magazines based in the city. Brandon has two newspapers: the daily Brandon Sun and the weekly Wheat City Journal.[141] Many small towns have local newspapers.[142]

There are five English-language television stations and one French-language station based in Winnipeg. The Global Television Network (owned by Canwest) is headquartered in the city.[143] Winnipeg is home to twenty-one AM and FM radio stations, two of which are French-language stations.[144] Brandon's five local radio stations are provided by Astral Media and Westman Communications Group.[144] In addition to the Brandon and Winnipeg stations, radio service is provided in rural areas and smaller towns by Golden West Broadcasting, Corus Entertainment, and local broadcasters. CBC Radio broadcasts local and national programming throughout the province.[145] Native Communications is devoted to Aboriginal programming and broadcasts to many of the isolated native communities as well as to larger cities.[146]

Armed forces

CFB Winnipeg is a Canadian Forces Base at the Winnipeg International Airport. The base is home to flight operations support divisions and several training schools, as well as the 1 Canadian Air Division and Canadian NORAD Region Headquarters.[147] 17 Wing of the Canadian Forces is based at CFB Winnipeg; the Wing has three squadrons and six schools.[148] It supports 113 units from Thunder Bay to the Saskatchewan/Alberta border, and from the 49th parallel north to the high Arctic. 17 Wing acts as a deployed operating base for CF-18 Hornet fighter–bombers assigned to the Canadian NORAD Region.[148]

The two 17 Wing squadrons based in the city are: the 402 ("City of Winnipeg" Squadron), which flies the Canadian designed and produced de Havilland Canada CT-142 Dash 8 navigation trainer in support of the 1 Canadian Forces Flight Training School's Air Combat Systems Officer and Airborne Electronic Sensor Operator training programs (which trains all Canadian Air Combat Systems Officer);[149] and the 435 ("Chinthe" Transport and Rescue Squadron), which flies the Lockheed C-130 Hercules tanker/transport in airlift search and rescue roles, and is the only Air Force squadron equipped and trained to conduct air-to-air refueling of fighter aircraft.[148]

Canadian Forces Base Shilo (CFB Shilo) is an Operations and Training base of the Canadian Forces located 35 kilometres (22 mi) east of Brandon. During the 1990s, Canadian Forces Base Shilo was designated as an Area Support Unit, acting as a local base of operations for Southwest Manitoba in times of military and civil emergency.[150] CFB Shilo is the home of the 1st Regiment, Royal Canadian Horse Artillery, both battalions of the 1 Canadian Mechanized Brigade Group, and the Royal Canadian Artillery. The Second Battalion of Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry (2 PPCLI), which was originally stationed in Winnipeg (first at Fort Osborne, then in Kapyong Barracks), has operated out of CFB Shilo since 2004. CFB Shilo hosts training units such as the Western Area Training Centre Detachment Shilo and the Communications Reserve School. It serves as a base for support units of Land Force Western Area, including 731 Signals Squadron. The base currently houses 1,700 soldiers.[150]

See also


  1. ^ "Canada's population estimates: Table 2 Quarterly demographic estimates". 2010-06-28. Retrieved 2010-06-30. 
  2. ^ a b Statistics Canada. Gross domestic product, expenditure-based, by province and territory [cited 2010-03-03].
  3. ^ Statistics Canada. Land and Freshwater area, by province and territory [cited 2007-08-07].
  4. ^ Travel Manitoba. Geography of Manitoba [cited 2010-02-10].
  5. ^ Lake Winnipeg Stewardship Board. Lake Winnipeg Facts [cited 2007-08-07].
  6. ^ Schwartz, Bryan; Cheung, Perry. East vs. West: Evaluating Manitoba Hydro's Options for a Hydro-Transmission Line from an International Law Perspective. Asper Review of International Business and Trade Law. 2007;7(4):4.
  7. ^ Savage, Candace; Williams, Joan A; Page, James R. Prairie: A Natural History. Greystone Books; 2006. ISBN 1-55365-190-1. p. 55.
  8. ^ Manitoba Parks Branch. Outdoor recreation master plan: Duck Mountain Provincial Park. Winnipeg: Manitoba Department of Tourism, Recreation and Cultural Affairs; 1973.
  9. ^ Butler, George E. The Lakes and Lake Fisheries of Manitoba. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society. 1950;79:24.
  10. ^ a b c Statistics Canada. Statcan Summary Table of Wheats and Grains by Province [cited 2007-08-07].
  11. ^ a b Statistics Canada. Total farm area, land tenure and land in crops, by province (Census of Agriculture, 1986 to 2006) (Manitoba) [cited 2009-10-28].
  12. ^ Ritchie, JC. Post-Glacial Vegetation of Canada. Cambridge University Press; 2004. ISBN 0-521-54409-2. p. 25.
  13. ^ Vickers, Glenn; Buzza, Sandra; Schmidt, Dave; Mullock, John. The Weather of the Canadian Prairies. Navigation Canada; 2001 [cited 2010-02-11]. p. 48, 51, 53–64.
  14. ^ Environment Canada. Elie Tornado Upgraded to Highest Level on Damage Scale Canada's First Official F5 Tornado; 2007-09-18 [cited 2009-10-28].
  15. ^ Environment Canada. Mean Max Temp History at The Forks, Manitoba [cited 2007-08-07].
  16. ^ Environment Canada. Canada's Top Ten Weather Stories for 2007 [cited 8 November 2010].
  17. ^ Environment Canada. Manitoba Weather Honours [cited 2009-10-28].
  18. ^ Environment Canada. Winnipeg MB [cited 2009-10-28].
  19. ^ Government of Manitoba. Climatic Information for Potatoes in Manitoba [cited 2009-10-28].
  20. ^ a b Ritter, Michael E. Subarctic Climate; 2006 [cited 2007-08-07].
  21. ^ a b c Ritter, Michael E. Midlatitude Steppe Climate; 2006 [cited 2007-08-07].
  22. ^ "National Climate Data and Information Archive". Environment Canada. Retrieved 2010-09-02. 
  23. ^ a b Manitoba Conservation. Manitoba Forest Facts [cited 2011-04-11].
  24. ^ Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. Fringed-orchid, Western Prairie [cited 2009-11-07].
  25. ^ Goedeke, T; Sharma, J; Delphey, P; Marshall Mattson, K (2008). Platanthera praeclara. In: IUCN 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded on 2010-02-09.
  26. ^ Stirling, Ian; Guravich, Dan. Polar Bears. Michigan: University of Michigan Press; 1998. ISBN 978-0-472-08108-0. p. 208.
  27. ^ LeMaster, MP; Mason, RT. Annual and seasonal variation in the female sexual attractiveness pheromone of the red-sided garter snake, Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis. In: Anna Marchlewska-Koj, John J. Lepri, Dietland Müller-Schwarze. Chemical signals in vertebrates. Springer; 2001. ISBN 0-306-46682-1. p. 370.
  28. ^ Bezener, Andy; De Smet, Ken D. Manitoba birds. Lone Pine; 2000. p. 1–10.
  29. ^ Manitoba Fisheries. Angler's Guide 2009; 2009 [cited 2010-02-22]; p. 5.
  30. ^ Ritchie, James A.M; Brown, Frank; Brien, David. The Cultural Transmission of the Spirit of Turtle Mountain: A Centre for Peace and Trade for 10,000 Years. General Assembly and International Scientific Symposium. 2008;16:4–6.
  31. ^ Flynn, Catherine; Syms, E. Leigh. Manitoba's First Farmers. Manitoba History. Spring 1996;(31):n.p.
  32. ^ Natural Resources Canada. Manitoba [archived 2008-06-04; cited 2009-10-28].
  33. ^ Neatby, LH. Henry Hudson. In: Ramsay Cook. Dictionary of Canadian Biography. Vol. 1. University of Toronto/Université Laval; 2000. ISBN 0-8020-3142-0. p. 374–379.
  34. ^ Eames, Aled. Thomas Button. In: Ramsay Cook. Dictionary of Canadian Biography. Vol. 1. University of Toronto/Université Laval; 2000. ISBN 0-8020-3142-0. p. 144–145.
  35. ^ a b Simmons, Deidre. Keepers of the Record: The History of the Hudson's Bay Company Archives. McGill-Queen's University Press; 2007. ISBN 0-7735-3291-9. p. 19–23, 83–85, 115.
  36. ^ Stewart, Lillian. York Factory National Historic Site. Manitoba History. Spring 1988;(15):n.p.
  37. ^ Zoltvany, Yves F. Pierre Gaultier De Varennes et De La Vérendrye. In: Ramsay Cook. Dictionary of Canadian Biography. Vol. 3. University of Toronto/Université Lava; 2000. ISBN 0-8020-3314-8. p. 246–254.
  38. ^ Gray, John Morgan. Thomas Douglas. In: Ramsay Cook. Dictionary of Canadian Biography. Vol. 5. University of Toronto/Université Laval; 2000. ISBN 0-8020-3351-2. p. 264–269.
  39. ^ Martin, Joseph E. The 150th Anniversary of Seven Oaks. MHS Transactions. 1965;3(22):n.p.
  40. ^ a b Sprague, DN. Canada and the Métis, 1869–1885. Waterloo, ON: Wilfrid Laurier University Press; 1988. ISBN 0-88920-964-2. p. 33–67, 89–129.
  41. ^ Cooke, OA. Garnet Joseph Wolseley. In: Ramsay Cook. Dictionary of Canadian Biography. Online ed. Vol. 14. University of Toronto/Université Laval; 2000 [cited 2010-01-30]. ISBN 0-8020-3998-7.
  42. ^ Tough, Frank. As Their Natural Resources Fail: Native People and the Economic History of Northern Manitoba, 1870–1930. UBC Press; 1997. ISBN 0-7748-0571-4. p. 75–79.
  43. ^ Government of Manitoba. First Nations Land Claims [cited 2009-10-28].
  44. ^ a b Kemp, Douglas. From Postage Stamp to Keystone. Manitoba Pageant. April 1956:n.p.
  45. ^ a b c Fletcher, Robert. The Language Problem in Manitoba's Schools. MHS Transactions. 1949;3(6):n.p.
  46. ^ McLauchlin, Kenneth. "Riding The Protestant Horse": The Manitoba School Question and Canadian Politics, 1890–1896. Historical Studies. 1986;53:39–52.
  47. ^ Hayes, Derek. Historical Atlas of Canada. D&M Adult; 2006. ISBN 1-55365-077-8. p. 227.
  48. ^ CBC. Winnipeg Boomtown [cited 2009-10-28].
  49. ^ Silicz, Michael. The heart of the continent?. The Manitoba. 2008-09-10. University of Manitoba.
  50. ^ Morton, William L. Manitoba, a History. Toronto: University of Toronto Press; 1957. ISBN 0-612-76740-X. p. 345–359.
  51. ^ Conway, John Frederick. The West: The History of a Region in Confederation. 3 ed. Lorimer; 2005. ISBN 1-55028-905-5. p. 63–64, 85–100.
  52. ^ a b Bercuson, David J. Confrontation at Winnipeg: Labour, Industrial Relations, and the General Strike. McGill-Queen's University Press; 1990. ISBN 0-7735-0794-9. p. 173–176.
  53. ^ Lederman, Peter R. Sedition in Winnipeg: An Examination of the Trials for Seditious Conspiracy Arising from the General Strike of 1919. Queen's Law Journal. 1976;3(2):5, 14–17.
  54. ^ a b Easterbrook, William Thomas; Aitken, Hugh GJ. Canadian economic history. Toronto: University of Toronto Press; 1988. p. 493–494.
  55. ^ Wiseman, Nelson. Social democracy in Manitoba. University of Manitoba; 1983. ISBN 978-0-88755-118-5. p. 13.
  56. ^ Newman, Michael. February 19, 1942: If Day. Manitoba History. Spring 1987;(13):n.p.
  57. ^ Haque, C Emdad. Risk Assessment, Emergency Preparedness and Response to Hazards: The Case of the 1997 Red River Valley Flood, Canada. Natural Hazards. May 2000;21(2):226–237.
  58. ^ Hawkes, David C; Devine, Marina. Meech Lake and Elijah Harper: Native-State Relations in the 1990s. In: Frances Abele. How Ottawa Spends, 1991–1992: The Politics of Fragmentation. McGill-Queen's University Press; 1991. ISBN 0-88629-146-1. p. 33–45.
  59. ^ a b "Winnipeg Census Metropolitan Area (CMA) with census subdivision (municipal) population breakdowns". Statistics Canada, 2006 Census of Population. 2007-03-13. Retrieved 2007-03-13. 
  60. ^ Statistics Canada. 2006 Community Profiles Manitoba & Winnipeg [cited 2011-04-11].
  61. ^ Statistics Canada. Manitoba Population trend [cited 2009-10-28].
  62. ^ Statistics Canada. Canada's population [cited 2009-10-28].
  63. ^ Statistics Canada. Ethnic Origin (247), Single and Multiple Ethnic Origin Responses (3) and Sex (3) for the Population of Canada, Provinces, Territories, Census Metropolitan Areas and Census Agglomerations, 2006 Census – 20% Sample Data [cited 2010-01-29].
  64. ^ Janzen, L. Native population fastest growing in country. 2002-03-13:B4. Winnipeg Free Press.
  65. ^ a b c Statistics Canada. Religions in Canada [cited 2009-10-28].
  66. ^ Statistics Canada. Highlights by province and territory; 2009-04-27 [cited 2009-11-07].
  67. ^ Statistics Canada. Provincial and Territorial Economic Accounts Review; 2010-11-4 [cited 2011-04-11].
  68. ^ Statistics Canada. Individuals by total income level, by province and territory; 2009-02-11 [cited 2009-11-07].
  69. ^ Statistics Canada. Latest release from the Labour Force Survey; 2009-11-06 [cited 2009-11-07].
  70. ^ University of Manitoba. A Century of Agriculture [cited 2009-10-28].
  71. ^ New Simplot french fry plant in Canada expected to come on line later this year. Quick Frozen Foods International. 2002-07-01;2(3):3.
  72. ^ A Case Study of the Canadian Oat Market. Alberta Agriculture, Food and Rural Development. November 2005 [cited 2010-01-29]:74.
  73. ^ Top 100 Companies Survey 2000. Manitoba Business Magazine. July 2000;26.
  74. ^ Shackley, Myra L. Wildlife tourism. International Thomson Business Press; 1996. ISBN 0-415-11539-6. p. xviii.
  75. ^ a b c Hudson Bay Port Company. Port of Churchill [cited 2009-10-28].
  76. ^ a b c Friesen, Gerald. The Canadian prairies: a history. Toronto: University of Toronto Press; 1987. ISBN 0-8020-6648-8. p. 22–47, 66, 183–184.
  77. ^ Morton, William L. Lord Selkirk Settlers. Manitoba Pageant. April 1962;7(3):n.p.
  78. ^ Government of Manitoba. Employment [cited 2009-10-28].
  79. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Government of Manitoba. Transportation & Logistics [cited 2009-10-28].
  80. ^ CBC News. Winnipeg bus depot to move after 45 years downtown; 2009-08-14 [cited 2010-01-31].
  81. ^ a b c Government of Manitoba. Transportation: Winnipeg James Armstrong Richardson International Airport [cited 2009-10-28].
  82. ^ Dupont, Jerry. The Common Law Abroad: Constitutional and Legal Legacy of the British Empire. Fred B Rothman & Co; 2000. ISBN 0-8377-3125-9. p. 139–142.
  83. ^ a b c d e Adams, Chris. Manitoba's Political Party Systems: An Historical Overview. Annual Meeting of the Canadian Political Science Association. 2006-09-17:2–23.
  84. ^ Summers, Harrison Boyd. Unicameral Legislatures. Vol. 11. Wilson; 1936. OCLC 1036784. p. 9.
  85. ^ a b Lieutenant-Governor of Manitoba. Roles and Responsibilities [cited 2009-10-29].
  86. ^ Hogg, Peter W. Necessity in Manitoba: The Role of Courts in Formative or Crisis Periods. In: Shimon Shetreet. The Role of Courts in Society. Aspen Publishing; 1988. ISBN 90-247-3670-6. p. 9.
  87. ^ a b c Elections Manitoba. 39th General Election [cited 2009-10-29].
  88. ^ Government of Canada. Members of Parliament [cited 2009-11-12].
  89. ^ Government of Canada. Senators [cited 2009-11-12].
  90. ^ Manitoba Courts. Provincial Court – Description of the Court's Work; 2006-09-21 [cited 2009-11-09].
  91. ^ The Court of Queen's Bench of Manitoba, 1870–1950: A Biographical History. Toronto: University of Toronto Press; 2006. ISBN 0-8020-9225-X. p. 16–20.
  92. ^ Hebert, Raymond M. Manitoba's French-Language Crisis: A Cautionary Tale. McGill-Queen's University Press; 2005. ISBN 0-7735-2790-7. p. xiv–xvi, 11–12, 30, 67–69.
  93. ^ In [1992] 1 S.C.R. 221–222, the Supreme Court rejected the contentions of the Société franco-manitobaine that §23 extends to executive functions of the executive branch.
  94. ^ Government of Manitoba. Manitoba Francophone Affairs Secretariat [cited 2009-10-29].
  95. ^ Statistics Canada. Population by knowledge of official language, by province and territory (2006 Census); 2007-12-11 [cited 2010-03-08].
  96. ^ Badertscher, John M. Religious Studies in Manitoba and Saskatchewan. Waterloo, ON: Wilfrid Laurier University Press; 1993. ISBN 0-88920-223-0. p. 8.
  97. ^ Bale, Gordon. Law, Politics, and the Manitoba School Question: Supreme Court and Privy Council. Canadian Bar Review. 1985;63(461):467–473.
  98. ^ Oreopoulos, Philip. Oreopoulos. Conference on Education, Schooling and The Labour Market. May 2003:9.
  99. ^ Hajnal, Vivian J. Canadian Approaches to the Financing of School Infrastructure. In: Faith E Crampton, David C Thompson. Saving America's School Infrastructure. Information Age Publishing; 2003. ISBN 1-931576-17-3. p. 57–58.
  100. ^ Government of Manitoba. Funded Independent Schools [cited 2009-11-12].
  101. ^ Government of Manitoba. Non-Funded Independent Schools [cited 2009-11-12].
  102. ^ Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada. Canadian Universities [cited 2008-10-08].
  103. ^ AUCC. Founding Year and Joining Year of AUCC Member Institutions; 2009-11-02 [cited 2010-02-02].
  104. ^ Manitoba Library Association. Directory of libraries in Manitoba [cited 2009-10-29].
  105. ^ Winnipeg Public Library: A Capsule History. Winnipeg Public Library; 1988.
  106. ^ Helyar, John. Latest Example of an NHL Trend Is the Flight of the Winnipeg Jets. 1996-04-26 [cited 2009-05-22]. The Wall Street Journal.
  107. ^ Canada West Universities Athletic Association. About Canada West; 2006 [cited 2011-04-11].
  108. ^ Government of Manitoba. Culture, Heritage and Tourism [cited 2011-04-11].
  109. ^ Bolton, David. The Red River Jig. Manitoba Pageant. September 1961;7(1).
  110. ^ Lederman, Anne. Old Indian and Metis Fiddling in Manitoba: Origins, Structure, and Questions of Syncretism. The Canadian Journal of Native Studies. 1988;7(2):205–230.
  111. ^ Dafoe, Christopher. Dancing through time: the first fifty years of Canada's Royal Winnipeg Ballet. Winnipeg: Portage & Main Press; 1990. ISBN 0-9694264-0-2. p. 4, 10, 154.
  112. ^ "Repertoire History" (unpublished document). Winnipeg Symphony Orchestra, 2007.
  113. ^ Winnipeg Symphony Orchestra. More About the Wso; 2008 [archived 2008-05-04; cited 2010-02-23].
  114. ^ Moss, Jane. The Drama of Identity in Canada's Francophone West. American Review of Canadian Studies. Spring 2004;34(1):82–83.
  115. ^ Hendry, Thomas B. Trends in Canadian Theatre. The Tulane Drama Review. Autumn 1965;10(1):65.
  116. ^ Manitoba Theatre for Young People. About Us [cited 2011-04-11].
  117. ^ University of Manitoba. Winnipeg Art Gallery [cited 2009-11-08].
  118. ^ Winnipeg Art Gallery. History; 2009 [cited 2009-11-08].
  119. ^ Elliott, Robin. Before the Gold Rush: Flashbacks to the Dawn of the Canadian Sound. CAML Review. December 1998;26(3):26–27.
  120. ^ Melhuish, Martin. Bachman-Turner Overdrive: Rock Is My Life, This Is My Song. Methuen Publications; 1976. ISBN 0-8467-0104-9. p. 74.
  121. ^ The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and Museum, Inc. Neil Young; 2007 [cited 2010-02-23].
  122. ^ Bianco, David P. Parents aren't supposed to like it. 2 ed. Vol. 1. U*X*L; 2001. ISBN 0-7876-1732-6. p. 42.
  123. ^ Manitoba Film & Music. Who's filmed here? [cited 2009-11-11].
  124. ^ Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. 80th Annual Academy Awards Oscar Nominations Fact Sheet [cited 2009-11-11].
  125. ^ St. Germain, Pat. Falcon Beach filming again in Manitoba. 2006-06-21 [cited 2009-11-11]. Winnipeg Sun.
  126. ^ a b Canada Council for the Arts. Cumulative List of Winners of the Governor General's Literary Awards; 2008 [cited 2009-11-11].
  127. ^ Astor, Dave. Editor & Publisher. Lynn Johnston to Enter Canadian Cartoonists' Hall of Fame on Friday; August 6, 2008 [cited 2008-09-05].
  128. ^ Rosenthal, Caroline. Collective Memory and Personal Identity in the Prairie town of Manawaka. In: Reingard M. Nischik. The Canadian Short Story: Interpretations. Camden House; 2007. ISBN 1-57113-127-2. p. 219.
  129. ^ Werlock, Abby. Carol Shields's the Stone Diaries. Continuum; 2001. ISBN 0-8264-5249-3. p. 69.
  130. ^ Bank of Canada. Bank Notes [cited 2009-11-11].
  131. ^ a b Selwood, John. The lure of food: food as an attraction in destination marketing in Manitoba, Canada. In: C. Michael Hall, Liz Sharples, Richard Mitchell, Niki Macionis, Brock Cambourne. Food Tourism Around The World: Development, Management and Markets. Butterworth-Heinemann; 2003. ISBN 0-7506-5503-8. p. 180–182.
  132. ^ Folklorama. FAQs [cited 2009-11-11].
  133. ^ Woosnam, Kyle M; McElroy, Kerry E; Van Winkle, Christine M. The Role of Personal Values in Determining Tourist Motivations: An Application to the Winnipeg Fringe Theatre Festival, a Cultural Special Event. Journal of Hospitality Marketing & Management. July 2009;18(5):500–502.
  134. ^ Dutton, Lee S. Anthropological Resources: A Guide to Archival, Library, and Museum Collections. Routledge; 1999. ISBN 0-8153-1188-5. p. 6–9.
  135. ^ Barbour, Alex; Collins, Cathy; Grattan, David. Monitoring the Nonsuch. LIC-CG Annual Conference. 1986;12:19–21.
  136. ^ Manitoba Children's Museum. About MCM [cited 2009-11-11].
  137. ^ Stewart, Jane. Winnipeg: a big city with the heart of a small town. Canadian Medical Association Journal. April 1986;134(7):810.
  138. ^ Janzic, A; Hatcher, J. Late Cretaceous Marine Reptile Fossils of the Canadian Fossil Discovery Centre. Vol. Abstracts Volume. Calgary: Mount Royal College; 2008. (Alberta Palaeontological Society, Twelfth Annual Symposium). p. 28.
  139. ^ Carter, Jennifer. Canada at the "Crossroads": Global Citizenship, Narrative History, and The Canadian Museum for Human Rights. Linköping Electronic Conference Proceedings. 2007 [cited 2010-02-04];(31):81.
  140. ^ Collections Canada. Canadian Ethnic Newspapers Currently Received [cited 2009-07-17].
  141. ^ Economic Development Brandon. Local Media [cited 2009-11-11].
  142. ^ Legislative Library. Current Newspapers at the Library [cited 2010-02-23].
  143. ^ Carlin, Vincent A. No Clear Channel: The Rise and Possible Fall of Media Convergence. In: Frits Pannekoek, David Taras, Maria Bakardjieva. How Canadians communicate. Vol. 1. University of Calgary Press; 2003. ISBN 1-55238-104-8. p. 59–60.
  144. ^ a b Fresh Traffic Group. Winnipeg Radio; 2008 [cited 2009-11-11].
  145. ^ Smith, John H. The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. International Communication Gazette. 1969;15:139–143.
  146. ^ Buddle, Kathleen. Aboriginal Cultural Capital Creation and Radio Production in Urban Ontario. Canadian Journal of Communication. 2005;30(1):29–30.
  147. ^ Department of National Defence. Organization Overview [cited 2010-01-16].
  148. ^ a b c Department of National Defence. 17 Wing—General Information [cited 2010-02-22].
  149. ^ Pigott, Peter. Taming the skies. Dundurn Press Ltd; 2003. ISBN 1-55002-469-8. p. 203.
  150. ^ a b Department of National Defence. Canadian Forces Base/Area Support Unit Shilo [cited 2009-05-25].

Further reading

  • Clark, Lovell (ed.). The Manitoba School Question: majority rule or minority rights?. Copp Clark; 1968.
  • Donnelly, M. S.. The Government of Manitoba. University of Toronto Press; 1963.
  • Friesen, Gerald; Potyondi, Barry. A Guide to the Study of Manitoba Local History. University of Manitoba Press; 1981. ISBN 0-88755-121-1.
  • Hébert, Raymond M.. Manitoba's French-Language Crisis: A Cautionary Tale. McGill-Queen's University Press; 2004. ISBN 0-7735-2790-7.
  • Hanlon, Christine; Edie, Barbara; Pendgracs, Doreen. Manitoba Book of Everything. MacIntyre Purcell Publishing Inc; 2008. ISBN 978-0-9784784-5-2.
  • Whitcomb, Ed. A Short History of Manitoba. Canada's Wings; 1982. ISBN 0-920002-15-3.

External links

Coordinates: 55°4′N 97°31′W / 55.067°N 97.517°W / 55.067; -97.517 (Manitoba)

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Игры ⚽ Нужно сделать НИР?

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Manitoba — Wappen Flagge (Details) (Details) …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • MANITOBA — MANITOBA, midcontinent province of Canada, bordering on North Dakota and Minnesota to the south, Ontario to the east, and Saskatchewan to the west. In 1877 the first known Jewish residents of Manitoba were Reuben Goldstein, a peddler, and Edmond… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Manitoba — • History of the Canadian province Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006. Manitoba     Manitoba     † …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • Manitoba —   [englisch mænɪ təʊbə], die östlichste der Prärieprovinzen Kanadas, 647 797 km2 (davon 101 590 km2 Seen). Von den (1999) 1,14 Mio. Einwohnern leben fast 60 % im Ballungsraum der Hauptstadt Winnipeg. Der größere Teil der Provinz, v. a. der Norden …   Universal-Lexikon

  • manitoba — prov. du Canada central, sur la baie d Hudson; 650 086 km²; 1 091 900 hab. (53 000 francophones); cap. Winnipeg. Au S. s étend la Prairie (blé, orge, avoine, élevage), au centre et au N. le Bouclier canadien, couvert de forêts (conifères). Le… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Manitoba — er en canadisk provins beliggende i Vestcanada. Vigtige byer er blandt andre hovedstaden Winnipeg, og Churchill ved Hudson Bugten. Manitoba har cirka 1.150.000 (2001) indbyggere, dækker 647.797 km² og er således den sjettestørste af de ti… …   Danske encyklopædi

  • Manitoba — [man΄ə tō′bə] [Cree manitoowapaaw, the narrows (of Lake Manitoba), lit., god narrows] 1. province of SC Canada: 250,946 sq mi (649,947 sq km); pop. 1,114,000; cap. Winnipeg: abbrev. MB or Man 2. Lake lake in S Manitoba: 1,817 sq mi (4,706 sq km)… …   English World dictionary

  • Manitoba — Manitoba, Provinz Kanadas (s. Karte bei Artikel »Kanada«), zwischen 49–52°50 nördl. Br. und 95–101°20 westl. L., begrenzt von den Provinzen Ontario (im SO.) u. Saskatchewan (im W.), dem Distrikt Keewatin (im NO.) und den Vereinigten Staaten… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Manitobá — Manitobá, kanad. Provinz, 191.000 qkm, (1901) 254.947 E.; Flüsse: Red River und Assiniboine; Seen: Winnipeg, M. (400 km lg.), Winnipegosis, Wäldersee; fruchtbarer Boden; ausgedehnte Indianerreservationen; Hauptstadt Winnipeg; 1870 organisiert …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon

  • Manitoba — Canadian province, named for the lake, which was named for an island in the lake; from Algonquian manitou great spirit …   Etymology dictionary

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”